As Key Terms


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As Key Terms

  1. 1. Glossaryaerobic occurring with oxygenalactacid source a phosphocreatine source in muscle and nerve tissue, of high energy phosphate bondsanabolic describing the formation of complex molecules from simpler onesanaerobic occurring without oxygenathleticism describing the characteristics that were attributed to the experience of playing competitive sport in nineteenth-century public schools (characteristics that included manliness, a sense of fair play, leadership and bravery)ATP abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate, an energy rich moleculebasal metabolic the rate at which calories are burnedrate (BMR)blood pressure the force exerted by your blood within the arteriesbradycardia a resting heart rate below 60 beats per minutecardiac output (Q) the amount of blood pumped out by the heart / left ventricle in one minute = stroke volume (SV) x Beats per minute (HR)catabolic describing the breakdown of complex molecules to form simpler onescondyle the knuckle of any jointdiffusion the movement of gases from one area to another. They will invariably move from an area of high pressure to one of low pressurediscrimination unfair treatment (to an individual or group) which results in their access to sport and recreation being inhibiteddiuretic a substance that has the effect of increasing urinationDOMS (delayed post-exercise muscular soreness caused by the healing process ofonset muscle damaged myofibrilssoreness)doping taking drugs in order to enhance sporting performanceelectrolyte a mineral soluble in body fluids and associated with cell membrane electrical potential. The main ones are sodium, potassium and chlorideend diastolic the volume of blood in the ventricle when finished fillingvolumeend systolic the volume of blood remaining in the ventricle after contractionvolume© Owned by or under licence to Pearson Education Limited 2008 1
  2. 2. expiration breathing outfitness for purpose a judgement on an individual’s ability to meet the physical and mental demands of a particular sport or physical activityFosbury flop a high jump technique developed by Dick Fosbury (1968 Olympic Gold Medal winner)glycogen a substance (polysaccharide) deposited in body tissues as a store of carbohydratesHDL (high density a lipoprotein which has more protein in relation to fat (good cholesterol)lipoprotein)health-related fitness a basic level of physical fitness components which facilitate a good level of healthhyperglycemia too much glucose in the bloodhypoglycemia too little glucose in the blood for normal bodily functionhypokinetic disorder a disorder that is totally or partly attributed to a lack of physical activityinspiration breathing inInternational Olympic the governing body for the Olympic movementCommittee (IOC)invasion game a game where players seek to avoid one another in order to scoreKarnoven Principle a way of calculating a training zone based on exercise intensity related to maximal heart rate. An athlete’s critical threshold THR = RHR + (HRR x 0.6) where HRR = MHR - RHR and 0.6 is 60 per cent intensityLDL (low density a lipoprotein which has less protein in relation to fat (bad cholesterol)lipoprotein)motor skill (or an organised co-ordinated activity in relation to an object or situationpsychomotor skill) which involves a whole chain of sensory, central and motor mechanismsmyoglobin the oxygen-binding pigment in musclenotation a recording system that employs notes or symbols to record situations, events or points of action on individuals or teams during a performance. Notation was originally used by biomechanics sports scientistsobjectivity an opinion or study based on fact and evidence and free from personal, emotional distortions or biases of a subjective nature. Examples in terms of human performance could be the fastest sprinter of all time as decided by accurate timing technology or the use of ‘Hawkeye’ as opposed the human eye when deciding if a ball is either in or out in tennis. National Governing Body information on participation levels and facility provisions can be taken as ‘fact’2 © Owned by or under licence to Pearson Education Limited 2008
  3. 3. partial pressure the pressure exerted by a gas within a mixture of gassesphosphagen energy storage compounds, found mainly in muscle tissue as a reserve of high-energy phosphate bondsplagiarism claiming someone else’s work as your ownplaque a raised region of tissue resulting from deposits of ‘bad’ cholesterolpre-industrial society (in the UK) the period of time before the Industrial Revolution, in the second half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth centurypressure gradient the relative differences between the pressure within two adjacent areasprinciple of play a rule that guides how you perform. It provides shape and structure to a performance either as an individual or as a teamprogramming specific sessions and times in a sports facility provided for particular target groupspubic school a private, independent, fee-paying schoolrational sport sport with set rules and national organisationreal time seeing or viewing something as it happens with no facility to stop the actionrespiration the act of creating energy aerobicallyrhEPO the hormone (erythroprotein) that stimulates red blood cell productionsedentary lifestyle a lifestyle that is predominantly lacking in physical activityself-fulfilling prophecy a state where people believe a stereotypical view and take on the appointed characteristicsshamateurism describing the custom of pre-1990 athletes who were amateur but received unofficial payments in the form of either commercial scholarships or state bursariesskill repertoire a range of skills that can be performed proficiently, autonomously and whenever called upon: they form the basis of the performancespectatorism sport as a spectacle where people pay to watchstereotype a widely held series of characteristics or traits, often oversimplified, about individuals or certain groups in societystrategy the more general or overall game plan employed by a coachstroke volume (SV) the volume of blood ejected into the aorta per beat measured in litres. Stroke volume = end diastolic volume – end systolic volume© Owned by or under licence to Pearson Education Limited 2008 3
  4. 4. subjectivity an opinion or study based on personal feelings, interests and prejudices. An example would be how good a performer you think you are or which person you think is the best in your centre in a particular sportsub-routine a separate technical instruction at various points through a movementsynovial describing a joint that is surrounded by a tough membrane, such as the kneetactics the detailed instructions or plans of action you employ to overcome an opponent or opponentstarget group a population group that find it difficult to access sport and recreationthermoregulation the process of keeping the internal environment of the body at an acceptable temperaturetraining the ability to construct a programme to enhance proficiency in a skill, to improve physical fitness or fitness for purpose and thereby prepare the performer for participationtype I muscle fibres slow-twitch fibres, or type I fibres, are suited to aerobic endurance type activities (low intensity, long duration) as they have a slower contraction timetype II muscle fibres fast-twitch fibres, or type II fibres are suited to high-intensity anaerobic exercise (maximal intensity, short duration)venous return the amount of blood returned to the heart / right atrium per minuteventilation the act of breathingVO2 maximum the highest rate at which oxygen can be taken up and used4 © Owned by or under licence to Pearson Education Limited 2008