Bach cantata 78 movements 3 and 4

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Bach cantata 78 movements 3 and 4

  1. 1. Bach Cantata 78Analysis of Movements 3 and 4<br />The tenor’s time to shine!<br />
  2. 2. Recitative<br />Recitative is a declamatory or speech-like form of singing used often in opera, oratorio or cantata<br />It is usually syllabic (one note per syllable)<br />The words are extremely important – they dictate the rhythm of the melody (a bit like rap!)<br />A recitative is always sung by a solo singer<br />Melodies tend not to be as lyrical as in arias and are instead dissonant and jagged<br />
  3. 3. Text of Movement 3<br />“My failings sorely grieve me! My sins are very great, The curse of Adam never more will leave me…”<br />The mood of this movement is shockingly dark when compared with that of movement 2<br />The text refers to “children of sin”. Bach uses dissonant harmony and wide intervals to emphasise the anguish of the words<br />As the text becomes more repentant, with the singer praying that he be forgiven, the setting becomes more gentle and pleading in nature<br />
  4. 4. Movement 3 – Recitative Secco<br />This movement is an example of a Recitative Secco, which means that the recitative is quite bare with a very sparse accompaniment<br />Tenor and continuo play in this movement<br />Movement is in common time but there is not a strong sense of pulse<br />Tonality is quite uncertain. At different points it appears to be in c minor and f minor<br />
  5. 5. Movement 3 – Recitative Secco (contd.)<br />The melody line is full of large leaps and dissonantaugmented intervals<br />The harmony includes many diminished and augmented chords<br />The vocal part ends its phrases unaccompanied<br />The style changes towards the end of the movement. A new tempo is imposed by a repeated pedal note in the continuo. The vocal line become more lyrical with the introduction of melisma on the word erzurnet(angry)<br />
  6. 6. Movement 4 - Aria<br />Text: “Thy sacrifice has cleansed the stain, making my heart all pure again, happy and free.”<br />Light-hearted and lyrical contrast to the previous movement<br />Aria duet between flute and tenor with continuo accompaniment<br />6/8 time (compound duple)<br />Begins and ends in G minor, with a modulation to B flat major in the B section<br />Form: Binary (A B1 B2) and ritornello form<br />
  7. 7. Ritornello<br />The opening 12 bar ritornello introduces the flute descant or obbligato<br />The flute line is very florid, containing appogiatura and semiquaver sequences, which continue throughout the movement<br />Meanwhile the continuo moves mainly in pizzicato quavers<br />
  8. 8. Section A<br />Mainly in G minor<br />Opens with ritornello<br />Tenor enters with the opening flute part, 12 bars later<br />4 bar ritornello<br />Flute and tenor have a polyphonic 8 bar duet<br />4 bar ritornello, ending with a perfect cadence in B flat major<br />
  9. 9. Section B<br />Moves from B flat major to C minor to E flat major<br />Semiquaver sequences in both the flute and continuo part<br />Large leaps, notably on the words “Streite” (fight) and “beherzt” (brave), dominate the tenor part<br />
  10. 10. Section B2<br />Opens with 2 bar ritornellotheme in E flat major<br />Very similar to the B1 section<br />This time there are more extended melismason the word “Streite” (“fight”). This word painting captures the ongoing battle with evil<br />A dominant pedal note is sustained on the word “stehet” (stand)<br />Dal Segno means that, after section B2, the music returns to the symbol in bar one and concludes with the opening 12 bar ritornello<br />

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