The Evolution of the EU: PART II

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The Evolution of the EU: PART II

  1. 1.  Contemporary Europe The Evolution of the EU: 1950s to present PART II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  2. 2. From Community to Union (1992 – 2003) Developments in WE understood within int’l context (changes taking place: e.g. breakup of Yugoslavia) End of Cold War, WE failed in the violence outbreak of YS Political integration disregarded: political union – economic union – cooperation on foreign policy False starts: European Political Community (1961), European Political Cooperation (1970) (1974) European Council first meeting in March 1975 The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  3. 3.  Fontainebleau European Council 1984 (Mitterand) – decision is taken in 1990 June E. Council to convene Intergovt’l conference (IGC) on political union  Treaty on the European Union in Maastricht 1991, signed in 1992  Treaty had to be ratified by 12 member states, due to referendum issues it was accepted by November 1993 The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  4. 4.  Just as SEA, the Treaty on the EU (Maastricht Treaty) - changes to the contract between member states - Reflect the lengths to which MS were to reach compromises - Three “pillars” created to the new structure of the “EU” - 1st Pillar: European Community - 2nd and 3rd Pillars: a Common Foreign and Security Policy and justice and home affairs (more formal cooperation), but final responsibility remained with the individual gov’ts The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  5. 5. - The plan for monetary union was confirmed - EU new responsibilities: consumer protection, public health policy, education, social policy - Greater cooperation on immigration and asylum, Eropean police intelligence agency to be created, new Committee of the Regions to be set up, regional funds got increased - New rights for EU citizens, EU “citizenship” - New powers of the EU parliament: “co-decision procedure” - third reading of certain legislation The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  6. 6.  The Danish rejection and near miss in France prove significant  Ordinary Europeans awake  Debate about pros and cons expand in line with EU expansion  Much of this Debate due to public confusion and misinformation  Euroskepticism has become new factor in debates over EU The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  7. 7.  Enlargement: still on the agenda  End of Cold War: EU turns to the east  June 1993 Copenhagen: new set of requirements for membership agreed  Copenhagen Conditions: applicant state must a) Be democratic, with respect of human rights and the rule of law b) Have a viable market economy and the ability to respond to market forces within the EU The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  8. 8. c) Be able to take on the obligations of the acquis communautaire (the body of laws and policies already adopted by the EU) d) Adapt their administrative structures in order to meet the demands of integration January 1995: Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU (only 4 WE countries left out: Norway, Iceland and Switzerland) -Norway (due to referendum issues) but still impacted by the EU via the membership of the EEA, Iceland kept distance till the economic crisis of 2007 damaged its banking industry The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  9. 9.  Switzerland, rejects EEA, and by 1995 surrounded by the EU. 2001 National Referendum  Two new treaties signed, due to imminent eastern enlargement and to account for the EU integration:  - Treaty of Amsterdam – October 1997 – May 1999 (confirm eastern enlargement plans, launch the single currency ), plans for the CFSP, extend EU policy responsibilities, incorporate the Schengen Agreement into the treaties, expand the power of the EP The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  10. 10.  -Treaty of Nice – Feb.2001 (few more changes to the structure of the EU Institutions, increase the size of the EC and the EP, redistribute votes in the Council of Ministers)  June 2001, Irish reject T of N, argue it surrender too much nat’l control, concern about Irish neutrality  Nice Treaty came into force in Feb.2003  The Treaty also integrated the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU (dates back to the ECHR), which is now part of the legal structure The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  11. 11. The euro, Lisbon and beyond Rapid progress on the single currency, 1995 decision to name it the “euro” Maastricht required MS to fix exchange rates by Jan.1999 Several “convergence criteria” considered essential prerequisites: limits on national budget deficits, public debt, consumer inflation, and long-term interest rates Summit May 1998 concludes all but Greece fit the criteria The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  12. 12.  Public resistance in Britain and Germany esp., also confusion on which should or would fix exchange rates (MS inflation rate low, unemployment high, slowing industrial growth)  January 1999 euro becomes electronic currency in all but Denmark, Sweden and UK, banknotes start circulating in Jan.2002, 12 members of the Eurozone abolish own currencies in March  Concerns over the ability of the market to improve rates of productivity or create new jobs to meet demand (Eurosclerosis)  March 2000, EC launches the Lisbon Startegy The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  13. 13.  Lisbon sets the goal: make the EU most dynamic economy in the world (demands creation of more jobs, more women into the workplace, liberalize telecommunications & energy markets, improve transport, open up labor markets)  Lisbon strategy superseded by Europe 2020: focus on innovation, education, sustainable growth, low-carbon economy, and job creation) The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  14. 14.  May 2004, 10 eastern European and Mediterranean states join: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia (their economies smaller than that of Netherlands, population increase less than 20%)  Symbolic confirmation of the Cold War division in Europe, accelerate the process of transforming the economies and democratic structures of EE countries  January 2007, Romania and Bulgaria join (second phase of 2004 EU enlargement) The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  15. 15.  Croatia, Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey also accepted as “candidate countries”, Croatia joins in 2013  All policy and membership changes required to rewrite the rules of the EU, esp. to make it more democratic and closer to its citizens  Laeken EC Dec.2001: agreed to draw up a treaty containing a constitution to simplify and replace all other treaties  Convention on the future of the EU, Feb. 2002 to July 2003, numerous proposals, e.g. elected president of the EC, foreign minister to the EU, limit on the membership of the EU Commission, common EU foreign and Security policy, legal responsibility of the EU (whose laws would cancel out those of nat’l parliaments in areas of EU competence) The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  16. 16.  Lithuania: 1st to ratify it through a parliamentary vote in Nov.2004  Spain: 1st to ratify through a nat’l referendum in Feb.2005  Signs of political and public resistance, opinion that the treaty won’t survive a referendum in eurosceptical Britain  It was French and Dutch: negative votes in May and June 2005  The Constitution's debate took place against a background of the most serious rift in transatlantic relations (2001 terrorist attack in US, followed a multinational attack on Afghanistan, then US turns attention to Iraq)  The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  17. 17.  Europe public opinion strongly against Iraq attack, but EU gov’ts divided: France and Germany leading the opposition, Britain and Spain offer support  Questionable: American leadership in NATO, EU’s ability to make a mark on the global stage  Despite transatlantic tensions EU leaders still discuss constitutional change, early 2007 agree to save as many elements as possible of the failed consitution The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  18. 18.  The New Treaty of Lisbon, almost a replica of the constitution  The treaty considered to be amendment to the previous treaties (thus no need for nat’l referendum)  Ireland, required by law, voted against in June 2008  Special protocol negotiated to address Irish concerns over neutrality and tax issues, October 2009 Irish vote positive  Lisbon ends the pillar arrangement of Maastricht, key institutional changes (creation of a new president of the EC and a single legal personality for the EU) The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  19. 19.  The identity of the EU on the global stage has undergone transformation all the while  EU leaders embarrassed by their failure to provide leadership (Yugoslavia), but EU policy succeeds in EE (took the lead on post cold war reconstruction)  The US role in EU Affairs declining (esp. the fallout over Iraq’s crisis)  More to come with the US rooted global economic crisis (too little regulation allowed extension of credit to consumers), much of the debt bought up by EU Banks and financial institutions  Greece, Ireland, Spain and Portugal budget crisis in 2010 The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke
  20. 20. The Idea of Europe Part II POLS 208 European Studies European University of Lefke

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