Streams and RiversArcilla, William AllanFernandez, Emma Louise
Streams• A body of water with a current, and is smaller  than a river• When joined, they form a bigger body of water  eith...
Rivers• A body of water with a current and is larger than  streams• The volume of water it carries is larger than the  vol...
TERMS• Tributary• Watershed
Watershed• A watershed is the area of land where all of the  water that is under it or drains off of it goes into  the sam...
Watershed• Closed watershed ▫ empties into an inland body of water• Open watershed ▫ empties to the ocean• Multiple open w...
Watershed
Tributary• A tributary is a stream that flows into a larger  stream or other bodies of water.• A contributory stream, or a...
Rivers• The rivers are classified on the basis of the  sediments it carries
The river’s course
Course of a River
Upper Course• Where the river begins• Many smaller streams join  up to form larger streams• Several streams join up to  fo...
Middle Course• River starts to meander        • Wider river channel• More tributaries                 than upper course  j...
Lower Course• Meanders are common• Distributaries distribute  water away from the river  to the sea• Wider river channel t...
Three main types of rivers• Youthful River - A youthful river has a steep  gradient and very few tributaries. A youthful r...
YOUTHFUL RIVER   • Ebro river
MATURE RIVER   • Ohio river
OLD RIVER   • Nile river
Where are rivers located?Rivers are found anywhere in the world except inantarctica.
Top 3 longest rivers in the world   • The longest river in the world is the Nile River     (4,157 miles long); it is locat...
• The second-longest river is the Amazon River  (3,915 miles long); it is located in northeastern  South America, and flow...
• The third-longest river is the Chang (Yangtse)  River (3,434 miles long); it flows across south-  central China into the...
12th order stream, thehighest rank possible in the   stream order system.
STREAMS
Three main types of streams:• Ephemeral streams ▫ regularly exist for short periods of time, usually   during a rainy peri...
The tributaries (streams) are identified bytheir stream order, denoted by its position              in the system.      St...
First-order stream
Second-order stream
Third order stream
ABIOTIC FACTORS• Precipitation ▫ Important in formation of streams and rivers. ▫ Amount of precipitation in an area determ...
ABIOTIC FACTORS• Landscape ▫ The direction of stream flow is dependent upon   the slope and obstructions of the landscape....
ABIOTIC FACTORS   • Trout will not                    reproduce                    below 3 degrees                    and ...
ABIOTIC FACTORS   • Carp reproduce                    best above 20                    degrees.
Biotic Factors
Plant adaptations• Air Spaces  ▫ decrease density and    increase buoyancy
• Broad leaves ▫ spread their weight   more evenly across   the water surface   allowing them to   float
• Waxy cuticle ▫ allow water to run   off the surface   preventing the   weight of the water   from dragging the   leaves ...
• Strong holdfast ▫ Used by water   mosses (Fontinalis)   and heavily branched   filamentous algae to   cling on to rocks
• Cushion like colonies  or closely appressed  sheets that are covered  with a slippery  gelatinous coating
Animal adaptations • Streamlined form  ▫ Offers less resistance    to water current          Brook trout                  ...
• Extremely flattened  and broad bodies, flat  limbs ▫ Allow the current to   flow over the bodies   of some larval forms ...
• Snails and planarians ▫ Attached themselves to sticky   undersurfaces allowing them to cling   tightly and move about on...
• Smallmouth bass ▫ Strong lateral muscles   (needed in the fast   current for   compressed   bodies)that enable   them to...
Four major groups of inhabitants(according to feeding habits)• Shredders  ▫ Feed on coarse    particulate organic    matte...
• Filtering and gathering collectors ▫ Feed on the fine particulate organic matter (FPOM)    FPOM – leaves that are broke...
• Grazers ▫ Another group that feed on the algal coating of   stones and rubble                                   Water pe...
• Gougers ▫ Invertebrates that burrow into water-logged limbs   and trunks of fallen trees
Human impact• Draining of rivers and streams                        The now dry Colorado River delta                      ...
• Water diversion and regulation of flows  due to dams. ▫ Principal reasons why dams are built:    Flood protection    R...
Water is released fromthe Glen Canyon dam.
Impacts of dams on streams• traps the suspended and dissolved load,  starving the area downstream of sediment and  nutrien...
• Flood Control: ▫ Channelization: Straightening out the meanders of a   stream to for a straight line, or smoothing out t...
• Urbanization ▫ When houses or businesses are built in a floodplain,   they get flooded. ▫ Increases runoff into streams,...
Rivers and streams
Rivers and streams
Rivers and streams
Rivers and streams
Rivers and streams
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Rivers and streams

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Rivers and streams

  1. 1. Streams and RiversArcilla, William AllanFernandez, Emma Louise
  2. 2. Streams• A body of water with a current, and is smaller than a river• When joined, they form a bigger body of water either flowing or nonflowing water ecosystem. ▫ Lakes – Rivers ▫ Ponds ▫ Inland wetlands
  3. 3. Rivers• A body of water with a current and is larger than streams• The volume of water it carries is larger than the volume of water streams carry.
  4. 4. TERMS• Tributary• Watershed
  5. 5. Watershed• A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place.
  6. 6. Watershed• Closed watershed ▫ empties into an inland body of water• Open watershed ▫ empties to the ocean• Multiple open watershed ▫ empties into the ocean through more than one mouth
  7. 7. Watershed
  8. 8. Tributary• A tributary is a stream that flows into a larger stream or other bodies of water.• A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach the sea but joins another river.
  9. 9. Rivers• The rivers are classified on the basis of the sediments it carries
  10. 10. The river’s course
  11. 11. Course of a River
  12. 12. Upper Course• Where the river begins• Many smaller streams join up to form larger streams• Several streams join up to form a river• Narrow and v-shaped river channel• Steep gradient
  13. 13. Middle Course• River starts to meander • Wider river channel• More tributaries than upper course joining the river • Gentler gradient as compared to upper course
  14. 14. Lower Course• Meanders are common• Distributaries distribute water away from the river to the sea• Wider river channel than middle course• High volume of water• Gentle gradient
  15. 15. Three main types of rivers• Youthful River - A youthful river has a steep gradient and very few tributaries. A youthful river is bound to flow quickly and swiftly. Mature River - A mature river is less steep and flows slowly compared to the youthful river. There are many tributaries that feed a mature river. The sediment deposit is also less. Old River - An old river has a low gradient and is depended on flood plains is known as old river.
  16. 16. YOUTHFUL RIVER • Ebro river
  17. 17. MATURE RIVER • Ohio river
  18. 18. OLD RIVER • Nile river
  19. 19. Where are rivers located?Rivers are found anywhere in the world except inantarctica.
  20. 20. Top 3 longest rivers in the world • The longest river in the world is the Nile River (4,157 miles long); it is located in northeastern Africa, and flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
  21. 21. • The second-longest river is the Amazon River (3,915 miles long); it is located in northeastern South America, and flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
  22. 22. • The third-longest river is the Chang (Yangtse) River (3,434 miles long); it flows across south- central China into the East China Sea.
  23. 23. 12th order stream, thehighest rank possible in the stream order system.
  24. 24. STREAMS
  25. 25. Three main types of streams:• Ephemeral streams ▫ regularly exist for short periods of time, usually during a rainy period.• Intermittent streams ▫ flow at different times of the year, or seasonally, when there is enough water from either rainfall, springs, or other surface sources.• Perennial streams ▫ streams that flow year-round.
  26. 26. The tributaries (streams) are identified bytheir stream order, denoted by its position in the system. Stream Order Characteristics First Order not connected to any other tributaries connected to one other Second Order stream/tributary Third Order joining of two second order streams
  27. 27. First-order stream
  28. 28. Second-order stream
  29. 29. Third order stream
  30. 30. ABIOTIC FACTORS• Precipitation ▫ Important in formation of streams and rivers. ▫ Amount of precipitation in an area determines which type of stream should be present at that area.• Current ▫ It will determine the substrate at the bottom of the stream or river.
  31. 31. ABIOTIC FACTORS• Landscape ▫ The direction of stream flow is dependent upon the slope and obstructions of the landscape.• Temperature ▫ Affects the organisms living in streams and rivers. ▫ Affects growth and development of organisms. ▫ Reproduction  Different organisms reproduce at different temperatures
  32. 32. ABIOTIC FACTORS • Trout will not reproduce below 3 degrees and ideally between 5 and 16 degrees.
  33. 33. ABIOTIC FACTORS • Carp reproduce best above 20 degrees.
  34. 34. Biotic Factors
  35. 35. Plant adaptations• Air Spaces ▫ decrease density and increase buoyancy
  36. 36. • Broad leaves ▫ spread their weight more evenly across the water surface allowing them to float
  37. 37. • Waxy cuticle ▫ allow water to run off the surface preventing the weight of the water from dragging the leaves under the surface
  38. 38. • Strong holdfast ▫ Used by water mosses (Fontinalis) and heavily branched filamentous algae to cling on to rocks
  39. 39. • Cushion like colonies or closely appressed sheets that are covered with a slippery gelatinous coating
  40. 40. Animal adaptations • Streamlined form ▫ Offers less resistance to water current Brook trout Pearl dace
  41. 41. • Extremely flattened and broad bodies, flat limbs ▫ Allow the current to flow over the bodies of some larval forms Blackfly larvae
  42. 42. • Snails and planarians ▫ Attached themselves to sticky undersurfaces allowing them to cling tightly and move about on stones and rubble in the current.
  43. 43. • Smallmouth bass ▫ Strong lateral muscles (needed in the fast current for compressed bodies)that enable them to move through beds of aquatic vegetation
  44. 44. Four major groups of inhabitants(according to feeding habits)• Shredders ▫ Feed on coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM)  CPOM – mostly leaves that fall into the stream and are softened by water and colonized by bacteria and fungi. Casemaker caddisfly
  45. 45. • Filtering and gathering collectors ▫ Feed on the fine particulate organic matter (FPOM)  FPOM – leaves that are broken down by the shredders, partially decomposed by microbes, and invertebrate feces that drift downstream and settle on the stream bottom. Freshwater mussels
  46. 46. • Grazers ▫ Another group that feed on the algal coating of stones and rubble Water penny
  47. 47. • Gougers ▫ Invertebrates that burrow into water-logged limbs and trunks of fallen trees
  48. 48. Human impact• Draining of rivers and streams The now dry Colorado River delta branches into the Baja/Sonoran desert just five miles north of the Sea of Cortez, Mexico. Photo by Peter McBride
  49. 49. • Water diversion and regulation of flows due to dams. ▫ Principal reasons why dams are built:  Flood protection  Recreation  Industrial purposes  Electricity  Water supply  Political reason
  50. 50. Water is released fromthe Glen Canyon dam.
  51. 51. Impacts of dams on streams• traps the suspended and dissolved load, starving the area downstream of sediment and nutrients• a barrier to any aquatic life going up or down stream, which can prevent aquatic life from mating and reduce the diversity of wildlife upstream
  52. 52. • Flood Control: ▫ Channelization: Straightening out the meanders of a stream to for a straight line, or smoothing out the natural levee by replacing it with concrete flood walls. ▫ Artificial Levees: Artificially raising the height of a natural levee. Channelization Artificial leevee
  53. 53. • Urbanization ▫ When houses or businesses are built in a floodplain, they get flooded. ▫ Increases runoff into streams, which further increases the chances of flooding

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