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Different Modes of Documetaries


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The different modes of Documentary includes examples

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Different Modes of Documetaries

  1. 1. Codes and Conventions of Factual Programming. In this PowerPoint I will be writing about the 5 different codes and conventions of factual programming. I am hoping to show how the different codes and conventions inform or determine audience response. Emmanuella Ngimbi
  2. 2. Expository Documentary Expository documentary are the type of documentaries that will expose a person or a topic. In order to expose something the main conventions used in this type of documentaries are a commentator, rhetorical questions, facts, opinions and persuasive techniques. As the main objective of an expository documentary is to expose and inform things to their audience the documentaries will mainly use a male sonorous voice as a commentator, the commentator will speak specifically to the audience by asking rhetorical questions and speaking in third person. The documentary will also include things such as footage, interviews or pictures that are “exclusive” to the documentary. Expository documentaries are usually historical and biographical, this works with their aim to inform and expose information for their viewers because they are educating their viewers something that perhaps hasn’t already known. These documentaries are often seen as controversial because they can be very opinionated, provide false evidence and can be edited to suit a certain purpose.
  3. 3. An example of an expository documentary would be Killer Coke. Killer Coke is a documentary about exposing the truth with Coca-Cola. In the documentary it shows Coca-Cola cooperating with paramilitaries in Columbia to execute workers in their own bottling plants that are trying to form unions and trying to demand better working conditions. An Expository documentary follows the codes and conventions of an expository documentary because the narrator aims to expose the truth by using rhetorical straight to the point questions to get to the truth and has a male sonorous voice. This also includes thing such as short interviews with workers and this adds credibility to the documentary which makes the audience more likely to believe what is being said. Find a link to an example of an expository documentary here Expository Documentary: Mark Thomas on Coca-Cola
  4. 4. Observational Documentary As the name suggests an observational documentary just observes and tries to capture life in its natural form. These types of documentaries are approached using a “fly on the wall” approach. The filmmaker remains hidden, ignored by the surrounding environment, no actions or events are is influenced for the camera this is done so that the footage looks raw and as if it just happened. This is made possible by using lightweight cameras with portable sound recording equipment for synchronized sound. They often use a light voiceover that explains what is going on. This type of documentary aims for immediacy, intimacy and shows the human character in ordinary life situations. Observational documentaries are edited in a way that emphasizes the main parts of a show in order to make it visually interesting for the viewer.
  5. 5. Observational Documentary: Gogglebox An example of an observational documentary is Goggle-box, I know this because the producers of Goggle-box have aimed to make a documentary about people watching TV expressing their opinion on whatever they are watching. They do this by putting a camera beside the TV in the person’s living room so that we are seeing them in their natural environment and comfort zone where we are able to see their opinion on whatever was on TV that week. Watch an episode of Goggle-box here
  6. 6. A participatory documentary is where the filmmaker is actively engaged with the situation that they are documenting. In this type of documentary the filmmaker is usually gets involved by being the interviewer in the film and asking the subject about something that is part of their life, the interviewer will asks very open questions which would have to be answered fully and informally. This is heavily reliant on the honesty of witnesses. The filmmaker records the documentary displaying the interaction between them and the subject, by being involved in the documentary the filmmaker will gain more experience which’ll help the audience understand the documentary. Because the filmmaker is a huge part of the documentary the audience will be able to see how the experience has changed the filmmaker. These interviews tend to be informal with an ‘on the run’ questioning. For these types of documentaries they use archive materials such as stills, news footage, newspaper headlines and letters. A hand held camera is often used to record a participatory documentary and this is so that the camera is not hard to carry on a day to day basis, so the footage can be a little shaky or in bad quality. Participatory Documentary
  7. 7. Participatory Documentary: Catfish An example of a participatory documentary would be Catfish, this is a good example because Nev and Max (the filmmakers) are fully involved and are seen interviewing the both the subjects. Catfish is all about online dating and what the filmmakers do is get the two people dating to try and meet each other, in order to do this Nev and Max have to ask open questions about the person’s personal life, which has to be answered fully. Despite the fact that a camera crew follows them, Max still holds a hand held camera so he is able to document where the film crew aren’t allowed. You can watch the video here
  8. 8. Reflexive Documentary The reflexive style of documentary is usually associated with education and experimental documentaries, where the viewer is interested in the content as well as how the film is constructed. Most reflexive documentaries are associated with education because the film maker goes around the world to inform, expose or educate the viewers on a new topic. In a reflexive documentary the film maker is involved and shows this by being in front of the camera at all times and by sometimes narrating the documentary. By doing this they are engaging their audience and putting emphasis the fact the reflexive documentaries are between film maker and viewer rather than film maker and the subject.
  9. 9. Reflexive Documentary: Louis Theroux A good example of a film maker who makes reflexive documentaries would be Louis Theroux, he is a good example because he is always in front of the camera and is the occasional interviewer, he also takes part in some of the activities he Is documenting so that he and his viewers can get an inside look. This is Louis Theroux documentary is aiming to educate viewers and expose the truth about the effects of giving children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder medication. It is a good example of reflexive documentary because it clearly shows Louis Theroux in front of the camera and occasionally interviewing the family. Find the documentary here
  10. 10. Performative Documentary A performative documentary is where the filmmaker gets involved in the documentary by being the main subject and also telling the audience the truth on the subject. It is often deeply personal. This type of documentary is often done by a celebrity experimenting with something and seeing the audiences reaction. This allows the audience and filmmaker to learn about new things because the filmmaker is experiencing the topic for themselves. Performative documentary sets out to demonstrate how personal experience can provide emotional responsiveness us that acknowledges the understanding of the event, rather than asking the audience to gain or learn something from it.
  11. 11. Performative Documentary: Sports Relief A good example of a performative documentary is Sports Relief. This is a good example because the aim of sports relief is to persuade the audience to raise money for people less fortunate. Sports relief do this by showing clips of people less fortunate in order to trigger an emotion and get a reaction that’ll get people talking on platforms such as social media. Sports relief is a charity event from comic relief which bring sports and entertainment to help vulnerable people in the UK and the world’s poorest countries. You can watch a clip of Sports relief here
  12. 12. Conventions of news programmes
  13. 13. What are the Codes and Conventions a news bulletins ? When it comes to news there are many different codes and conventions that helps makes a successful news programme. When we watch the news of TV there are typical things that we commonly see, such as the newsreaders. The newsreaders are often male or female and sometimes they will present the news together looking directly at the camera and addressing the audience. There is also a typical set displayed on a news programme which includes a large desk that the newsreaders sit behind or a sofa the presenter sit on with guests.
  14. 14. What is the role of a News Reader? On a news programme the news readers have a role to undertake which doesn’t just include reading the news, their tasks include: • They interview guests whether its in the studio or in a different location. • Researching everything they’re presenting so that they are aware of every detail they are informing the audience and making sure that they have the correct information. • They edit the stories from the reporters and the script to suit them as they are most likely to report news easier if they understand it. • They write news bulletins.
  15. 15. Role of the News Reader – Skills part 2 In order to successfully become a news reader and present news there are certain skills and attributes that you need to have. These skills are important because they will engage the audience and keep them coming back, they will also give the news programme a good reputation because in time the news readers become the “face” of the news programme and be recognised by thousands of viewers. The skills/attributes needed include: • Communication • Fast thinking • Have a clear voice • Confidence • Need to be focused • Emotionally distanced – so that they don't become emotionally attached to a story or topic. • Understanding of legal and ethical law. • Editorial knowledge
  16. 16. What does a News Reader look like? Nina Hossain Her hair is a natural colour which has been cut and styled suitably Dressed appropriately for television Very minimal makeup
  17. 17. What does a News Reader look like 2 Huw Edwards Hair has been appropriately cut and styled Suit is clean and look good quality Tie goes very well and coordinates with suit