What Does History Do For Theatre 2

3,105 views

Published on

Published in: Entertainment & Humor
1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,105
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
28
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
72
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

What Does History Do For Theatre 2

  1. 1. What does History do for Theatre and Theatre do for History? Looking at an event or series of events that you believe puts theatre in a pivotal role in history, discuss the event in its historical context and looking at events which contributed to it and its subsequent impact answer the above question.
  2. 2. Events we will look at…. <ul><li>The change in monarchy and all that it entails from Elizabeth I to James I of England </li></ul><ul><li>Their differing reigning styles and character’s which impacted on theatres. </li></ul><ul><li>The Globe – as a space that allowed theatrical performances to be produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare as a literary genius whose growing popularity created rivalry with opposing theatres and authors and the impact this had. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare's influence on today’s film and theatrical industry ( what history has done for theatre) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>When Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603) ascended the throne she inherited a country deep in turmoil.The state of affairs which her father had left was deeply troubling for all concerned. </li></ul><ul><li>During her fathers reign he had altered the precious metal quantity In coinage had changed his countries religion left them on the brink of war with other countries and fights between his own kind over the true successor to his thrown. </li></ul><ul><li>If dealing with all of these things were not hard enough she also had to contend with being a single woman on the throne of England and countless assassination plots upon her life. </li></ul>Elizabeth I
  4. 4. <ul><li>Elizabeth dealt with these matters in true Tudor form taking on a head spy master to keep her up to date with future affairs this helped her know of impending threats on her life and attacks on England from the Spanish armada. </li></ul><ul><li>She took away all the coins with the small amount gold to be smelted back down and re used with a higher quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>she created a place where neither religion would be frowned upon and showed to her people and Europe that she was no mere woman. </li></ul><ul><li>All that was left now was to convince the poor people of her nation that she is her fathers daughter </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The poor needed to see more. To them it did not matter who they were at war with or who was cheating on who with whom all they wanted to know was what is in it for them to follow a woman when all other attempts had been disastrous. </li></ul><ul><li>There life's were hard and with this came a high mortality rate.The masses relied of entertainment such as bare baiting,mummers and public hangings.Many peoples views were based on what they had seen at the tavern during performances by traveling troupes. </li></ul><ul><li>Back in these times you could not get a message out to the poor there was no way of mass proper-gander no media or papers, with the first printing press only just created there needed to be away to tell the people of England what was happening and why they should believe in there queen. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Elizabeth I was a patron of theatre and it was said that she ‘ loved theatricals but hated paying for them’. It was therefore the duty of the noble gentry and hosts to provide entertainment as she toured around England, and they footed the bill. Lord Hudson who was Lord Chamberlain and patron of Shakespeare’s company, is believed to have been behind (financially) the legend that the Merry wives of Windsor was commissioned at the queen’s wish. The comedy is set in Windsor, with references to the Windsor bell, the castle and the Datchet meads. Also, within the text there is reference to ‘ our radiant queen’ as homage to the monarch.
  7. 7. <ul><li>With the introduction of the first fully standing theatre (with its own in hose acting troupe) came a new and somewhat unheard of occurrence the upper, middle and lower class all would be gathered in one place at the same time to watch the evenings entertainment.Now the poor could put faces to names and start to understand just who these people are that are ruling there day to day life's. </li></ul><ul><li>With good writers and subtle scripts it was easy to make the people think what the state wanted them to think or tell them there version of what really happened (or what they want the public to believe happened). </li></ul><ul><li>What better way to have your people believe in you than have actors (the words of who the people had began to now trust) tell them why she is great and her own noble gentry there agreeing with the words spoken. </li></ul><ul><li>This made the theatre not only good to sooth the sole of the once restless masses but in essence the first mass proper-gander,documentary and in essence the news. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Elizabeth who was known to enjoy theatre, was also astute in using it for her own political gain. For example, she was responsible for the theatres reopening after the plague closures, which out manoeuvred the Puritans who desired for the theatres’ permanent closure. </li></ul><ul><li>( Theatres were known to be gambling and brothel houses, and were host to a lot of illegal activities that the church disapproved of.) </li></ul><ul><li>By this she remained a popular monarch, she wanted to be a good Queen to her people she even said ‘ Be ye ensured that I will be as good unto you as ever a Queen was unto her people.’ </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, ever concerned about her popularity with her people, she realised that although it would be prudent to enforce some regulations that it would be foolish to enforce too many restrictions. In 1572 she granted a license by royal patent to organised acting companies, starting legitimate troupes (such as the earl of Leicester’s men). Then granting this she forbade any religious and political subjects on stage. </li></ul>Elizabeth I continued...
  9. 9. <ul><li>Significantly however under Elizabeth’s reign was in the year 1594. After the theatre’s reopened after plague closures, two companies were seen to be pre – eminent, the Admirals’ men ( acting star Edward Alleyn) and the ‘ Lord Chamberlain’s men’ whose star was Richard Burbage. The admiral’s men performed among others Marlowe’s plays, the Chamberlain’s men performed Shakespeare’s. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1598 the Privy Council confirmed this arrangement by granting them a joint monopoly. </li></ul><ul><li>Only two men’s companies were licensed to play in London. </li></ul><ul><li>This has great significance today as the two company principal has endured. Charles II in the early years of restoration granted the joint monopoly to two theatres. The monopoly license was eventually broken, but in its place in society today we have present: SUBSIDIES </li></ul>Continued ...
  10. 10. <ul><li>With the idea of two theatres being rivals we have today the Royal Shakespeare company and the Royal National Theatre, which both receive immense subsidies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the financial backing comes from industrial sponsors such as the Nat west bank, but the main sponsor is the state, which via the arts council subsidizes the two companies millions. No other theatre in the Uk receives remotely near these sums. </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolies may have gone but as a starting point in its context historically, we have been left with its heritage and have in place subsidies. Clearly this is an example of what history has done for theatre and what theatre has done for history financially. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>James I came to the throne 1603 to reign over England as well as Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>Royal patronage increased with his ascension. </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few weeks of his reign he changed the name of Shakespeare’s company from the ‘Lord Chamberlain’s men’ to the ‘ King’s men’. </li></ul><ul><li>This was an unprecedented royal favour: Shakespeare had become house playwright and dramatist to the Premier company in the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Elizabeth I who liked theatre but was a discerning and slightly detached patron, James was an enthusiastic supporter of the theatre, and his queen Ann was an ardent patron of the masque. ( she even took part in some of the masque performances at the court. </li></ul>James I
  12. 12. <ul><li>Statistics from both reigns show too that James was a more avid supporter of theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>Alvin Kernan, in Shakespeare, the king’s playwright states that ‘between 1603 and 1613 the King’s men played 138 times at court an average of 14 times a year. Under various names the same company had played only 32 times at court in the last ten years under the reign of Elizabeth.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps another reason why James I was such a fan of Shakespeare, was the fact that he too loved literature (He supported literature through his own writings as well as his patronage). He was responsible for the King James Bible which many consider a great piece of religious and literary work. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare respected the King’s love of literature and even wrote Macbeth specifically for him. </li></ul>James I continued ...
  13. 13. <ul><li>Economically the players benefited substantially under James's reign compared to that of Elizabeth. Clearly this is proof or a reflection of a change of monarchy, a style shift conditioned by the personal tastes of James I and his queen. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact theatre became so popular and the success of the globe and its popularity was such that other forms of Elizabethan entertainment were being seriously affected. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1591 the growing popularity of theatres led to a law closing all theatres on Thursdays, so that the bull and bare bating industries would not be neglected. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare respected the King’s love of literature and even wrote Macbeth specifically for him. </li></ul>James I ...
  14. 14. <ul><li>Shakespeare was a literary success in his own time and this again focuses on being a point for what history has done for theatre and theatre for history. </li></ul><ul><li>We know little of his finances but he was obviously incredibly successful, evidence of this is the fact that in 1597 he bought New Place in Stratford upon Avon, one of the grandest houses in town. </li></ul><ul><li>Strictly playwriting was not brilliantly rewarded and like his fellow ‘ sharers’ in the company he made his money from box office receipts, not a one off payment. </li></ul><ul><li>At his death Shakespeare was clearly the most famous and most successful playwright of his day, pivotal to theatre and history. Even today his plays are studies a s a literary form in school, his plays are acted on stage, depicting the costumes and language from Elizabethan times, and he still remains a genius whom many professionals from various careers are influenced and inspired by. </li></ul>Shakespeare as a success even in his own time
  15. 15. <ul><li>Arguably if James I had not been an avid fan of theatre and indeed Shakespeare, theatre might not have increased in popularity as it did in its time. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact theatre became so popular and the success of the globe and its popularity was such that other forms of Elizabethan entertainment were being seriously affected. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1591 the growing popularity of theatres led to a law closing all theatres on Thursdays, so that the bull and bare bating industries would not be neglected. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Globe theatre was built by carpenter Peter Smith and his workers in 1597 and was the most magnificent theatre that London had ever seen. The theatre could hold several thousand people the Globe didn’t just show plays and theatrical productions. The Globe was also know as a brothel and gambling house. </li></ul><ul><li>The Globe was a huge success and it had been built very close to the Bear Garden, in 1614 the Bear Garden was demolished due to the profits falling dramatically. It was replaced with a new playhouse which was named The Hope Theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as a play had been written it was immediately produced, copyright did not exist during this time so it was easy for plays and different aspects of a production to be copied and used in a different playhouse, it was very common to use prompts so that the material was very new even to the actors acting the play this way they kept unauthorized versions of the play being copied to quickly and reproduced by another theatre. When a production or text was copied it was know as the quarto texts. </li></ul>The Globe
  17. 17. <ul><li>The Globe theatre was built by carpenter Peter Smith and his workers in 1597 and was the most magnificent theatre that London had ever seen. The theatre could hold several thousand people the Globe didn’t just show plays and theatrical productions. </li></ul><ul><li>A day out at The Globe would be a very exciting event and the surrounding grounds would be full of people and market stalls selling merchandise and refreshments this created a busy bustling atmosphere. People that weren’t attending the theatre would still go and take in the busy atmosphere. A trumpet was sounded to announce to people that they had to take there seats and the play was a bout to start. </li></ul><ul><li>Above the Globe was a small tower which would fly a flag depending on the style of the performance that was due to commence. A black flag meant tragedy, white flag meant comedy and a red flag meant history </li></ul>The Globe
  18. 18. <ul><li>The Globe allowed stage productions to become quiet sophisticated with the use of massive props such as fully working canons, although it would have to be left on stage for the whole performance. Special effects at the Globe were also a spectacular addition at the theatre allowing for smoke effects, the firing of a real canon, fireworks were used for dramatic battle scenes and spectacular flying entrances from the rigging in the heavens. The stage also had trap doors which allowed people to enter and exit the stage in a different way. </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as a play had been written it was immediately produced, copyright did not exist during this time so it was easy for plays and different aspects of a production to be copied and used in a different playhouse, it was very common to use prompts so that the material was very new even to the actors acting the play this way they kept unauthorized versions of the play being copied to quickly and reproduced by another theatre. When a production or text was copied it was know as the quarto texts. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Theatre audience’s were always seeing new performances as it wasn’t un common for 11 performances of 10 different plays to be performed in just two weeks. The Shakespearean actors generally got their lines when the play was in progress, so they had very little idea of what they had to do prior to being on stage. Parts were even allocated as late as on the day of the performance, it was normal for actors not to get there own lines they were told there lines as they were waiting in the wings and learnt them just before they went on stage. Because there was no rehearsal time this allowed there to be many different performances to take place in a short amount of time. Women were played by young boys as it was unthinkable for a women to be on the stage. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Elizabethan general public would pay 1 penny to stand in the pit to watch a performance, the gentry would pay to sit in the galleries often using cushions for comfort. Rich nobles could watch the play form a chair set on the side of the stage itself. Performances were held in the afternoons only as there was no artificial lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Both men and women attended the theatre but women often wore mask’s to disguise their identity. The theatre attracted large amounts of people all the time, the audience numbers only dropped during outbreaks of the Bubonic Plague also know as the black death. Outbreaks were very common and it happened in 1593, 1603 and in 1608 when all theatres were closed due to Bubonic Plague. The Shakespearean actors were the temporarily out of work and left London to stay in other parts of England. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The original structure of the Globe Theatre stood until 29 June 1613, when its thatched roof set ablaze by a cannon fired in a performance of Henry VIII and the Globe burned down. By this time Shakespeare was in semi-retirement at Stratford-on-Avon where he later died at the age of 52. The Globe was re constructed in 1614, with tiles replacing the straw on it’s partial roof. In 1642, however a quarter of a century after Shakespeare’s death, a new puritanical and decidedly anti theatre regime assumed power in England and closed down all of the country’s theatres. Two years later, Cromwell’s round heads tore down the Globe and leveled the site and constructed tenement housing upon it. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Continued… <ul><li>The success of Elizabethan theatres was so great that other forms of Elizabethan entertainment was being seriously affected, in 1591 a law was brought out to close all theatres on Thursday afternoons so that bull and bear bating industries would not be neglected. </li></ul><ul><li>A day out at The Globe would be a very exciting event and the surrounding grounds would be full of people and market stalls selling merchandise and refreshments this created a busy bustling atmosphere. People that weren’t attending the theatre would still go and take in the busy atmosphere. A trumpet was sounded to announce to people that they had to take there seats and the play was a bout to start. </li></ul><ul><li>Above the Globe was a small tower which would fly a flag depending on the style of the performance that was due to commence. A black flag meant tragedy, white flag meant comedy and a red flag meant history </li></ul>
  23. 23. Continued… <ul><li>The Globe allowed stage productions to become quiet sophisticated with the use of massive props such as fully working canons, although it would have to be left on stage for the whole performance. Special effects at the Globe were also a spectacular addition at the theatre allowing for smoke effects, the firing of a real canon, fireworks were used for dramatic battle scenes and spectacular flying entrances from the rigging in the heavens. The stage also had trap doors which allowed people to enter and exit the stage in a different way. </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre audience’s were always seeing new performances as it wasn’t un common for 11 performances of 10 different plays to be performed in just two weeks. The Shakespearean actors generally got their lines when the play was in progress, so they had very little idea of what they had to do prior to being on stage. Parts were even allocated as late as on the day of the performance, it was normal for actors not to get there own lines they were told there lines as they were waiting in the wings and learnt them just before they went on stage. Because there was no rehearsal time this allowed there to be many different performances to take place in a short amount of time. Women were played by young boys as it was unthinkable for a women to be on the stage. </li></ul><ul><li>The Elizabethan general public would pay 1 penny to stand in the pit to watch a performance, the gentry would pay to sit in the galleries often using cushions for comfort. Rich nobles could watch the play form a chair set on the side of the stage itself. Performances were held in the afternoons only as there was no artificial lighting. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Continued… <ul><li>Both men and women attended the theatre but women often wore mask’s to disguise their identity. The theatre attracted large amounts of people all the time, the audience numbers only dropped during outbreaks of the Bubonic Plague also know as the black death. Outbreaks were very common and it happened in 1593, 1603 and in 1608 when all theatres were closed due to Bubonic Plague. The Shakespearean actors were the temporarily out of work and left London to stay in other parts of England. </li></ul><ul><li>William Shakespeare had a stake holding in the Globe and also acted in some of the productions of the plays. It is not known exactly how many roles Shakespeare played himself. </li></ul><ul><li>The original structure of the Globe Theatre stood until 29 June 1613, when its thatched roof set ablaze by a cannon fired in a performance of Henry VIII and the Globe burned down. By this time Shakespeare was in semi-retirement at Stratford-on-Avon where he later died at the age of 52. The Globe was re constructed in 1614, with tiles replacing the straw on it’s partial roof. In 1642, however a quarter of a century after Shakespeare’s death, a new puritanical and decidedly anti theatre regime assumed power in England and closed down all of the country’s theatres. Two years later, Cromwell’s round heads tore down the Globe and leveled the site and constructed tenement housing upon it. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The Globe Theatre timeline of major events. </li></ul><ul><li>1564 April 23 - William Shakespeare was born </li></ul><ul><li>1576 - James Burbage obtains the lease of the Globe and permission to build ‘ The Theatre ’ in Shoreditch, The Lord Chamberlains Men use it from 1594 to 1596. </li></ul><ul><li>1577 - Another open air theatre opens in Finsbury Fields, Shoreditch, London and is called The Curtain. </li></ul><ul><li>1593 - Theatres close due to the Bubonic plague. </li></ul><ul><li>1594 - The Lord Chamberlain ’ s company was formed; it was formally know as Lord Strange ’ s Men </li></ul><ul><li>1596-97 London ’ s authorities banned the public presentation of plays within the city limits of London. </li></ul><ul><li>1596 - James Burbage purchases Black friars and convert ’ s it in to a theatre, the theatre doesn't ’ t get permission to open, so it stood empty. </li></ul><ul><li>1597 Shakespeare ’ s company of actors moved to the Curtain Theatre after failed negotiations over The Theatre with Giles Allen. </li></ul><ul><li>1598 - Timber from The Theatre was taken to use to build The Globe Theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>1599 - The Globe opens on the Bankside </li></ul><ul><li>1600 - Richard Burbage was forced to lease out Black friars as he still couldn't ’ t get permission to open it as a theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>1601 -Shakespeare ’ s acting group, the Chamberlains men, were commissioned to stage Richard II at the Globe. </li></ul><ul><li>1603 - The Bubonic plague hits London again and kills 33,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>1608 - Richard Burbage takes back the lease for Black friars theatre, the Kings Men acting group and Shakespeare become part owners and they use the space for there winter performances. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Globe Theatre <ul><li>1613 June 29- Fire at the Globe Theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>1614 - Globe Theatre was re-built on original foundations; this time the roof was tiled and not thatched. </li></ul><ul><li>1616 - Burial of William Shakespeare. </li></ul><ul><li>1642 - The English Civil war breaks out between the Parliamentarians (Puritans) and the Royalists </li></ul><ul><li>1644 - The Globe Theatre is demolished by the Puritans and the land is then used to build tenement houses on the site. </li></ul><ul><li>1647 - Even stricter rules passed by the Puritans restricting the staging of plays. </li></ul><ul><li>1648 - The Puritans ordered all playhouses and theatres to be pulled down, all players to be seized and whipped; anyone caught attending a play was to be fined 5 shillings. </li></ul><ul><li>1649 - The Civil war finally leads to the terrible execution of King Charles I by the Puritans. </li></ul><ul><li>1653 - Oliver Cromwell becomes lord protector of England. </li></ul><ul><li>1658 - Cromwell dies and the power of the Puritans starts to decline. </li></ul><ul><li>1660 - King Charles II is restored to the throne in England. </li></ul><ul><li>1660 - The decline in power of the Puritans sees the opening of theatres, but the globe theatre is never re-built. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>The New Globe Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>The site of the old globe theatre was re-discovered in the 20th century and a reconstruction of the Globe theatre has been built near the spot. </li></ul><ul><li>1969 - Sam Wanamaker starts to campaign to re-build the Globe theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>1970 - Wanamaker establishes the “ Globe Playhouse Trust ” an educational charity, in order to raise funds for the building of a replica theatre. HRH Prince Philip is patron of the Shakespeare Globe Trust. </li></ul><ul><li>1970 - Southwark council provides a 1.2 acre site for the project beside the River Thames and opposite St Paul ’ s Cathedral. The new site is 200 yards from the original site. </li></ul><ul><li>1970 - Theo Crosby is a key architect, along with his firm Pentagram, they are appointed to design a replica of the Globe. </li></ul><ul><li>1972 The Bear Garden Museum opens with a permanent exhibition of 16th and 17th century theatre history. </li></ul><ul><li>1985 - The “ Friends of Shakespeare ’ s Globe ” is founded. </li></ul><ul><li>1987 - The sight is cleared in preparations for building work to begin. </li></ul><ul><li>1987 - The first major part of the theatre goes up and it ’ s the wall nearest the Thames, they constructed this wall first to keep the water. </li></ul><ul><li>1988 - The project runs out of money. Doubts rise on whether it would possible to raise the enormous amount of money required for the project. </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – Theo Crosby presented the idea called “ direct build “ the idea was to build the project phase by phase as the money came in. </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – Construction work begins on the foundations. </li></ul><ul><li>1993 – The foundations are finished and construction work begins on the actual theatre. </li></ul><ul><li>1994 – The theatre opens its doors to the public, so they can view the build in progress. Over 300,000 visitors passed through the doors between 1994 and 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>1995 – The National Lottery donates 12.4 million pounds to the Globe Trust to fund the completion of the foyer area and ancillary facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>1996 – Mark Rylance is appointed artistic director. </li></ul><ul><li>1996 – The New Shakespeare ’ s Globe reopened with a short unofficial season with the performance of The Two Gentlemen of Verona. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 – A team of blacksmiths forge the finishing touches to the ornamental gates facing on to the river Thames. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 -7th June is the official opening and there is a festival to mark this occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 – 12th June Her Majesty the Queen and HRH Prince Philip visit the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – Work begins on the exhibition in the undercroft and on the millennium footbridge which now links the Bankside to Saint Paul ’ s Cathedral and the City. </li></ul>
  28. 28. references <ul><li>http://www.nmm.ac.uk/server/show/conWebDoc.6129 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-entertainment.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-theatre.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.springfield.k12.il.us/schools/springfield/eliz/introelizperiod.html http://www.nmm.ac.uk/server/show/conWebDoc.6204 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sirbacon.org/graphics/lizatgrays.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.willshakespeare.com/king%20james%201.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Objetos/beggar02.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>www.gprc.ab.ca/employees/homepages/ghanna/reviews/shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>www.icons.org.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.Shakespeareabout.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.Findarticles.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.williamshakespeare.info </li></ul><ul><li>www.twingroves.district96/renaissance/globe - theatre.htm </li></ul><ul><li>The oxford illustrated history of the theatre by John Russel Brown </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Shakespeare, the Globe and the world’ by S.Schoenbaum. </li></ul>

×