CampaignIn order to change behavior, campaigndesigners need to understand why peoplebehave the way they do.(Fishbein, Triandis, Kanfer, Becker, Middlestadt,& Eichler, 2001).
Primary purpose of campaigning: To influence public policy and practice To influence corporate policy and practice To influence public attitudes and behaviour To influence decision making processes so that affected communities are involved To empower affected communities to influence the decisions that affect them
Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980): to suggest performance of a given behavior is primarily determined by the intention to perform that behavior. Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1992): a person has to believe he or she can perform the behavior in various circumstances and have an incentive (positive or negative) to do it.Theories
Health Belief Model (Becker, 1974): two factors influence the adoption of a health protective behavior: ◦ a feeling of being personally threatened by a disease ◦ a belief that the benefits of adopting the protective health behavior will outweigh the perceived costs of it. Stages of Change Model (Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992): The model holds that to get people to change theirbehaviors, it is necessary to determine where they are on thecontinuum of behavior change and then to developinterventions that move them along from stage-to-stage,noting that individuals may recycle some stages andtherefore the process is not necessarily linear.Theories (cont)
Comprehensive campaign: ◦ One fundraising plan can address a range of important needs ◦ Their mix of components can better match the varied interests of donors in the campaign ◦ Their broad scope allows them to address high level strategic initiatives of the institution Individual project campaign: ◦ Achieving goals in a shorter amount of time ◦ Meeting an obvious and compelling need ◦ Minimizing the demand on donor capacity ◦ Lowering the risk of fatiguing staffWhich campaign model works bestnow?
The “seven deadly sins” of advocacy andcampaigning 1. Unclear aims and objectives 2. Activity planning happening before (or without) developing an influencing strategy 3. Action plans that run to an internal timetable 4. Lack of innovation 5. Messages that do not get noticed and move people 6. Poor monitoring and evaluation 7. Failing to focus
Negative Campaigning Largely seen on presidential level Aggressive campaign technique that seeks to discredit opponents and raise doubts about their skills or personal qualities’ Positive CampaigningNegative campaigning
Robert, H., Itzhak, Y. (2002). Using Theory to Design Evaluations of Communication Campaigns: The Case of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Fishbein, M., Guenther-Grey, C., Johnson, W., Wolitski, R.J., McAlister, A., Rietmeijer, C.A., O’Reilly, K., & The AIDS Community Demonstration Projects (1997). Community intervention to reduce AIDS risk behaviors: The CDC’s AIDS Community Demonstration Projects. In M.E. Goldberg, M. Fishbein, & S.E. Middlestadt (Eds.), Social marketing: Theoretical and practical perspectives (pp. 123-146). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Fishbein, M., Trafimow, D., Francis, C., Helquist, M., Helquist, M., Eustace, M., Ooms, M., & Middlestadt, S. (1993). AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) in two Caribbean countries: A comparative analysis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23(9), 687-702. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1992). Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 3-38). Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere. Becker, (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 324-508. Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., & Norcross, J.C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102- 1114. Chandler, I. (2010). Advocacy and campaigning. Retrieved from http://www.dochas.ie/Shared/Files/4/BOND_Advocacy_Guide.pdfReferences