The skeletal system


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Overview of Skeletal System
Intro to Biology

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The skeletal system

  1. 1. Mrs. Neistadt BiologyCh 15: Support and MovementCh 32.2: The Skeletal System
  2. 2. 1. *Support: the skeleton holds your body up and gives you shape.2. *Protection: The skull protects the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal column, rib cage protects the heart, lungs, and other organs.
  3. 3. 3. *Movement: Bones are attached to muscles to help your body move.4. *Formation of blood cells: Red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.5. *Storage: bones store minerals such as calcium and phosphorus
  4. 4.  * There are 206 Bones in an adult skeleton. These are divided into two types:  The Axial Skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, the ribs, and the sternum.  The Appendicular: the shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs, feet (pg 941)
  5. 5.  *Cartilage- tissue that is tough but flexible  Examples: End of the nose; Ears
  6. 6.  *The membrane covering the bone is the periosteum.  This membrane brings nutrients to the bone. *The outer layer of all bones is composed of Compact Bone. *Compact Bone is dense and strong; it provides strength and protection.  A network of tubes runs Through the compact bone These tubes contain blood Vessels and nerves.
  7. 7.  *Spongy bone is found in the center of short or flat bones, and at the end of long bones. *Spongy bone varies from bone to bone.
  8. 8.  *There are two types of Bone Marrow: *Red Bone Marrow- is active. It produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.  Children’s bones have more red bone marrow than adults’.  Red bone marrow is found in the humerus bone of the arm, femur, sternum, ribs, vertebrae and pelvis  *Yellow Bone Marrow- is inactive. It consists of stored fat. Is found in many other bones.
  9. 9.  *A Fracture is a broken or cracked bone. *A simple fracture is when a bone breaks, but does not come out through the skin. *A compound fracture is when a bone breaks and the bone protrudes through the skin. *A stress fracture is a thin crack in the bone.
  10. 10.  Upon injury, endorphins blood the brain to reduce the amount of paint felt. (this is temporary) The injured area begins to swell. A blood clot forms between the broken ends of the bone. New bone cells begin to form as a mass of cartilage. After a few weeks, the callus made of spongy bone begins to surround the fracture. Then the spongy bone begins to be replaced by compact bone. *Calcium, age, nutrition, location and severity are all factors in how long a bone repair will take.
  11. 11.  On a separate paper:  Complete the handout on bones… Practice wksht #144