Kothe - ASBHM - Increasing the frequency of breakfast consumption: A systematic review of the literature
Increasing the frequency of breakfast consumption: A systematic review of the literature. Emily Kothe & Barbara Mullan School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Australia Purpose Ten studies met these criteria and were Two studies investigated the effect of reviewed. interventions that included school feeding with persuasive messages. Eating breakfast has been linked to Included Papers: One study demonstrated an increase in improvements in physical, and • Ask, Hernes, Aarek, Johannessen, breakfast consumption compared to the psychosocial health outcomes & Haugen (2006) control group. (Rampersaud, Pereira, Girard, Adams, & • Bayne-Smith, Fardy, Azzollini, Metzl, 2005). However, a large number of Magel, Schmitz, & Agin (2004) Four studies evaluated the effect of individuals do not regularly consume • Crawford (2007) persuasive messages without food breakfast (Australian Bureau of Statistics, • Cripensek, Singh, Bertstein & provision on breakfast consumption. 1997). McLaughlin (2006) Two studies demonstrated increases in • Devaney & Stuart (1998) breakfast consumption in intervention • Kennedy, Hajek, Morris, Linnell, & participants. Gines (2005) • Martens, Van Assema, Paulussen, There were methodological flaws in most Van Breukelen, & Brug (2007) of the studies, including small sample • Radcliffe, Ogden, Welsh, Carroll, sizes, problematic methodology, and Coyne, & Craig (2005) lack of control or baseline • Shemilt, Harvey, Shepstone, Swift, measurements. Reading, Mugford (2004) • Shi-Chang, Xin-Wei, Shui-Yang, Shu Ming, Sen-Hai, Aldinger (2004) Conclusion A variety of interventions have been designed and implemented with the goal Results Ultimately, the balance of evidence was of increasing the consumption of inconclusive. While interventions led to breakfast. gains in breakfast consumption more research is needed. These interventions range from school feeding programs, where breakfast is Future research should seek to clarify provided to studies for free or at a the effect of breakfast eating subsidised price, to purely psychosocial interventions on breakfast eating and to interventions which have aimed at determine the intervention strategies increasing breakfast consumption by which are most effective by building on increasing positive beliefs about breakfast. the successes of past interventions. Despite the number of breakfast eating Such research should include longer interventions that have been implemented follow-up, more rigorous reporting of in recent decades, few have been subject results and intervention design, and the to such appraisal. A systematic review of use of randomised controlled trail interventions designed to increase the protocols. consumption of breakfast in a non-clinical sample was conducted. Methods Three studies reported an increase in breakfast consumption at the conclusion of the intervention. The remaining seven studies reported non-significant results. An electronic search was conducted of the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Four studies considered the provision databases, and all studies that reported of breakfast to study participants with the evaluation of an appropriate no persuasive component. All four intervention and breakfast eating studies found no evidence of an effect of frequency at follow-up were included in the school feeding on breakfast eating review. frequency.ReferencesAsk, A. S., Hernes, S., Aarek, I., Johannessen, G., & Haugen, M. (2006). Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast – a pilot study. Nutrition Journal, 5(1), 33.Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1997). National Nutrition Survey: Selected Highlights, Australia, 1995 Canberra.Bayne-Smith, M., Fardy, P. 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