Effects of Drug abuse: Cannabis & Amphetamines

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Effects of Drug abuse: Cannabis & Amphetamines

  1. 1. EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE CANNABIS & AMPHETAMINES ©Emmanuel M. Kingston
  2. 2. CANNABIS ABUSE • Abuse- use of a chemical substance or a drug for non-therapeutic purposes. • The effects are caused by chemicals in cannabis, including cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). • Cannabis has both psychological and physiological effects on the human body.
  3. 3. Cannabinoid receptors • G-protein coupled receptor. • CB1 receptors bigger and extraordinarily abundant in the brain: 10 times more plentiful than μ-opioid receptor(morphine). • CB2 receptors are structurally different (similarity 44%), are found only on cells of the immune system, and seems to function similarly to its CB1 counterpart. • CB2 receptors are most commonly prevalent on B-cells, NK cells, and monocytes, but can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells, CD 8, and CD 4 cells. In the tonsils the CB2 receptors appear to be restricted to Blymphocyte-enriched areas. • THC and endogenous anandamide additionally interact with glycine receptors.
  4. 4. Prevalent brain locations: • Basal ganglia, cerebellum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and nucleus accumbens (“reward centre of the brain”). • Others: hypothalamus, amygdala, spinal cord, brainstem and nucleus of the solitary tract (visceral sensations of N,V)
  5. 5. Preparations
  6. 6. Behavioral changes that may be symptoms of prolonged marijuana use include: • distorted perceptions • impaired coordination • difficulty in thinking and problem solving • ongoing problems with learning and memory Other signs of marijuana abuse are frequently visible in users: • red, blurry, bloodshot eyes • constant, mucus-filled cough • rapid heartbeat • Hunger & dry mouth • anxiety, paranoia, or fear • poor memory • poor coordination and slow reaction time • Addiction • Cancer of the lungs is also linked to marijuana use because unfiltered marijuana smoke has more carcinogens than cigarettes.
  7. 7. • Blood-shot eye
  8. 8. AMPHETAMINE ABUSE • CNS stimulants. • Amphetamine is made up of two distinct compounds (enantiomers): pure dextroamphetamine and pure levoamphetamine. • Dextroamphetamine is more potent than levoamphetamine. • Medications containing amphetamines are prescribed for narcolepsy, obesity, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  9. 9. Methods of Use • Dependence liability: Moderate • Routes: • Medical: Oral, nasal inhalation Recreational: Oral, nasal inhalation, insufflations, rectal, intravenous • Pharmacokinetic data • Bioavailability: Rectal 95–100%; Oral 75–100% • Protein Binding: 15–40% • Metabolism: Hepatic: CYP2D6, BDH, and FMO(flavin monooxygenase) • Half life: D-amph:9–11h; L-amph:11–14h
  10. 10. Disorders Medically Treated With Amphetamines • • • • • • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Narcolepsy (uncontrolled episodes of sleep) Obesity Parkinson's disease Nasal congestion Causes release of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain and inhibits their reuptake.
  11. 11. Short-Term Effects • • • • • • • • • • • High body temperature Cardiovascular system failure Hostility or paranoia Irregular or increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Increased activity Euphoria Decreased fatigue/drowsiness Decreased appetite Dry mouth Dilated pupils • • • • • • • Increased respiration Heightened alertness/energy Nausea Headache Palpitations Altered sexual behavior Tremor/twitching of small muscles • Release of social inhibitions
  12. 12. Long-Term Effects • Toxic psychosis • Physiological and behavioral disorders • Dizziness • Pounding heartbeat • Cardiomyopathies • Difficulty breathing • Mood or mental changes • Unusual fatigue • Cardiac arrhythmias • Repetitive motor activity • • • • • • • Ulcers Malnutrition Mental illness Skin disorders Vitamin deficiency Flush or pale skin Loss of coordination and physical collapse • Convulsions, coma, and death
  13. 13. Das ENDE

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