Ppt diarrhea


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Ppt diarrhea

  1. 1. Children Diarrhea Emmi Valentina Pardede Po. IIB.1
  2. 2. Definition • Diarrheais a bowel movement (defecation) by the number of stools more than normal (normal 100-200 cc / hr feces). With the stool is liquid / solid half, may be accompanied by an increased frequency. • WHO (1980) Diarrhea is watery bowel movements more than 3 times a day • Mansjoer (1999) Diarrhea is divided into two based on the onset and duration, namely acute and chronic diarrhea
  3. 3. Etiology 1. Infection factor: bacteria (Shigella, Shalmonella, Vibrio cholera), virus (enterovirus), parasites (worms), Candida (Candida Albicans). 2. Parenteral factors: infections of other parts of the body (OMA often occurs in children). 3. Malabsorption factors: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins. 4. Dietary factors: Food stale, poisonous, too much fat, cooked vegetables underdone. 5. Psychological factors: Fear, anxiety.
  4. 4. Pathophysiology Infection factors Malabsorption Factors carbohydrates, proteins, fats Food Factors Psychologic al Factors Entry and growth in the intestine Osmotic Pressure Rises The toxin can not be abscebed Anxiety Hyperecretion of water and electrolytes The movement of water and and electrolytes into the gut cavity Hyper-peristaltic decrease the chance intestines to absorb food Diarrhea
  5. 5. Nursing Assessment Nursing Care Plan Children with Diarrhea
  6. 6. Identity • Noteworthy is the age. Episodes of diarrhea occurred in the first 2 years of life. The incidence is highest age group 6-11 months. • Most intestinal bacteria stimulate the immune response to infection, it helps explain the decreased incidence of disease in older children. • At the age of 2 years or more active immunity begins to form. • Most cases are due to asymptomatic intestinal infection and enteric bacteria spread mainly clients are not aware of the infection. • Economic status are also influential, especially from diet and treatment.
  7. 7. Main complaint Defecate more than 3 times Disease History Now Defecation: greenish yellow color, mixed with mucus and blood or mucus only. Watery consistency, frequency of more than 3 times, spending time: 3-5 days (acute diarrhea), more than 7 days (persistent diarrhea), more than 14 days (chronic diarrhea). In the past history of disease Previous history of diarrhea, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids long term (changes in Candida albicans from saprophyte to parasites), food allergy, respiratory infection, UTI, OMA, measles.
  8. 8. History of Nutrition In children ages toddler foods given as in adults, the share of a given 3 times per day with additional fruit and milk. Malnutrition in children toddler age are particularly vulnerable. Good food management, food hygiene and sanitation, hand washing habits. Family Health History There was one family who had diarrhea. Environmental Health History Food storage at room temperature, lack of hygiene, neighborhood.
  9. 9. Nursing Diagnosis Nursing Interventions
  10. 10. 1. Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalances related to fluid loss secondary to diarrhea. Objectives : after nursing action for 3 x 24 hours, fluid and electrolyte balance is maintained to the fullest. Expected outcomes: - Vital signs are within normal limits - Turgor elastic, mucous membranes moist lips, the eyes do not cowong, the crown is not concave. - Consistency of bowel movements soft, frequency 1 time per day Interventions Rational 1. Monitor signs and symptoms of fluid and electrolyte 2. Monitor intake and output 3. Measure weight every day 4. Encourage the family to drink lots of 2-3 liters / day 1. decrease the volume of fluid circulation causing mucosal dryness and urinary concentration. Early detection allows immediate fluid replacement therapy to correct the deficit 2. Dehydration can increase the glomerular filtration rate was adequate to make the output to remove the waste. 3. Detecting loss of fluid, decrease of 1 kg of body weight equal to 1 liter of fluid loss 4. Replacing the lost fluids and electrolytes orally
  11. 11. 2. Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements related to diarrhea or excessive output and intake of less. Objectives: after the action at home on hospital care for nutritional needs are met Expected Outcomes: - Increased appetite - Increased body weight, or normal according to age Interventions Rational 1. Discuss and explain about the restriction diet (high fiber foods, fatty foods and water is too hot or cold) 2. Create a clean environment, away from the smell that odor or waste, serve food in warm 3. Give the patient time to rest - sleep and reduce the excessive activity 4. Monitor intake and output in 24 hours 1. high fiber, fat, water is too hot / cold can stimulate irritate the stomach and intestinal tract. 2. situation a comfortable, relaxed will stimulate the appetite. 3. Reduce excessive energy consumption 4. Knowing the amount of output can plan the amount of food
  12. 12. 3. Risk for Imbalanced Body Temperature related to the process of infection secondary to diarrhea. Objectives : After making maintenance actions performed for 3 x 24 hours, there was no increase in body temperature Expected outcomes: - Body temperature within normal limits (36 to 37.5 C) - There is no sign of infection (rubur, dolor, color, tumors, fungtio leasa) Interventions Rational 1. Monitor the body temperature every 2 hours 2. Give a warm compress 3. Collaboration of antipirektik 1. Early detection of abnormal changes in body function (an infection) 2. stimulates the central thermostat to lower the body's heat production 3. Stimulate the central thermostat in the brain
  13. 13. 4. Risk for impaired skin integrity related to increased frequency of diarrhea. Objectives : after nursing actions while in hospital, skin integrity is not compromised Expected outcomes: - No irritation: redness, abrasions, cleanliness maintained - Families are able demonstrate perianal care properly Interventions Rational 1. Discuss and explain the importance of maintaining a bed 2. Demonstrate and involve the family in caring for perianal (if wet clothing and replace the bottom and base) 3. Adjust bed or seated position with an interval of 2-3 hours 1. hygiene prevents germs breeding 2. Prevent the occurrence of skin irritation is not expected, because of humidity and acidity of the stool 3. Smooth vascularization, reducing the emphasis of the old so that does not happen ischemia and irritation.
  14. 14. Thank You..