Carbohydrates• A carbohydrate is an organic compoundthat consists only of carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen.• Your body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuelthat gives you energy and helps keep everything going.• Your body can use glucose immediately or store it in your liver andmuscles for when it is needed.• Natural saccharides are generally built ofsimple carbohydrates calledmonosaccharides with general formula(CH2O)n where n is three or more.
Proteins and amino acids• Proteins are large biological moleculesconsisting of one or more chains ofamino acids.• Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms,including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicatingDNA, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from onelocation to another.• There are 20 different amino acids that join together to make alltypes of protein. Some of these amino acids cant be made by ourbodies, so these are known as essential amino acids.Its essential that our diet provide these.
Fats and fatty acids• Fats consist of a wide group of compoundsthat are generally soluble in organic solventsand generally insoluble in water.• Chemically, fats are triglycerides, triestersof glycerol and any of several fatty acids.Fats may be either solid or liquid at roomtemperature, depending on their structure and composition.• Fatty acids that are required by the human body but cannot bemade in sufficient quantity from other substrates, and thereforemust be obtained from food, are called essential fatty acids.
Chemistry of fatty acidsTrans (Elaidic acid) Cis (Oleic acid) Saturated (Stearic acid)Elaidic acid is theprincipal trans unsaturated fattyacid often found in partiallyhydrogenated vegetable oils.Oleic acid is a cis unsaturatedfatty acid that comprises 55–80%of olive oil.Stearic acid is a saturated fattyacid found in animal fats and isthe intended product in fullhydrogenation. Stearic acid isneither cis nor trans because ithas no double bonds.These fatty acids are geometric isomers (structurally identicalexcept for the arrangement of the double bond).This fatty acid contains nodouble bond and is not isomericwith the previous two.
Trans fat• Animal-based fats were once the only transfats consumed, but by far the largestamount of trans fat consumed today iscreated by the processed food industryas a side effect of partially hydrogenatingunsaturated plant fats (generally vegetableoils). These partially hydrogenated fatshave displaced natural solid fats and liquidoils in many areas, the most notable onesbeing in the fast food, snack food, fried food, and baked goodsindustries. They can only be made by cooking with a very high heat,at temperatures impossible in a household kitchen.
Trans fat• Partially hydrogenated oils have beenused in food for many reasons. Partialhydrogenation increases productshelf life and decreases refrigerationrequirements. Many baked foodsrequire semi-solid fats to suspendsolids at room temperature; partiallyhydrogenated oils have the right consistency to replace animal fatssuch as butter and lard at lower cost. They are also an inexpensivealternative to other semi-solid oils such as palm oil.
Health risks of trans fat• Obesity: Research indicates that trans fat may increase weight gainand abdominal fat, despite a similar caloric intake.• Diabetes: There is a growing concern that the risk of type 2 diabetesincreases with trans fat consumption.• Infertility in women: One 2007 study found,"Each 2% increase in the intake of energyfrom trans unsaturated fats, as opposedto that from carbohydrates, was associatedwith a 73% greater risk of ovulatoryinfertility..."
Additives on fast food• Monosodium Glutamate• Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is aflavoring agent present in a variety of fastfood items, not just Chinese food. This foodadditive is generally recognized as safeby the Food and Drug Administration, butreports of headache, flushing, chest pain,nausea and weakness have been reported.MSG may also interfere with appetitesuppression and cause you to feel hungereven after youve eaten a large amount offood, the book "Nutrition for the OlderAdult" says.
Additives on fast food• High-Fructose Corn Syrup• Many items sold at fast food restaurants, such assoft drinks and desserts, contain high-fructosecorn syrup. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans2010 urges Americans to reduce theirconsumption of foods and beverages withadded sugars. A study by the University ofCalifornia at Davis, published in the May 2009issue of the “Journal of Clinical Investigation,”found that consumption of beverages sweetenedwith corn syrup increases abdominal fat anddecreases insulin sensitivity. Both of these traitsincrease your risk for developing Type 2 diabetes.
Food addiction• New discoveries in science prove that industriallyprocessed, sugar-, fat- and salt-laden food isbiologically addictive.• Why we can’t stop eating fast-food? It is becausecertain types of food are addictive.• Food made of sugar, fat, and salt can be addictive.Especially when combined in secret ways that thefood industry will not share or make public. Weare biologically wired to crave these foods andeat as much of them as possible
Scientific findings about addiction• Sugar stimulates the brains reward centers through theneurotransmitter dopamine, exactly like other addictive drugs.• Brain imaging shows that high-sugar and high-fat foods work justlike heroin, opium, or morphine in the brain.• Brain imaging shows that obese people and drug addicts havelower numbers of dopamine receptors, making them more likely tocrave things that boost dopamine.
Scientific findings about addiction• Foods high in fat and sweets stimulatethe release of the bodys own opioids(chemicals like morphine) in the brain.• People (and rats) develop a toleranceto sugar -- they need more and moreof the substance to satisfy themselves-- just like they do for drugs of abuse like alcohol or heroin.• Obese individuals continue to eat large amounts of unhealthy foodsdespite severe social and personal negative consequences, just likeaddicts or alcoholics.
References• Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral andneurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev2008;32:20–39.• Bocarsly ME, Berner LA, Hoebel BG, Avena NM. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do notshow somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications fornutrient-specific food addiction behaviors. Physiol Behav 2011;105:865–72.• Pickering C, Alsio J, Hulting AL, Schioth HB. Withdrawal from free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces craving only in obesity-prone animals. Psychopharmacology2009;204:431–43• Colantuoni, C., Schwenker, J., McCarthy, P., et al. 2001. Excessive sugar intake altersbinding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Neuroreport. 12(16): 3549-3552.• http://ezinearticles.com/?Fast-Food-and-Traditional-Food&id=4018676• http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9318• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans_fat• http://www.livestrong.com/article/369937-addictive-ingredients-in-fast-food/• http://www.livestrong.com/article/538217-additives-fats-in-fast-food-items/• http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/protein