Structure of the nervous system

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Basic structure of neurons

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Structure of the nervous system

  1. 1. The Nervous System:Structure of Neurons Ch 33.1 Mrs. Neistadt
  2. 2. Neurons: An overview
  3. 3. Neurons• *Neurons are special cells that send messages through the nervous system.
  4. 4. Neurons• *There are five main parts of a neuron:1.Cell body2.Nucleus3.Dendrites4.Axon5.Myelin Sheath
  5. 5. Parts of Neuron• *Dendrites- receive signals from other neurons and send the signal to the cell• *Cell body- holds the nucleus and other organelles of the cell• *Axon- carries the nerve impulse from the cell to other neurons and muscles
  6. 6. Parts of Neuron• *Nucleus- Contains the DNA and controls the cell activities• *Myelin Sheath – wraps around the axon of some cells to cause the nerve impulse to move faster
  7. 7. Nerve Impulse• *A nerve impulse is when a neuron sends a signal to another neuron.• *There are three types of neurons: – *Sensory Neurons send impulses from the skin to the brain and spinal cord – *Motor Neurons carry signals from the brain to the muscles – *Interneurons carry nerves impulses to motor neurons or to the spinal cord and brain
  8. 8. Action Potential• *Another name for nerve impulse is an Action Potential.• The speed of an action potential changes.• *If the axon has a myelin sheath, the speed of the impulse is much faster.• *Neurons with myelin carry impulses of sharp pain• *Neurons without myelin carry impulses that cause dull, throbbing pain.
  9. 9. Synapse
  10. 10. Synapse• *Synapse- a small gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron.• *A neurotransmitter is a chemical signal sent from one neuron to another.
  11. 11. Your Turn…• Create a neuron using pipe cleaners• Attach your neuron to your classmates’ creating a web of neurons.• You must have: – Cell body – Dendrites – Axon – Myelin sheath

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