AP World Study Guide – Chapter 6 (The Rise and Spread of Islam) Bedouin/Pre-IslamGeography • Very dry and not very fertile • People live in nomadic tribes because of limited food resources • Very few cities. • Mecca – Along the Red Sea. 1. Largest civilization 2. Site of Ka’ba (super holy spot) 3. Major trade area • Medina – City of the Prophet and oasisReligion • Was a mixture of Animism/Polytheism • Allah exists as god of gods, but isn’t especially important because of the vagueness. 1. Example: You’re more like to pray to the Camel Milking God for good camel milk than a god of gods • Ethics were regional • Weren’t extremely religious. Example: even if an oracle told you not to do something, you’d still do it if you really wantedArt • Not much architecture because of limited resources • Most art was epic poetry, transmitted orally. • Poets could have magic powers or be possessed by demons.Social Structures: • Close families. • Exile = death because if you were kicked out of your tribe, you’d die from starvation/dehydration in the desert. • Tent camps • Prisoners of war become slavesWomen’s Role – the good: • Had greater freedom in Bedouin pre-islam • Main duties consisted of milking camels, raising children, weaving, ect. • Families traced descent through mother • In some tribes, both men AND women were allowed multiple partners • Men required to pay a bride price rather than women paying dowry • Didn’t have to wear veils • Had political influence
• Wrote poetryWomen’s Role – the bad: • Women were not able to be warriors, therefore they could not be equal • Right varied from clan to clan • Divorce and inheritance favored menReasons for Decline in Women’s Rights - • Mecca gets more merchants and becomes more stable • Rise of stability means they start to trace descent through men • Women not allowed to have multiple husbands anymorePolitics: • Land regulated by clan counsels • Tribes lead by shayks • Enforced by warriors • Rivalries between clans. Anything could be used as an excuse to go to war • Code of Chivalry is followed to prevent people from offending each other 1. Very strict. 2. If a man rode up to your tent and left without eating your bread, he was your enemy for life. • Infighting between clans allows them to be manipulated by more powerful neighborsEconomics: • Trading in major cities like Mecca • Mostly pastoral/herding • Date palms(basically giant raisins) were produced in the few fertile places Muhammad and IslamMuhammad’s Life in 12 Bullets • Orphaned young • Born into wealthy clan • Raised by uncle • Married Khadijah, widow of wealthy merchant • Trading exposed him to Judaism/Christianity • Angel Gabriel comes to him and teaches him • Creates Islam • Started with a small following that grew • Umayyad nobles see him as a threat • Hirija – flight to medina • Truce
• Smashed the idolsIslam • 5 PILLARS 1. There is no god but Allah 2. Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca 3. Fast during Ramadan 4. Zakat – Donate to charity 5. Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca to worship at ka’ba • Ethics code – all have to help the weak, forbade exploitation of poor by rich • Umma – community of the faithful • Mawali – non-arab converts • Jizya – tax on non-believers • Dhimmi – people of the book, i.e. Jews, Christians, ect. • Hadiths – traditions of the prophetPolitical Effects • Unity causes Bedouins to stop fighting and actually do stuff… like conquer everything. • Dissent after Muhammad’s death • Abu Bakr takes over • But Ali (cousin/son in law) was considered • Caliph- political/religious successor to Muhammad • The Umayyad take over.Women’s Roles - Good • Muhammad preached kindness to wives and daughters • Forbade female infanticide • Infidelity forbidden for women and men • Men were allowed up to 4 wives, but had to care for all equally • Still retained ability to remarry, divorce, and inherit property • No veils required at first • Women were not as important, but not shunned • Educated to read Qur’anWomen’s Roles - Bad • Syrian and Persian veil wearing customs brought in from conquests decrease rights • Separate sides of the house for men and women • Harem – forbidden area/place where women are kept • Eunuchs (guys whose balls were cut off) watch over the women • Lower class women had more rights because they had to work Umayyad Rise and Fall
Reasons for Jjihad – Holy Wars • Revenge on the neighbors who had been pitting tribes against each other • Food/fertile farm land • Religious fervor 1. However… They didn’t necessarily want to convert people because they didn’t want to share the “booty” that they got in the conquestsReasons Why the Conquests worked • Sasasanians were weak because of a recent religious split • Rulers were assassinated • Copts and Nestorians – Christian sects in Syria and Egypt. Resented the Byzantines and helped. • Muslims tolerated and taxed other cultures less than the Byzantines • Muslims had naval supremacySocial • Dhimmi (people of the book) had to pay taxes but were allowed to have temples and whatnot. • Mawali have to pay taxes even though they are Muslims.Science and Art • Most art was expressed in elaborate Mosques or PalacesSplit of Islam • Caliph Uthman was killed and people wanted Ali (cousin/son in law of Muhammad) to lead • Umayyads reject Ali • Battle of Siffin – Ali was about to conquer, but was persuaded to stop • Truce was fatal to cause. Supporters withdrew • Mu’awiya proclaimed caliph • Ali’s son’s weak and renounces claims • Sunnis – backed the original line of succession • Shi’a – supporters of Ali and his descendants • Husyan (Ali’s second son) tries to lead. Killed in Karbala. Becomes a martyr.Umayyad fall • Corruption of government and decadence angered people • Frontier warriors married locally and gained an alliance towards their wives. • Abbasids – lead by Muhammad’s uncle Abu al-Abbas • Abu, Shi’a, mawali (non-arab converts) all pitch in to overthrow the Umayyad. • Abbasid invited members of the Umayyad to dinner; guards covered the guests with carpet and slaughtered them. Abbasid
Racists and Hypocrites • Though they started out fine, they gradually get less tolerant of the Shi’a who helped get them into power in the first place. • Even though they were complaining about how the Umayyad were so lavish and spoiled, they start getting jewel encrusted thrones soon after their rise to power.Geography • Baghdad becomes the new capitalPolitics • Wazir – chief admin of caliph’s inner council 1. Holds the most power • Persian families make up a good portion of the government • Mawali no longer have to pay taxes. Number of people converting mysteriously goes up.Social Structure • Artists are poor, but are highly valued • Ayan – landed elite • Slaves in the city could gain positions of power or possibly buy their freedom • Slaves in the country had to work hard and in poor conditions. Salt mines don’t seem like fun.Art and Science • Built mosques • Focused on reclaiming Greek knowledge • Adopted Indian system of numbers World Connection • Exchange of knowledge gained with Europe during the Crusades • Actually traded with China. Limited Muslim influence. You will see a prominent Muslim explorer for China in a couple chapters, though. Key Facts and Tips • There’s going to be a significant number of things on women’s rights on the AP test. Probably a misguided “sorry for the whole 1000 years of oppression” gift to all females. • Know the major points of Islam. You’ll need this. Also the difference between Sunni and Shi’a. • Shi’a is a smaller word than Sunni. There are less Shi’a than Sunni. • There are a billion different spellings for anything in Arabic or Chinese. If you read something and have no idea what it is but know it sounds roughly the same as something else, it’s probably the same thing.
AP World Study Guide – Chapter 7 (Abbasid Decline and Spread of Islam) Abbasid DeclineThe Start of the Abbasid’s Problems: al-Madi • Disregards frugality, acquires luxuries • Taste for luxuries becomes a habit for the Caliphs (If he had it, I want it too. Except with more diamonds) • Didn’t choose a son to succeed him • Allowed concubines/wives to get involved with succession • Al-Madi dies, his successor AND his successor’s successor are poisoned soon after.Harun al-Rashid Comes to Power • Is controlled by advisors • Most caliphs become pawns of advisors after this • Death causes full scale civil warRise of Slave Armies • Sons of Harun need armies so they can gain control • They hire lots of slave mercenaries to fight for them • 70,000 slave soldiers (mamluks) • Leaders in the army are able to control the caliphEconomic/Political Effects • Armies cause food shortages • Cost of armies makes the Caliph tax more • Starving and poor people rebel, only to be crushed by the armies/famine • Shi’a try to instigate rebellion • Lose territory – Egypt and SyriaSocial Structure • Pros to being a female slave: 1. Slaves could win power/freedom by bearing sons 2. Did not have to wear veils 3. Slaves prized for beauty and intelligence 4. Slaves would sometimes be well educated in order to entertain better 5. Able to go into markets • But… 1. Caliphs had up to 4000 concubines; it’s not very likely that you’ll be noticed. • Cons to being a “free” woman/wife: 1. Married at about 9
2. Husbands spent more time with slaves than wives 3. Not allowed to leave the harem 4. Not allowed to work 5. Only way to gain power was to plot around sonsCultural and Scientific Changes • Even through the caliphate was losing money, art and science flourished • Persian replaces Arabic as court language, but is not used anywhere else. Not practical, but pretty. • Shah-Nama (Book of Kings) by Firdawsi- History of Persia • Sine, cosine, and tangent are created by mathematicians • Chemistry – able to calculate specific weight of 18 different minerals • Advanced astronomical charts • Better paper making • Better ceramics • Better silk weavingArt • Artists/artisans become more valued • Persian rugs and mosques are main artistic outletReligion • Ulama(orthodox religious scholars) are hostile to non-Islamic thinking • Al-Ghazali (scholar) tries to mix Greek and Islamic views, but it doesn’t work.Sufis • Islamic mystics • Made religion more interesting • Used drugs, meditation, songs, and dance to spread the word • More effective for conversions Nomadic InvasionsBuyids: • Splinter dynasty/people who decided to declare themselves royalty • Buyid leader = sultans (victorious in Arabic) • Controlled caliphate • Supported Shi’aSeljuk Turks • Nomadic invaders that take control of the caliphate from Buyids • They’re Sunnis
• Got rid of Shi’a officials • Beat back Byzantines who were trying to regain land • Laid foundations of Ottoman EmpireMongols • Group of Asian nomads • Chinggis Khan raided Turko-Persian kingdoms • Grandson Hulegu continues the family tradition • Defeated Mamluks (Turkish slaves) • Baghdad never recovers • Cairo and Istanbul become most important cities Spread of Islamic Culture CrusadesBasics: • Crusades were lead by Europeans • Purpose was to reclaim the holy land • Europeans were given a taste for Arabic luxury when Harun al-Rashid gave Charlemagne an elephant and a water clock as gifts. • Took place from mid 1000’s to 1099Rise of Crusaders • Eventually took Jerusalem • Mounted 8 crusades total • The Muslim princes did not consider them a threat and continued to fight amongst themselvesFall of Crusaders • Saladin/ Salah-ud-Din – unites the Muslims again • Leadership allows the Muslims to regain all lost land • Last of Crusader kingdom’s lost in fall of AcreScientific Effects of the Crusades • Greek learning • Arabic number system • Superior swords – damascene swords considered the best in the world • Fortification – Strong holds such as Normandy by William the Conquerer were created because of the knowledge gained from the crusadesCultural Effects of the Crusades • Fancy fabrics i.e. damask, taffeta and so on • Coffee (Muslims are not permitted to drink alcohol, so coffee becomes popular)
• ChivalryKeep in mind, Italian merchants contributed the most to the spread of Islamic culture intoEurope.Effects of Crusades on Islamic Empire • Almost nothing. Europeans were less advanced and did not have much to bring. Southeast AsiaHow it Started • The Shrivijaya are the major trade empire. They’re also very Buddhist. • Trade Empire collapses. • After fall of Shrivijaya, sailors convert to Islam and then convert the people they meet • Luxury items and spices are sold to Southeast Asia (Indonesia and whatnot) and Islam is spreadJava • Ruling class was originally Hindu • Muslims converted the majority of peasants/animists to Islam • Pressure causes ruling class to convertWhy Bother Converting People? • Ethical/religious obligations • Conversion linked centers by a common law. • People are more willing to trust people with the same religion. IndiaBeginning of Muslim Influence • Pirates from Sind, India attack Muslim traders • Muhammad ibn Qasim (only 17 years old) lead 10,000 camel back warriors to Sind • Muhammad wins a couple battles, declares that region +Indus river valley Umayyad territory • Decided that Buddhists and Hindus were dhimmi (had to pay taxes, but free to worship) • Local officials retained rule • Not much effort put into conversionScience and Culture Gained by Muslims • More advanced medicine -Indian physicians brought to Baghdad to practice
• Chess • Astronomy • Numeral system • AlgebraIslam vs. Hinduism Islam HinduismAll people are equal Caste systemOnly one god Many gods, gets new gods from religions it absorbsRigid religion Adaptive religionHow Islam was Able to Spread (Sort of) • Merchants spread faith through trade • Sufi mystics were thought to have magic healing powers • Conversion worked on Buddhists/low castes/animists – also people who didn’t want to pay the jizya/tax on non-believers/people who married into it • Western India, Buddhism becomes corrupted by Islam • Local Buddhists go from “Life as we know it leads to suffering” to “orgies and magic”Hinduism’s Effects on Islam in India • Muslims adopt style, armies are Hindu, divine descent • Less women’s rights: girls marry younger (keep in mind, most girls get married at 9 already in Islamic culture), no remarriage for widows because there are no widows because of… • Sati – when a woman’s husband dies, it is her duty to be burned alive in order to honor him.Reasons Why Islam and Hinduism didn’t Mix • High castes see invaders had polluters and infidels • Muslims find the Hindu conceited and unwilling to learn • Separate living quarters • Hindus believe that Islam would be absorbed, but most people do not want to be stuck in a caste system after being equal their entire lives.Bhaktic Cults • Made to make Hinduism more attractive than Islam • Women and untouchables are welcome • Mira Bai – celebrated woman writer for Bhaktic • Low caste saints • Muslim weaver named Kabir says the faiths could be mixed • Strong emotional bonds between god(ddesss) and devotee • Chants, dances, and drugs were used
• Stopped Islamic convertsPolitics and War • Native Hindu rulers re–conquered areas when Muslims were weak • Islamic Mahmud of Ghanzi leads re-conquering of India • Eventually succeeded by Muhammad of Ghur • Takes control of most of northern India • Muhammad of Ghur is assassinated, Qutb-ud-din Aibak (slave lieutenant) seizes control • Delhi becomes the base of operations Connections to later CivilizationsAn affect of conversions at this time is that Indonesia is still predominately Muslim.Crusades cause tension between Muslims and Christians. General Ideas • As Muslims get more advanced, they get less receptive to innovation and ideas from other cultures • When a region is converted to one of the major religions (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, ect.) They rarely change. If they do, it’s very slow and/or painful. • Sufis willing to bend the rules of Islam if it means they can get more converts.
AP World Study Guide – Chapter 9 (Byzantium and Orthodox Empire)Previously…The Roman Empire was split into an eastern section and a western section and when it fell, theeastern section became the Byzantine Empire. They believe that they are Roman.Changes from Rome • Greek becomes court language and common language under Justinian. • High levels of commerce from eastern Mediterranean • Egyptians and Syrians allowed to enter politics • Recruited armies from the Middle East instead of using barbarians • Ruled by an Emperor Emperor Justinian (If nothing else, know about him)Justinian and Theodora • Justinian is described as a “moron” by the scholars of his day. • Theodora was a hooker before she married Justinian • A Roman law forbade Justinian from marrying “actresses.” He had to repeal a law in order to marry her. • Later built up a reputation as a pious couple by commissioning histories of themselves • Theodora helped pass laws increasing woman’s rights and heavily influenced Justinian’s rule.Cultural Advancements • Rebuilt Constantinople • Built the Hagia Sofia (really really fancy and expensive church) 1. One of the largest structures of its time 2. Engineering and artistic marvel • Passed that punished rape by death and prohibited forced prostitution.Political Changes • Systematized the Roman legal code 1. Reduced confusion 2. Helped organize the empire 3. Helped spread Roman legal principlesExpansion • Belisarius (Justinian’s top general) • Tried to recapture Rome. It didn’t go well. • Empire was weakened by Middle Eastern invaders • Taxes are raised to pay for defense.
General Byzantine EmpireWar • Greek Fire (type of napalm) is used to defeat Arab ships • Greater taxation causes more peasants to join the army. • Slavic countries are also harassing the Byzantines, though there was occasional peace. • Basil II absorbs Bulgaria into the Byzantines in 1014Politics • Emperor is considered holy • Women occasionally held power. Examples: Empress Theodora and then Justinian’s wife, Empress Theodora • Bureaucrats able to be recruited from lower classes because of Greek education, but there still wasn’t much movement between classes. (Similar to Chinese exam system.) • Soldiers were paid with land that could be inherited if the son also enlisted. • Military leaders become more powerful as years go by.Economics • Food prices were kept artificially low in cities, thus creating a shortage • Silk production was expanded • Active trade with most of the world • While merchants became wealthy, they did not gain much power. (Another connection to China) Art and Culture • Not much scientific innovation • Developed a distinct artistic style • Icons ( paintings of religious figures) become popular 1. Causes controversy when Muslims call Byzantines “idol worshipers” 2. Iconoclasm (smashing of the icons) follows and the monks are very unhappy with this.The Collapse of the Byzantines • Never recovers from the battle of Manzikert • Western leaders did not help them • The Turks finally conquer them in 1453 Differences between Eastern and Western Christianity The pope decides to excommunicate the patriarch, so the patriarch excommunicates the pope.East • Lead by a Patriarch • Disliked the Pope • Considered Westerners crude
• Disapproved of the celibacy rule and allowed its priests to marry • Allowed masses to be held in languages other than Latin 1. This allows missionaries Cyril and Methodius convert Balkan and South Russian people 2. They develop the Cyrillic alphabet in order to teach the Slavic people about God 3.West • Controlled by Pope • Celibacy for all priests • Latin was the only language spoken in mass • Take over Czech and Slovak regionsJews • Discriminated against by Christians • Flee Western Europe and go to Poland • Emphasis on education Kievan RusSlavic People • Used iron and extended agriculture • Animist religion • Folk music and oral legendsKiev • Trade city in between Scandinavia and Constantinople • Monarchy established there by RurikReligion • Prince Vladimir I decides to convert everyone to Christianity (Love Jesus or die) 1. Chose Christianity because Islam forbids alcohol • Russian Orthodox Church developsCulture and Politics • Culture - copies everything from the Byzantines • Russian Aristocrats = Boyars • Peace kept through marriage treatiesFall of Kiev • Nomadic invasions from the Mongols (such a surprise) • Tartars – Turkish word for Mongols • Tatars would let culture survive as long as taxes were paid
AP World Study Guide – Chapter 10 (A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe) Background • Europe is just now feeling the effects of Roman civilization after its collapse. • Arabs view them as backwards and stupid. • Most of Europe is Christian at this point. Beginning of European CivilizationImpediments to Development • Italy was divided politically • Muslims control Spain • Raids by Vikings make it difficult to develop. • All intellectuals belonged to the Church • Weak rulersEconomics and Technology • Manorial system is most widely used 1. Serfs work for landlords and are protected from invaders in return 2. Serfs have to give part of their crops to their Lords or do odd jobs around his castle. 3. Originated in the late part of the Roman Empire 4. Serfs are not slaves. They can inherit land and such, but they are stuck in the system because there are not a lot of other opportunities for them. The Church • Since the church was the only powerful organization, so it controlled almost anything. • Hierarchy goes Pope -> Bishops -> Local Priests. • Regional kingdoms are permitted to appoint bishops. • Lots of missionary activityPolitical Benefits to Christianity • Clovis (German warrior chief) converts to Christianity in order to be superior to pagan rivals. • Gave him connections to Pope (Who has the largest army at this point in time) and vague dominion over the FranksCultural Benefits to Christianity • Monasteries provide education and livelihood to peasants • Taught villagers different agricultural techniques • Provided a purpose to life during the Dark Ages (time period after Rome’s fall)
Charlemagne’s LegacyStart of the Carolingians • Carolingians take over the Franks in 8th Century • Charles “The Hammer” Martel gains prestige by defeating the Arabs in the battle of Tours. This kept Arabic influence out of Europe, for the most part.Charlemagne • Established empire in France and Germany around 800 • Restored church-based education in the West • After his death, the empire was split between his 3 sons. Roughly into France, Germany and the Low Countries/Switzerland/Northern Italy. • Successors are weak. People aren’t called Charles the Fat because they’re especially skilled in conquering.Politics • Regional kingdoms make it impossible for a durable empire to form. • The kingdom with Germany in it declares itself a successor to Rome and the kings call themselves “Holy Roman Emperors” • Regional lords were more likely to serve their own interests than their king’s, so the kings don’t really have as much power as they think they do.Culture • Christianity provides a cultural unity • Language differences and regional differences sort of negate this unity Flourishing of Europe – Causes and EffectsCause - Technological Advances • Moldboard (iron plate/plow thing) allowed deeper soil tilling • Went from only using half of their lands to a three-field system (1/3 of the land is left alone each year) • New horse collar allows horses to be yoked without choking • Stirrups allow better control of horses in the military • Monks spread agricultural knowledgeCause - Political • Vikings raids start to taper off. Either stronger governments can keep them out or because the Vikings took over the area. • Greater safety causes serfs to be less reliant on landlords and people to spread.Cause - Economic • People start to spread outwards to cultivate more land 1. This causes landlords to be more lenient with their terms in order to attract more serfs.
• New food sources (durum wheat from North Africa and alfalfa from Persia) are introducedGeographical Effects • More food and prosperity cause a population increase • More people move into the cities. Population in urban areas increases by 20%, which makes about 5% of the total population urban.Cultural Effects • Increased prosperity makes the social structure slightly less rigid. Free peasants emerge. • City monasteries start to show up. Provide hospitals or schools to urban population. • Cities begin sending children to school at Cathedrals to become church leaders. • Italian universities start to show up (cultural connection: they teach Arab science and Roman law) • Parisian theological college begins and inspires similar institutes in England/Germany (examples: Oxford and Cambridge) • Art and architecture flourishes • Kings choose urban dwellers to staff bureaucracies so they owe their power to him. (Connection to China)Political Effects • Feudalism begins 1. Landlords provide protection to vassals (lesser lords) 2. Vassals offer military service in return 3. Example: Charlemagne rewards military leaders with land in return for their loyalty • Feudalism gradually reduces warfare • Kings in France start to make churches pay taxes • William the Conqueror starts feudal system in England 1. Uses sheriffs to supervise justice administration by the lords • Kings start collecting taxes and hiring professional armies Limited Government in EuropeLimits on Power • Church is still the main authority in Europe. • Aristocrats have personal armies.Political Changes • King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, which limits his power by making him ask for permission to appoint bishops and institute taxes. • Parliaments (government representatives who balance the power of the king) are formed. 1. Parliament is made up of three estates: church, nobility, and urban leaders. • Hundred Years War between France and England over territory begins in 1300’s 1. Ends in French victory because of Joan of Arc
2. Archers learn how to unseat knights and become more effectiveCrusades • Started by Pope Urban II • Offers forgiveness for military service in order to encourage people to join • Occupy Jerusalem for a century but are kicked out by Saladin (As seen in chapter 7) • 3rd crusade makes a truce that allows Christians pilgrimage to Jerusalem • 4th crusade was an attack on Constantinople by Italian merchants Everything CatholicCorruption • Church was the wealthiest institution in Europe • Many priests behaved like feudal lords • Nobility paid monks to pray for them to ensure they got to heaven • Can manipulate political entities through threat of excommunicationFights against Corruption • Gregory VII tries to maintain holiness of priesthood through celibacy • Disliked investiture (the appointment of bishops by state officials)Theology and Science • Monks eventually come to understand the works of Aristotle 1. Causes monks to try to look at things more logically • Peter of Abelard wrote Yes and No, which showed logical contradictions in the bible. • Bernard of Clairvaux challenges Peter by saying that a “mystical union with God” is most important and that reason and logic are dangerous. • Thomas Aquinas reconciles these beliefs by saying that faith and reason were important 1. Scholasticism (using reasoning to resolve contradictions) becomes dominant philosophy • Western scientists add on to medicine and science discovered from the Arabs.Art and Popular Culture • While almost everyone is Christian, most people don’t fully understand the doctrine • People start to place more emphasis on Mary (Mother of Jesus) to make Christianity seem more merciful • Painters do religious works and not much else • Gothic architecture starts to come about (think spires and arches) • Books written in spoken languages start to come out. Examples: Beowulf, The Song of Roland, and Canterbury TalesTrade and Banking • Most trade was done by Italian merchants
• Banking (started during the crusades) becomes more common • People like Thomas Aquinas say prices should be “just” and that they shouldn’t cost more that it took to make them. • Germany and Scandinavia form the Hanseatic League to encourage trade. • Monarchs encourages merchants so that they would balance the aristocracy • Guilds are formed by people of similar trades 1. limited membership so that people would have work 2. ensured quality of work 3. regulated apprenticeshipsWomen’s Role • St. Clare of Assisi (patron saint of TV) develops Franciscan order for women. • Nunneries provide an alternative to marriage • Women are considered more sinful beings that need to be controlled because of the church • They begin with moderate power and gradually lost itFamine and Plague • Agriculture is unable to keep pace with population • Severe famines start and population declines • Black Death strikes and challenges the social structure between peasants and nobility
AP World Study Guide – Chapter 23 (The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West) BackgroundAge of revolution – period of political upheaval beginning with the American Revolution andending around 1848 Beginning of the French RevolutionPolitical Enlightenment • Enlightenment thinkers questioned regimes that did not grant freedoms/focused on aristocracy • Jean-Jacques Rousseau calls for government based on general will • Industrialists call for the policies that promote industry • French are influenced by the American RevolutionPopulation Pressure • Population Revolution– Britain and Prussia’s populations grow by 100%, France by 50% • Better border policing means less diseased animals and consequently less diseased humans • Improved nutrition from introduction of the crops such as the potato as a cheap and hardy food source • Lower infant mortality • More pre-martial sex – 10% of births are out of wedlockEffects of the Growing Population • More aristocratic babies means parents try to hold more tightly to offices • Becomes harder for non-aristocrats to gain power • Less chance of inheriting propertyEconomic Pressure • Proto-industrialization – people go to factories in order to make money (late 1700’s to early 1800’s) • Workers dress in more urban styles, which causes an increase in production of textiles • Growing wealth causes a clash of “new money” (factory owners and industrialists) and “old money” (aristocrats) The French Revolution(s)First Revolution (1789)Causes • The enlightenment wants to limit the power of the Catholic Church, the monarchy, and aristocracy.
• The French government refuses to reform and just becomes more constricting. • Bad harvests between 1787 and 1788 finally cause the revolt.Revolution • Louis XVI (the current king) calls for tax reforms and the middle class turns it into a parliament 1. Majority representation in parliament was by non-noble property owners • Street riots caused the King to cave in 1789 • Storming of the prison Bastille becomes a symbol of the revolution.Results • Creation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – liberty, property, security, and resistance to opposition • Strong parliament set up to limit king • ½ male population can voteSecond Revolution (1792)Causes • More radical demands from protestersRevolution • Guillotine (thought to be more humane execution) is used to decapitate king and aristocracy and became a symbol of the Reign of Terror • Over 15,000 beheadedResults • Abolished monarchy • Leader Maximilien Robespierre – lawyer, headed the execution of king, became leader, set up the civic religion “Cult of the Supreme Being”, made a few social reforms, went crazy with power and called for purge of moderate leaders and was then killed by the same people who helped him to power. • Constitution with universal male suffrage • Metric system • No more slavery in France or French Colonies (reversed after collapse) • Universal male conscription • Nationalism (active loyalty to one’s country) usurps earlier loyalties to church/localityNapoleon (1799)Causes • General Napoleon decides to turn France into an authoritarian empireEffect on France • Religious freedom • Equality (for men only) • Limited freedom of expression
• Developed a centralized system of secondary schools/universities to train bureaucrats • Devoted life to expanding FranceThe Results • Empire crumbled after attempt to get Russia • Expansionism spread revolutionary ideal • The Congress of Vienna restored monarchy in France Europe after NapoleonCommon Political Ideologies • Conservatives – oppose revolutionaries and want to maintain the old way • Liberals – focused mostly on political structure problems. They want better education, industrial growth, and to limit state interference in personal life. • Radicals – Similar to the liberals, except they want a wider voting right range and social reforms in lower classes. • Lower Class movement – Chartist Movement: democratic government would regulate new technologies and promote popular educationPolitical Changes around the Globe • Greek revolution against the Ottomans in 1820 • 1830 revolution in France that resulted in a new king (4th revolution so far) • Andrew Jackson marks the age of universal white male suffrage/age of common man in America • Britain, Reform Bill of 1832 gives parliamentary vote to most middle class menResponded to growing work class agitationIndustrial Revolutions • Starts in England and then moves to France, Belgium, Germany, and US (copying British models) • Leads to the rise of corporations • More labor movementsOne More French Revolution • Feb 1848 = Yet another revolution and the monarchy is expelled • Democratic republic established (briefly) • Replaced by Napoleon’s nephew, becomes authoritarian empire until 1870 • Has more success in social reform (women’s voting rights and so on)Lessons Learned from the French • Revolution is too risky; liberals begin to use more gradual methods to change the government • Better riot control police are hired by governments • Improved food transportation makes people less likely to revolt.
Political Changes and Mass Leisure CultureIn order to avoid revolution, Conservative leaders learned to make changes in order to appeasethe liberals.Examples of Liberal Pacification • Benjamin Disraeli – gave working class men the vote in England (1867) • Count Camillo Di Cavour – extend the powers of the parliament and support industrial junk Italy • Otto von Bismarck – extend vote to call men Prussia, extended press rights, mass education • In Italy, parliamentary deputies would support platforms until they get to Rome and then maintain the status quo in a process called TranformismoNationalism • Conservatives use nationalism to gain support and expand empires • Count Camillo Di Cavor uses nationalism to unite Italy and lessen Catholic powerFinal French Government • France is defeated by Germany in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 and its government is replaced with a conservative republic with universal male suffrage, reduced church involvement, and more education.Political Changes • Civil service exams • Limited welfare starts (unemployment, social insurance) • Feminism – equal access for females to professions, higher education, and suffrage. Supported by middle class women • Emmeline Pankhurst – radical feminist, planted bombs with her daughter.New Political Ideologies • Socialism- depends on the working class, based loosely on Karl Marx’s theories • Marxism – class struggle pits lower class men against higher class • Revisionism – Marx’s revolution can be achieved through peaceful meansLife Improvement in the Late 1800’s • Louis Pasteur discovers germs and improved sanitation begins. • 1880-1900 Better hygiene during child birth/parental care leads to child death rates fall to less than 10% • With a reduced number of women dying in child birth, women begin to outlive men • Better police • Lower crime rates from greater stability
Social and Cultural Changes • Lower birth rates, children become cherished instead of viewed as farm hands • Wealth grows, people are able to afford more than the necessities • Peasants grow cash crops and send children to school • Mass leisure culture develops: more newspapers, vacations, and various entertainments • Sports become popular • Art becomes more emotional and abstract with RomanticismEducation • School becomes mandatory until 12 in most developed countries • Some countries start to require high school • By 1900, 90-95% of adults in Western Europe are literate • Girls are taught to be domesticScience • Charles Darwin comes up with The Origin of Species – lessens influence of church • Albert Einstein develops theory of relativity • Sigmund Freud develops theories about the human mindEconomicsGrowing manufacturing creates need for more raw goods, send ships to undeveloped countries(Africa and Latin America)The United States • Symbol of freedom to many European nations • Civil war accelerates American industrialization • Singer sowing machines are invented and exported • Agriculture can be exported because of refrigerated shipping Foreshadowing WWIAlliances: • Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy • Triple Entente – Britain, France, and Russia • Alliances cause tension between nations and all begin to build up militaries • Balkan nationalism (Slavic people pride) threatens Austria • 1914 – Serbian nationalist kills Austrian archduke Ferdinand • Austria declares war on Serbia, Russia goes to aid Serbia, Germany goes to aid Austria and soon both alliances are in caught up in WWI