-Meander comes from the Maiandros river which flowed into the Aegean. -
This tall wide-mouthed amphora represents the fully developed Geometric style and illustrates the profoundly significant shift of focus from abstract design to the human figure. Decorative bands, consisting of a zigzag, crosshatching, and dots, fill the area above and below the two main figural scenes. On each side of the amphora's neck is a warrior with a round shield poised between two horses; a long-legged bird stands beneath each horse. Five two-horse chariots with charioteers parade around the belly of the vessel. Each driver wears a long robe and holds four reins, signifying that two horses, not one, pull each chariot. Anatomical details of the warriors, charioteers, and horses have been reduced to simple geometric shapes. Characteristically, the heads are rendered in profile and the bodies in three-quarter view. Scattered lozenges, zigzags, and other shapes fill the background of both figural scenes. Snakes modeled in the round set off the lip, shoulder, and tall handles of the amphora. Armed warriors, chariots, and horses are the most familiar iconography of the Geometric period. Whether these images reflect a real world of military threat and conflict, or refer to the heroic deeds of ancestors, is a longstanding debate in studies of Geometric art. Snakes, traditionally associated with death, probably refer to this amphora's function as a funerary dedication.
LVV4U: Introduction to Greek Art & Architecture
PeriodsGeometric: 1100-750 BCEArchaic: 750- 480 BCEClassical: 480 BC - 323 BCEHellenistic: 323 BC - 30 BCE Classical: Head of Blond Youth
Why these divisions? Geometric: Conditions in Greek world were unsettled after fall of Mycenae, arts took a backseat while city states battled each other. A cultural identity began to form. Archaic: At the end of the “Dark Ages” - Increase in trade and exploration (notably Egypt and Mesopotamia) increase in art and literature with reintroduction of written language. Iron tools developed. City states increasingly stable. Classical: Persian Wars (480-448 BCE) spurred Greeks toward cultural maturity. Especially Athens, whose art, literature, philosophy, theatre etc. boomed. Idealized art reflected cultural values. Hellenistic: The reign of Alexander the Great (336 BCE to 323 BCE) introduces a new worldview and turn toward naturalism in art.
Geometric Period (1100-750 BCE)- Influenced by Mycenean art- Simple, precise linear decoration in ‘protogeometric’ art of 10th C.BCE- By 9th C. more complex patterns - zigzags, meanders, triangles,concentric circles- Finally, by 8th C. figurative art was introduced - first animals thenstylized humans QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Statuette of a horse, 8th century B.C.; Geometric Greek Bronze
Geometric Period -Tall, wide-mouthed amphora used as a funerary dedication -Geometric features - zigzags, lines, QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. swastikas -Late Geometric - Increased attention to figures, both humans and animals - Popular iconography: chariots, armed warriors, horsesNeck amphora, fourth quarter of 8th century B.C.; LateGeometricGreek, Attic VIDEO: http://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history/art-history-400-c-e--ancient-cultures/v/krater--ca--750--700-b-c-e
Geometric Period QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Middle Geometric belly-handled amphorafrom the “Tomb of a RichAthenian Lady” in AthensCa. 850 B.C. [h: 71.5 cm]
Geometric Pottery QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Archaic Period (750-480 BCE) - Increased contact with Egypt and the Near East evident in Greek art: - More naturalistic figurative representation - Freestanding large-scles sculputres - New techinques - gem cutting, ivory carving, glass, metalwork - ‘Oriental’ motifs - lotus leaves, sphinxes, griffins -Wealthy city-states produced imposing temples, large- scale marble statues, fine gold jewellery - Depiction of mythological scenes, athletic events, everyday life - Doric and Ionic columns used in temples - Black figure pottery dominated - Stylized nude male youth sculptures - Kouros
Archaic Period Influence: Ancient Egypt c. 2600 BCPeriods
Archaic Period Influence: Mesopotamia c. 2700 BCPeriods
Archaic Kouros (c. 650 BCE)Periods Archaic: Kouros c. 650 BC
Periods Archaic: Kore from Acropolis and Painted Kore
Archaic Lekythos (c. 530 BCE) - On this small lekythos (oil flask), women are engaged in various stages of wool working. -Textile making was one of the most important QuickTime™ and a occupations for women in ancient Greece. A good decompressor are needed to see this picture. weaver was considered an attractive woman, as well as a good wife. (e.g. Penelope in the Odyssey) -We can learn a lot about the activities of women and men, maidens and youths, in Athens during the sixth century B.C from these detailed representations of daily life - Attributed to the Amasis Painter, one of the foremost black-figure artists active during that time.Periods
Classical Period (480-323 BCE)-After defeat of the Persians in 479 BCE, Athens was the dominantpolis, it was a thriving and wealthy imperial power-Pericles was determined to show off Athens’ glory through theAcropolis, most notably in the doric temple to Athena, the Parthenon,with its massive statue of the goddess in ivory and gold- Aesthetic values: permanence, harmony, perfection of the humanform-Introduction of more naturalistic contraposto pose showed figuresat rest. Also figures in action (athletes) to show off idealized bodyand musculature. Males often nude, females covered up.-Bronze lost wax casting for sculpture (most now lost)
Periods Early Classical : Aristodikos Kouros, c. 500-490 B.C.
Periods Early Classical : Kouros from the Acropolis, c. 490 B.C.
Early Classical 3: Kritios Boy, c. 480 B.C. - Early contraposto style - less rigid and symmetrical - Facial expression no longer archaic smile, mouth more severe, gaze relaxed - More realism in anatomy and hairPeriods
Periods Early Classical: Blond Boy, c. 480 B.C.
Periods Early Classical: Fallen Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina
The workshop of the sculptor Phidias (480-430 BCE)
Artemision Bronze (c. 460) • Recovered from the sea • Severe style, excellent rendering of motion and anatomy • Who is it? • Zeus throwing a thunderbolt? • Poseidon throwing a trident?Periods
Polykleitos’ Canon•Most important sculptor of ClassicalAntiquity•Lived in Athens, late 5th C. BCE QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.•None of his original bronzes survive butmany Roman copies exist•His contrapposto nudes are designedaccording to mathematical principles and aimfor balance, clarity, completeness•Uses Pythagorean ratios for proportionality• “symmetria” means harmonious Doryphoros, "Spear-Bearer” 450-proportions 400 BCE
ClassicalPottery-Bell krater used formixing water and winea symposion QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.-Depicts Persephonereturning from Hadesto her mother Demeter- Provides insight intoGreek fashion-Red figure-ware, moredetail
Painting Niobid Krater - attempt at three dimensional perspective
Pottery Achilles Painter - White Ground Lekythos
Architecture How did Greek climate & Geography influence its architecture?
ArchitectureGreek climate permits an outdoor lifestyle:• Temples on breezy hilltops• Open-air theatres built into sloping terrain•Agora and open courtyards surrounded by stoa - public space with astoried colonnade to protect from sun• Bright light casts shadows and accentuates detailsMaterials:-Marble-Clay for roof tiles and decorative elements
Features of Greek Architecture-Column and lintel structures- Often incorporate or benefit from the naturalsurroundings- Temples usually have a rectangular floor-pan with a largecentral room containing the main statue and altar,surrounded on all four sides by rows of columns andcapped with elaborate pediments- Proportions correspond to the golden mean- Stones fit together tightly but were sometimes reinforcedby invisibly embedded metal clamps- Sculptural pediments
Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian : QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
A recreation in modernmaterials of the lost colossalstatue by Pheidias, Athena QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Parthenos by Alan LeQuire ishoused in a full-scale replicaof the Parthenon inNashville’s Centennial Park.She is the largest indoorsculpture in the westernworld.
Hellenistic Period (323-30 BCE)-Alexander the Great had conquered an empire that stretched from Greecethrough Asia Minor, to Egypt and as far as India.- New exotic influences on Greek culture, new materials (gems)- After his death, Alexander the Great’s successors’ kingdoms had lavishpalaces, gardens, public buildings and monuments- Art looked to the past but had innovations to reflect the spirit of the age- More naturalistic bodies, more emotion, dramatic movement- Broader subject matter: Grotesques, commoners, elderly, different ethnicgroups-Rising Roman powers co-opted Hellenistic style, many Greek artists went thereto work
Nike of Samothrace (2nd C. BCE) -Depicts the winged goddess of Victory standing on the prow of a ship -Overlooked the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on the island of Samothrace -Probably an offering from the people of QuickTime™ and a decompressor Rhodes in commemoration of a navalare needed to see this picture. victory in the early second century BC -Dramatic billowing drapery, intensity of movement - Nude female body revealed through suggestive draping
Sculpture Hellenistic: Venus of Melos (Milo) c. 100 BC