Identifying “Third Gender” <ul><li>How various cultures interpret and define different gender options </li></ul>
Before we start... <ul><li>Some find problem with the use of “third gender” as a classifying tool. They believe that even ...
<ul><li>So...what is “third gender?” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Loosely defined, “third gender” is a broad term used to identify the individuals of various cultures who self-iden...
<ul><li>Now I will cover a few of the many third gender categories that exist in the world in order to better explain how ...
The “Cross Gendered” <ul><li>The Inuit are one society that has historically accepted the existence of a third gender.  </...
Why a third Gender Category?  <ul><li>The Inuit believed that some men and women fell in-between the typical gender catego...
In Inuit tribes, there exist multiple origin stories of the “cross Gendered” Legend of the “strange man” There is a man wh...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Itijjuaq Myth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A woman who is cannot bare children or perform trad...
<ul><li>Both of these stories focus heavily on the role of ancestors and higher spirits who protect those who do not fit t...
<ul><li>Also, in odd numbered families, like the “strange man’s,” it was not uncommon for one child to take on the role of...
Fa’afafine <ul><li>The fa’afafine are an intermediate gender group  in Samoa whose name literally translates to “in the wa...
Understanding Fa’afafine <ul><li>There are two very important things one must know about the fa’afafine... </li></ul>
<ul><li>One is that in Polynesian culture, neither participant in male-to-male sexual acts are considered homosexual.  </l...
<ul><li>The other thing to remember is that the fa’afafine are inherently rooted in family and their place in society has ...
<ul><li>Although fa’afafine are common and have been around for hundreds of years, the increasing presence of Christianity...
Hijra <ul><li>Hijras are phenotypic men in South Asia who wear female clothing and ideally renounce sexual desire and prac...
Two kinds of Hijra <ul><ul><li>A “real” hijra renounces any sexual desires and undergo castration. These “ritual hijras” a...
<ul><li>Although it is not considered necessary, hijra desire to appear as women as part of their identity. To do so they ...
<ul><li>Even for the hijras who take up male partners, there exists a relationship far more important and influential... <...
Hijra Family <ul><li>Hijra-to-hijra relationship are considered very important and compose a hijra’s family. If the hijra ...
“ Berdache”/Two-Spirit <ul><li>Two-spirits, historically known as “berdache,” are part of Native American culture in the U...
The Problem with “bERdache” <ul><li>It is important to note that the term “berdache,” although commonly used in older stud...
<ul><li>Two-spirited men and women who identify as being of a third sex often take up the clothing and work of both men an...
Questions of Sexuality  <ul><li>Little is known about the sexual lives of the third gender two-spirits. Most accounts focu...
What to take from all this <ul><li>After a brief overview of these four third gender examples in various cultures across t...
<ul><li>If you are looking for more detailed information on these categories, see the works cited or conduct your own educ...
Works Cited <ul><li>Callender, Charles, and Lee M. Kochems. &quot;The North American Berdache.&quot;  Current Anthropology...
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Zarka project 3 final

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Zarka project 3 final

  1. 1. Identifying “Third Gender” <ul><li>How various cultures interpret and define different gender options </li></ul>
  2. 2. Before we start... <ul><li>Some find problem with the use of “third gender” as a classifying tool. They believe that even within these alternative or additional genders, there exists great diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging that within these categories there exists immense social differences besides sexuality and gender that is part of the classification, this presentation will use the title “third gender,” with respect, as an identity tool to separate groups from the more global gender categories of “man” and “woman.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>So...what is “third gender?” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Loosely defined, “third gender” is a broad term used to identify the individuals of various cultures who self-identify as a sex/gender other than male or female. These people defy the norms by classifying themselves into categories that are unique to their culture, although many cultures have these socially accepted alternate genders. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Now I will cover a few of the many third gender categories that exist in the world in order to better explain how diverse and wide-spread this identification is. </li></ul><ul><li>I will focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Inuit “cross gendered” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samoa’s fa’afafine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asia’s hijra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native North Americans’ “two spirit” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The “Cross Gendered” <ul><li>The Inuit are one society that has historically accepted the existence of a third gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologist B.S. D’Anglure, considered a pioneer in Inuit studies, was the first to name the Inuit who find their identity in the opposite of their biological sex “cross gendered.” </li></ul>http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/polar/images/lc_inuit3_sm.jpg
  7. 7. Why a third Gender Category? <ul><li>The Inuit believed that some men and women fell in-between the typical gender categories of male and female. They believe the lines separating genders are fluid, not fixed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. In Inuit tribes, there exist multiple origin stories of the “cross Gendered” Legend of the “strange man” There is a man who dresses like a woman and performs the women’s duties of skinning and sewing, but his four brothers become frustrated that he is not bringing meat to the family with hunting. Very upset, the “Maker of All” asks why this “woman” is crying and upon hearing the response gives the man a baby. But this is not a human baby and the man produces a tiny whale who grows into a big whale. After marking this whale, it is released to bring back other whales for the village to kill. One day the man’s whale does not come back and he discovers it has been killed by another village. After telling the village his story and saying that they shouldn’t kill animals that are marked as special because they might belong to someone, the men that killed his “son” continuously sweat until they are become nothing.
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Itijjuaq Myth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A woman who is cannot bare children or perform traditional female work finds a sea urchin shell with the help of her ancestors and becomes the first Inuit healer or shaman. Because of her gift, she and her two husbands never wanted for women’s work because other members of the tribe would pay her in this way. She even received children through adoption. A man thought her “useless” and resented her presence so he tried to kill her three times. Each time he bashed her head in she would appear again very much alive. The man became sick with a terrible headache and Itijjuaq refused to heal him saying that his fatal blows where falling upon him and without her healing he died. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Both of these stories focus heavily on the role of ancestors and higher spirits who protect those who do not fit the two categories of man or woman. The message to take from these is that the Inuit have a respected place for cross gendered in their society because they see it as part of someone’s nature, and these myths warn of what will happen if they are not treated with respect. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Also, in odd numbered families, like the “strange man’s,” it was not uncommon for one child to take on the role of the desired sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are named with gender neutral names based on dreams the parents receives from an ancestor, if the baby doesn’t match the ancestor’s sex they will raise it as such in order to honor the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaman are often “cross gendered” for their ceremonies if not for the entirety of their lives. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fa’afafine <ul><li>The fa’afafine are an intermediate gender group in Samoa whose name literally translates to “in the way of a woman.” They are characterized by someone with genetic male sexual parts but who has behavior and character to that of a traditionally identified female. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of this gender category is not exclusive to Samoa in Polynesian culture. Contemporary Tahiti and Hawaii call these women mahu and Tonga they are fakaleiti. </li></ul>http://www.photographybyjohncorney.com/culture-society/Faafafine.jpg
  13. 13. Understanding Fa’afafine <ul><li>There are two very important things one must know about the fa’afafine... </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>One is that in Polynesian culture, neither participant in male-to-male sexual acts are considered homosexual. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is particularly important for the fa’afafine because they identify as heterosexual, seeing their desires coming from a feminine perspective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They don’t believe sex and gender are attached concepts. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The other thing to remember is that the fa’afafine are inherently rooted in family and their place in society has always been contextualized through that dynamic </li></ul>http://www.bruceconnew.com/archive.php?projectID=faafafine&photoID=R6219-46-33
  16. 16. <ul><li>Although fa’afafine are common and have been around for hundreds of years, the increasing presence of Christianity in the Pacific has resulted in more negative ideas about the fa’afafine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They now struggle to separate sex and gender, and the idea that they are homosexual (a sin in the church). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hijra <ul><li>Hijras are phenotypic men in South Asia who wear female clothing and ideally renounce sexual desire and practice by sacrificial emasculation </li></ul><ul><li>They are believed to have the power to grant fertility to new couples and bless newborns. </li></ul>http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_dzRWBihCORo/SeRas7Q5ctI/AAAAAAAABO0/UIbqLNBsRYs/s400/hijra2.jpg
  18. 18. Two kinds of Hijra <ul><ul><li>A “real” hijra renounces any sexual desires and undergo castration. These “ritual hijras” and perform at ceremonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a complex hierarchy that exists amongst the hijra world. Ritual hijras who receive the sacrificial surgery are considered higher up. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other hijras perform as sex workers and have male partners they engage in sexual relationships with. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Although it is not considered necessary, hijra desire to appear as women as part of their identity. To do so they will: remove facial hair, take birth control, wear makeup and jewelry and adopt long female hairstyles in addition to female clothing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long hair styles and wearing saris raise a hijra in their hierarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another important way a hijra will display her identity is by the hand clapping and lifting the skirt of her sari to reveal genitals or lack thereof. </li></ul>http://tury.asia/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/hijra.jpg
  20. 20. <ul><li>Even for the hijras who take up male partners, there exists a relationship far more important and influential... </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hijra Family <ul><li>Hijra-to-hijra relationship are considered very important and compose a hijra’s family. If the hijra have male partners or “husbands,” those men are not considered part of their family. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of developing this family is through young hijras adoption by older hijra known as gurus. This is a crucial relationship for those who wish to be considered “real hijra” and earn a valued place on the hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>The bonds between hijra are considered crucial to hijra culture and allow this third gender to survive. </li></ul>
  22. 22. “ Berdache”/Two-Spirit <ul><li>Two-spirits, historically known as “berdache,” are part of Native American culture in the U.S. The terms applies to those who were believed to posses both masculine and feminine spirits. </li></ul>http://www.allyaction.org/s/341/images/editor/crow-two-spirits-1928.jpg
  23. 23. The Problem with “bERdache” <ul><li>It is important to note that the term “berdache,” although commonly used in older studies of this third gender, had recently been deemed inappropriate and incorrect. The Native Americans have established the desire for the use of the term “two-spirit” as a more accurate and proper title within the English language. </li></ul><ul><li>Two-spirit can apply to many different sexual orientation and identifications outside of the norm, but in order to avoid using “berdache” I will refer to this third gender group as two-spirit. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Two-spirited men and women who identify as being of a third sex often take up the clothing and work of both men and women, with male two-spirits dressing as women and females as men. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress proper to their anatomically sex might have been adopted if the situation required. An example of this is that the Navaho required those who married to dress in male clothing, regardless if their spouse was male or female. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They would also pursue occupations common to the gender their clothing mimicked. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Questions of Sexuality <ul><li>Little is known about the sexual lives of the third gender two-spirits. Most accounts focus on their societal role, not this personal one. </li></ul><ul><li>Those rare accounts that do describe this aspect of their nature emphasize homosexuality, but the while sex might have been with a member of the same anatomical sense, it was never with other two-spirits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a lack of actual two-spirit accounts describing their desires in their own words, homosexuality should not be assumed and, as with the fa’afafine, there might be other ways to define these sexual practices. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. What to take from all this <ul><li>After a brief overview of these four third gender examples in various cultures across the globe, I hope you have learned something about the diversity that exists in the gender category. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to remember that their is great fluidity in gender and sexuality, and that the two do not go hand in hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, third genders are just as normal as “man” and “woman” and should be as respected. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>If you are looking for more detailed information on these categories, see the works cited or conduct your own education search. </li></ul><ul><li>Project by Emily Zarka </li></ul>
  28. 28. Works Cited <ul><li>Callender, Charles, and Lee M. Kochems. &quot;The North American Berdache.&quot; Current Anthropology 24.4 (1983): 443. </li></ul><ul><li>D' Anglure, B. S. &quot;The 'Third Gender' of the Inuit.&quot; Diogenes 52.4 (2005): 134-44. </li></ul><ul><li>Gannon, Shane. &quot;With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India (review).&quot; Journal of the History of Sexuality 16.2 (2007): 328-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang. Two-spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality . Urbana: University of Illinois, 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Wallace, Lee. &quot;Fa'afafine: Queens of Samoa and the Elision of Homosexulaity.&quot; GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 5.1 (1999): 25-39. Web of Science . ISI Web of Knowledge. Web. 05 Dec. 2010. < http://rpproxy.iii.com:9797/MuseSessionID=3c82df9dd76cfb9cbaf18225148b37e/MuseHost=apps.isiknowledge.com/MusePath/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=4CNm3cb1nEEoMJ6g4G9&page=2&doc=14 >. </li></ul>

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