Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas. Most causes are alcohol consumption, gallstone, medication, infection Gastritis-inflammation of the stomach. Cirrhosis-liver disease x’terized by scaring irriversible scaring of the liver. Causes are alcohol and viral hepatitis ( HP’B & C’. Complications include mental confusion, fluid accumulation (ascites), internal bleeding, and kidney failure.
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PRESENTED BYCOMMUNITY PSYCHIATRIC NURSE(PANTANG HOSPITAL)PRESENTATION ON CONTRIBUTORYFACTORS TO SUBSTANCE ABUSE AT PTAMEETING, SOLID ROCK FOUNDATIONSCHOOL.SUNDAY,17THFEB.,2013.
OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATIONIntroduction.Definition of substance abuse and some key concepts.Type of substances abused.Causes of subs. Abuse/Alcoholism.Contributory factors of substance/drug abuse.Signs and symptoms of substance abuse and thewithdrawal.The effects of substance abuse.Preventive measures of substance abuse.Questions for clarification.Sharing of experiences from participants.
INTRODUCTIONAbuse of substance or drugs is a problem that hasplagued most countries in the 20 to 30 years, esp.among young adolescents.Its effects are so enormous that most countrieshave national policies aimed at prevention of drugproblem.Generally, drugs have two main effects on the CNS,(stimulants or depressants).While stimulants act to activate or excite CNS,depressants act to lower arousal level.
DEFINITION OF SUBSTANCE ABUSESubstance abuse could also be called Drug abuse.Substance abuse is excessive consumption or misuseof substance for the sake of its non-therapeuticeffects on the mind or body, esp. drugs or alcohol.ORTaking drugs that are not prescribed by medicalofficer/practitioner.ORDeliberate and indiscriminate use of natural andchemical substances for non-medical purpose.
SOME KEY CONCEPTSIntoxication- this is a set of behavioural andpsychological changes that take place as a result ofeffects of drugs on the CNS.E.g. when a person uses some type of drugs s/he islikely to experience sleepiness, drowsiness,diminished attention, aggression, etc.
KEY CONCEPTS Continued…Abuse- There is abuse of drug when continued useresults in harmful consequences.E.g. someone is abusing alcohol when itcontinuously leads to loss of employment, maritaldifficulties, etc.We cannot say someone is abusing drugs only b’costhe person uses the drug too much but rather itMUST interfere with the person’s life significantly.
KEY CONCEPTS Continued…Substance dependence-this is when the individualshows tolerance or withdrawal.Tolerance is when individual starts drinking for thefirst time, one glass is likely to get him/herintoxicated and with time s/he may need more thanone glass to have the same effect,Withdrawal- are certain symptoms one experiencedafter prolonged use of a particular drug and suddenstopped of that drug use.
CAUSES OF SUBSTANCE ABUSEThe cause of substance abuse/alcoholism is not wellestablished.There is growing evidence for genetic and biologicalpredispositions for this disease, but this research iscontroversial.However, some varieties of factors contribute to theproblem.
TYPE OF SUBSTANCES ABUSEDCocaineMarijuanaAlcoholValium (Diazepam)PethidineAntibioticsOthers like, over-the-counter drugs e.g. Para.,ibuprofen, diclofenac, etc.Cigarette smoking
CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS OFSUBS/DRUG ABUSE.This can be classified into two types; Social factors and, Psychological factors.
SOCIAL FACTORSCuriosity & adventure.To rebel against authority.Influence of Peer, family, & society.Easy availability and accessibility.Social and cultural practices e.g. funeral, outdooring,wedding, etc.Divorced or separation
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORSTo escape from emotional problems, e.g. financial,marital, responsibilities, etc.Elevated levels of stressInadequate coping mechanismsReinforcement of alcohol use from other drinkers.To relieve boredom.Loss of loved ones.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SUBS/DRUGThese have divided into three groups;PhysicalSocialPsychological
SOCIAL S/SFrequent automobile collisionsProstitution, armed robberyLoss of social statusLoss of employmentFrequent/total absence from work, schoolFinancial difficulties/povertyDivorce or separationRebel against authorityFailure in life resulting to suicide, suicide attemptetc
EFFECTS OF SUBS. ABUSEIndividuals are at higher risk of psychiatric disordersand suicide as been mentioned above in the s/s.
S/S OF MEDICAL CONDITION FOR SUBS/DRUG ABU.Pancreatitis (medications, infections,etc)Gastritis * NeuropathyCirrhosisSevere anaemiaCerebral atrophyMalnutritionPeptic ulcerGastrointestinal bleedingLack /depletion of vitamin B
PREVENTIVE MEASURES‡ Awareness creation on dangers of substance abuse.‡ Compliance and adherence to medication prescribedby medical practitioner.‡ Consultation with health workers in health facility onissues bordering the mind. Or, Seek earlyintervention in health facility concerning your health‡ Avoid bad companies.‡ Adults should desist from sending children to buycigarette, alcohol, drugs, etc.‡ Seek counseling from well trusted religious leaders.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES continued…‡ Proper Enforcement of narcotic legal laws.‡ Bi-laws should be enacted in communities by DistrictAssemblies to regulate the use of alcohol in socialfunctions and should be strictly enforced.‡ Stiffer punishment should be meted out to drugbarons.‡ Parents should not expose their wards to substanceabuse in any form.‡ Parents should be inquisitive in the affairs of theirwards. Etc.
CONCLUSIONWe have come to the end of the lengthy presentation.We defined substance abuse as taking drugs notprescribed by medical practitioner.We mentioned types of drug abuse, causes,contributory factors, effects and preventivemeasures.