Mullan - BPS DHP - Interventions to Improve Breakfast Consumption
Interventions to Improve Breakfast Consumption: Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour Barbara Mullan, Emily Kothe, Raj Amaratunga University of Sydney
Evidence for a link between breakfast eating and well being• Breakfast has been identified by Belloc and Breslow (1972) as one of the ‘seven healthy habits’ linked to higher physical health status and lower mortality rates•• Research has found an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and the risk of obesity and chronic disease (Timlin & Pereira, 2007).• Ortega, et al. (1998) found that obese participants had less satisfactory breakfast habits than normal weight participants
Skipping breakfast• Is associated with a wide range of detrimental effects on physical and mental well-being including: – Poorer food choices for the rest of the day leading to nutrient deficiency – Higher BMI – Higher fat and cholesterol intakes – Related eating disorders
Reasons given for skipping breakfast• The most common reasons people give for skipping breakfast are: – Lack of time – Not hungry• Breakfast consumption decreases as adolescents get older. – Living away from home – Living in halls of residence – Increased commuting are among other factors which can all lead to changes in eating habits.
Results• Intervention A led to significant increases in positive attitudes towards breakfast (p<.001) and PBC (p=.003) when controlling for baseline scores.• Intervention B led to rises in PBC (p<.001) and subjective norm (p=.033) when controlling for baseline scores.• No between group differences in behaviour was observed at follow-up (p=.878).• When controlling for condition, change in PBC, attitudes towards breakfast, and subjective norm, predicted 17% of change in behaviour (F(4,109)=5.610, p<.001).
TPB Results• Attitudes, subjective norm and PBC predicted 36.8% of the variance in intentions but only PBC was significant• Intention predicted 48% of the variance in behaviour at time 2• PBC accounted for an additional 2.4% of variance in behaviour
Discussion• Both interventions successfully modified target cognitions.• Consistent with the TPB, amongst individuals within a given condition, changes in TPB variables did predict behaviour change.• The lack of significant change in behaviour within intervention groups may indicate that the magnitude of attitude, PBC and/or subjective norm change was not sufficient to result in changes in behaviour.• The need for further research to determine the size of attitude, PBC and/or subjective norm changes that are needed to bring about behaviour change
Recommendations• When designing interventions the importance of the different variables of the model need to be considered, including planning PBC and subjective norm• Aspects to be considered when designing interventions to encourage consumption of healthy breakfasts are the relationships between time and food preferences (Chapman et al., 1998)• Further research is needed to consider research around message framing and breakfast eating