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Surface of the Earth

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Constructive and Destructive Process on the Earth's surface

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Surface of the Earth

  1. 1. Integrated Science Unit 10, Chapter 29
  2. 2. 29.2 The Surface of Earth Earth’s surface is constantly changing. Recall that earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and the construction of new lithosphere are events that occur at plate boundaries. These events are changing the appearance of Earth’s surface all the time.
  3. 3.  *Thefeatures we see on Earth’s surface represent the dynamic balance between constructive processes versus destructive processes.
  4. 4. 29.2 Mountain Building *Mountain-building is a major constructive process. *Mountains form in three main ways: — by folding at convergent plate boundaries — by movement of chunks of land at faults — by volcanic activity
  5. 5. Mountain Building Processes:*Fold Mountains: Form as two convergentplate boundaries collide Example: the Himalayas (Mt. Everest)
  6. 6. Mountain Building Processes:*Fault Block Mountains- Pressure at plateboundaries cause the lithosphere tocrack and pieces of it tilt or move causinga valleys and tilt mountainsExample: mountains around San Andreas Fault
  7. 7. Mountain Building Processes:*Volcanic Mountains- Extensive layeringof lava and volcanic material builds upover time to form a dome mountain. Example: Mount Rushmore
  8. 8. Destructive Processes  *Erosion- (also known as weathering) is a major destructive process.  *Erosion is a continuous physical and chemical event that cause land and rock to wear down.  The rate of erosion is related to the height and steepness of the mountain—the steeper the mountain is, the faster it erodes because it is easier to push material down a steep slope than a gradual slope.
  9. 9. Formation of Soil *A soil profile is a cross-section that shows the different layers of soil in the ground. It takes a long time and a lot of weathering for soil to have all the layers. Young soil does not have each of these layers.
  10. 10. Glaciers  *A glacier is a huge mass of ice that can be many kilometers thick and thousands of kilometers wide.  Glaciers at the poles are a frozen form of about 2 percent of all the water on Earth.  Glaciers are formed from the accumulation of snow over hundreds or thousands of years.
  11. 11. Sometimes you can’t see the whole story:
  12. 12. Your turn:Read section 29.2 pgs 568-575and add to your notes.
  13. 13. Rocks and Rock Cycle *Arock is a naturally formed solid usually made of one or more minerals. Theterms igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic refer to how a rock was formed. Therock cycle illustrates the formation and recycling of rocks by geological processes.
  14. 14. Igneous Rocks *IgneousRocks are made of magma or lava — Intrusive igneous rocks are formed below Earth’s surface — Extrusive igneous rocks are formed above Earth’s surface
  15. 15. Sedimentary Rocks *Sedimentary Rocks- rocks that form from sediment that is compressed and cemented over a long period of time
  16. 16. Metamorphic Rocks *MetamorphicRocks- a rock that is transformed by tremendous heat and pressure
  17. 17. Answer On Your Paper: Is erosion a constructive or destructive force that shapes the land? — Explain your answer.

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