www.emeraldinsight.com
Evolving Publishing
Practices
Emma Bruun
iConference 2014, Berlin
4 March 2014
Evolving publishing practices
In this presentation we will discuss:
• How the scholarly publishing landscape is constantly...
Evolving publishing practices
The changing landscape of publishing
• The UK Government mandated that by April 2013 all
publishers in the UK must offer a...
The changing landscape of publishing
• A ‘hybrid’ open access model has been adopted by a
number of publishers, including ...
The changing landscape of publishing
The peer review process
• Peer review is the process through which scholarly work is ...
The changing landscape of publishing
Open peer review
• Examples of experimentation from third parties and academic
commun...
The changing landscape of publishing
In summary:
• Publishers must constantly be responding to the needs of
the market and...
The changing landscape of publishing
The big question: “What’s next?”
The role of the publishing company
The publisher acts as a curator of quality content working
on behalf of the subject com...
The role of the publishing company
The role of the publishing company
Emerald’s Information & Knowledge Management
eJournals collection is available to 2,908...
The role of the publishing company
The role of the publishing company
Additional services:
Guide to Getting Published
Annual Awards Programme: Outstanding
Re...
Useful resources
‘73 Things Publishers Do’ by Kent Anderson
http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2013/10/22/updated-73-thing...
Thank you!
Come along to our Meet the Editor session
Wednesday 5 March, 12:30-2:00pm, 3rd floor,
Room 1.307
Emma Bruun ebr...
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Evolving Publishing Practices - presentation at iConference, 2014, Berlin

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A presentation given by Emma Bruun, Publisher at Emerald Group Publishing, at the 2014 iConference in Berlin on the future of academic publishing and how scholarly publishing practices are changing.

The aim of the presentation was to give an overview of ways in which publishers are evolving and developing new initiatives in order to support and assist researchers in disseminating their research.

A bespoke, complimentary Guide entitled 'How to disseminate your work: simple ways to increase visibility and discoverability', written to accompany this presentation, was given out to interested researchers at the conference.

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  • Good morning everyone. It’s lovely to be here and to be able to give this presentation to you today. My name is Emma and I work for Emerald Group Publishing. For those of you who aren’t familiar with Emerald, it is a international scholarly publisher with headquarters in the North of England. There are several academics from the iSchools who are Editors for journals published by Emerald, many of whom regularly attend this conference.

    I have worked in Publishing for over 6 years, within scholarly and STM (scientific, technical, medical). Currently I am the Publisher of the Information & Knowledge Management collection of academic eJournals at Emerald. Prior to joining Emerald I worked at the BMJ as a Publishing Assistant and then as Digital Content Project Manager, helping to deliver up-to-date medical content to subscribing doctors.

  • The aim of this presentation today is to discuss how scholarly publishing is constantly evolving; some pros and cons of different routes to publication (within the academic publishing); the role the publishing company plays in this, and some of the ways in which publishers can help to increase dissemination and visibility of a researcher’s work.
  • The reason I put this presentation together, was because I was very kindly invited by Ryan Shaw and the organisers of this workshop, in order to help highlight the expertise which publishers have to offer to research communities, such as the iSchools. And also to explore how a traditional publisher can assist researchers in ways which you may not have considered.
  • Scholarly publishing practices are fast-changing, which is one of the reasons why I personally find scholarly publishing in particular such an interesting industry to be involved with. A key example of how quickly the industry can change is the findings of the Finch Report (compiled by Dame Janet Finch) which was published in June 2012. This mandated that all publishers in the UK must have an Open Access offer by April 2013 (only 10 months later).

    Not only did publishers have to have clearly state their Open Access options by that date, but they also needed to have all of the associated systems to administrate this in place, meaning substantial investment in new systems or amendments to existing systems to allow for new capabilities. This just demonstrates how quickly the industry, and individual companies, have to respond and evolve.

    The Finch Report also paved the way for different variations on OA. You will find that some, mainly scientific publishers, now have individual publications which are purely Open Access, with no subscription content, such as PLoS One, BMJ Open, SAGE Open. This option is popular in science and medical publications, where there is more a demand for new findings in medical research, for example, to be made freely available - as this is of general public interest as well as used by specific subject communities.
  • Other publishers like Emerald, Wiley-Blackwell and Taylor & Francis have adopted the ‘hybrid’ model which offers an OA option in existing publications. This means that the individual OA articles are made freely available within subscriber content. Some publishers offer this hybrid solution in addition to having pure OA publications.

    Unfortunately, the Open Access movement has brought with it its own challenges. Authors need to be increasingly selective and careful of where and how they publish their work, as a number of ‘predatory’ companies have sprung up which call themselves ‘publishers’. These counterfeit companies set up their own OA publications with high article processing charges. Therefore, in this changing climate established publishers have a duty of care to advise and protect authors and editors from these unwelcome solicitations. I’m sure there are many of you here who have been approached by these types of companies through unsolicited emails. I’ve even been approached before, and I am not a publishing author.
  • The peer review process is also under scrutiny and evaluation. Peer review is the process through which scholarly work is validated for accuracy and originality by experts in the field. It is felt by many people in scholarly communities that the current peer review models are inadequate and fundamentally flawed. The main difficulties are that traditional peer review operates on trust, as the comments and decisions or reviewers are not made publically available, but also that academics increasingly have more and more demands on their time and therefore have less time to review and are looking to be rewarded in some way for the work which they do.
  • This debate has paved the way for new, experimental in which publishers and academic communities can improve current peer review practices. New ways of reviewing are being explored by many publishers and by third party companies, such as PeerJ and Peerage of Science.

    Publishers are trialling out ways in which they can reward and recognise the efforts of reviewers. Emerald, for example, offers a 30% discount on all of published books and also 1 year’s free access to the journal for which they successfully completed a review. Also, depending on the editorial policy of individual journals, completing regular peer reviews can sometimes be rewarded by progression on the editorial board up to the senior EAB or prolific individuals could be given the title of Associate Editor or Regional Editor.

    Other publishers offer partial credits towards APCs, or accolades which can be listed on your academic CV to signify you have completed a certain number of reviews for a particular publication.
  • In summary, publishers must... (see bullet points).
  • Probably the biggest question to ask, is “What’s next?”

    We’ve had traditional publishing models for some time, and now there are hybrid and fully Open Access publications. But there will be something after Open Access and this will be this will ultimately be dictated by you, the researchers, and your needs - not by the publishing industry. Publishers will need to fall in line with what is of use and beneficial to the subject communities which they serve. I very much think of publishers and researchers as working in collaboration. Issues which affect one affect the other.

    Ultimately, it is down to the author to chose whatever route to publication they feel will best benefit them, dependant on what they are looking for. Every option, be it traditional publishing, OA, or the hybrid model, has pros and cons.

    The pros of publishing with a traditional scholarly publisher are that the publisher provides a number of services on the author’s behalf, from submission to peer review and acceptance, and then on to production of the article, dissemination and marketing through email campaigns. Publishers can also guarantee that research will be made available directly to academic and research institutions worldwide.
  • So what does a Publisher do? A publisher, in my eyes, acts as a curator of content. No only a curator of content, but a curator of *quality* content. A publisher manages all of the different stages throughout the publishing process, from commissioning and managing submissions right through to publication, sales marketing and promotion at events.

    But what does this mean in practice? I frequently get asked at conferences, “what is it that a publisher actually does?”. The publisher works on behalf of the subject community which it publishes in to... (see bullet points).
  • This is my interpretation (in a word cloud format!) of what it means to be a Publisher in the Age of Information and Big Data.

    These are all of the services which scholarly publishers are providing and which they have to provide to stay competitive. Publishers are working on enriching the metadata which surrounds published articles, in order to increase search engine optimisation. They are also becoming very technological and investing very highly in systems which will allow semantic tagging, dynamic keywords, interoperability (which means content can be viewed the same on any device, be it a smartphone, tablet or desktop computer). There is also a movement from traditional files formats, like HTML and PDF, to be able to work entirely in XML and provide ePUB files – which are compatible with e-readers such as Kindle.

    Although I think most importantly for me, on this list, are the points on maximising dissemination and visibility. *See next slide.*
  • It’s the publisher’s job to disseminate the articles to the right audience.

    One advantage of going through a traditional publisher is that we promote journals to relevant institutions, based upon research into which have taught causes and active researchers in the subject area. We then market the research through email campaigns aimed directly to subscribers, in order to ensure the best usage and highest number of downloads as possible.
  • This is a example of an email campaign that I ran when I managed the Engineering collection at Emerald. I will be running a number of similar campaigns for the Information and Knowledge Management and Library Studies collections this year.

    This is a screenshot of a ‘virtual special issue’ which gave readers free access to a selection of 11 articles on a topical theme, for a period of one month. This type of email campaign is one way to highlight articles to subscribers and new contacts in field, and which helps to increase the number of downloads each article receives. As you can see this is on the theme of 3D printing, which is a highly topical area within Engineering, and the downloads which resulted from this particular campaign we very high.
  • Scholarly publishers can offer a variety of services, in addition to the main business of providing academic content.

    Some examples of ways in which Emerald engage with subject communities are 1.) giving ‘Guide to Getting Published’ presentations. Emerald deliver hundreds of these presentations each year. They can be tailored to a specific subject area, to early-career researchers, students, or more experienced faculty members. If this is something which you would be interested in more information about, please do come and talk to me. I’d be happy to help you.

    Emerald hold annual awards for outstanding reviewers, editors and authors and the award winners are publicised in the relevant publication (both online and in print), they are also given a certificate – usually in person at a conference if possible - and this can be accompanied by access to the journal or a sum of money.

    And we also send every author who publishes with us a survey, upon publication, which asks questions on how they found the experience. This is an opportunity for authors to feedback on what they liked about the process and what improvements could be made in the future. This helps us as a publisher to better respond to the needs of authors.
  • If you’re interested in reading more about best practices within scholarly publishing, I would advise you to look at the Scholarly Kitchen – which is a very active blog about all aspects of academic publishing. In particular, the article ‘73 Things Publishers Do’ by Kent Anderson is very enlightening.

    There is also the Journal of Scholarly Publishing, published quarterly by University of Toronto Press.

    The COPE guidelines (Committee on Publication Ethics) for journal publishers and editors, is another useful resource. All of Emerald’s publications abide by the industry standards and guidelines set out by COPE.

    And lastly, this is the link to Emerald’s web address – at which you can find more information and a support guides, as well as information about our individual publications.
  • And finally…

    I’d like to say thank you for listening and take the opportunity to invite you all to the Meet the Editor session which we will be hosting tomorrow over the lunch break. There will be several of our journal Editors at this event who will be happy to talk about any aspect of publishing which interests you or to give advice about on any current research you are carrying out.

    And finally, I’d be very happy to take any questions you may have about the presentation.
  • Evolving Publishing Practices - presentation at iConference, 2014, Berlin

    1. 1. www.emeraldinsight.com Evolving Publishing Practices Emma Bruun iConference 2014, Berlin 4 March 2014
    2. 2. Evolving publishing practices In this presentation we will discuss: • How the scholarly publishing landscape is constantly changing and evolving • The role of the publishing company • Ways in which a publisher can help optimise the dissemination, visibility and online discoverability of an author’s work • Some pros and cons of various routes to publication
    3. 3. Evolving publishing practices
    4. 4. The changing landscape of publishing • The UK Government mandated that by April 2013 all publishers in the UK must offer an open access option for Government-funded research. Based upon compelling findings from the Finch Report. • Traditional subscription-based publishing vs. open access: PLoS One, BMJ Open, SAGE Open
    5. 5. The changing landscape of publishing • A ‘hybrid’ open access model has been adopted by a number of publishers, including Emerald, Wiley-Blackwell, Routledge and Taylor & Francis • Emerald now offers a Gold OA and Green OA route in all of their journal publications
    6. 6. The changing landscape of publishing The peer review process • Peer review is the process through which scholarly work is validated for accuracy and originality by experts in the field • Much debate on the flaws of current peer review systems • Traditional peer review operates on trust, as peer review comments are not made publically available to view • Increasingly academics and researchers have more and more demands placed on their time and are looking to be rewarded for their contributions
    7. 7. The changing landscape of publishing Open peer review • Examples of experimentation from third parties and academic communities (such as Peerage of Science and PeerJ) Loyalty schemes and credits • Partial credits towards APCs • Peer review linked to progression on Editorial Boards • Emerald offers 30% discount on all books and free access the journal for 1 year, as well as annual ‘outstanding reviewer’ awards • Badges or accolades which can be listed on your academic CV
    8. 8. The changing landscape of publishing In summary: • Publishers must constantly be responding to the needs of the market and keep abreast of current debates • Offer a variety of routes to publication to meet the demand of authors, readers and customers • Do more to demonstrate how they are constantly increasing the quality of their publications and how the work they do on behalf of the author is of value
    9. 9. The changing landscape of publishing The big question: “What’s next?”
    10. 10. The role of the publishing company The publisher acts as a curator of quality content working on behalf of the subject community to: • ensure high quality of all published articles • maximise dissemination of all published works and make these available in various formats for use on a multitude of devices • increase online discoverability and visibility through search engine optimisation and enriched metadata • maximise coverage in abstracting & indexing services • provide marketing support through email campaigns and promotion at events, e.g. a conference or book launch • deliver content directly to readers through subscriptions • provide librarians with training and promotional support in order to enable them to get the most out of their subscriptions • keep an electronic ‘Version of Record’ of all published works in perpetuity
    11. 11. The role of the publishing company
    12. 12. The role of the publishing company Emerald’s Information & Knowledge Management eJournals collection is available to 2,908 institutions worldwide Emerald’s Library Studies eJournals collection is available to 4,404 institutions worldwide Usage of the two collections totalled more than 2.6m individual article downloads in 2013
    13. 13. The role of the publishing company
    14. 14. The role of the publishing company Additional services: Guide to Getting Published Annual Awards Programme: Outstanding Reviewers, Editors and Papers Author Satisfaction Survey
    15. 15. Useful resources ‘73 Things Publishers Do’ by Kent Anderson http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2013/10/22/updated-73-things-publishers-do- 2013-edition/ Scholarly Kitchen http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/ Journal of Scholarly Publishing http://www.utpjournals.com/Journal-of-Scholarly-Publishing.html COPE Publication Guidelines http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines Emerald Group Publishing www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com
    16. 16. Thank you! Come along to our Meet the Editor session Wednesday 5 March, 12:30-2:00pm, 3rd floor, Room 1.307 Emma Bruun ebruun@emeraldinsight.com Aimee Nixon anixon@emeraldinsight.com

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