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An Explanation-Based Alert Management Tool for Basic AAL Systems


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An Explanation-Based Alert Management Tool for Basic AAL Systems. Andres Muñoz, Ana Villa, Emilio Serrano, and Juan Botia. Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence

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An Explanation-Based Alert Management Tool for Basic AAL Systems

  1. 1. Andrés Muñoz, Emilio Serrano, Juan A. Botía {amunoz, emilioserra, juanbot} University of Murcia Spain 1 Ana Villa Ambiental Intelligence & Interaction, SLL (Ami2) Murcia, Spain
  2. 2. Outline  Introduction  A Proposal of AAL System: Necesity  Checking Alerts Through a Visual Assistant  Argumentative MAS for the AMT  AMT presented  AMT Use Example  Conclusion and Future Work 2
  3. 3. Introduction Motivations:  Number of people living alone is growing rapidly in the last years (especially elderly people)  Ambient Assited Living systems (AALs) aimed to the monitoring of elderly people living independently  It is necessary to develop interfaces between carers and the AAL system  Carers should be able to check the situations inferred by the system in a friendly and intuitive manner  (alerts, subject’s location and activities, etc.) 3
  4. 4. 4 Introduction Proposal:  We propose here an alert management tool (AMT) for supporting the carers in their task of monitoring the alerts detected by AAL systems  Several types and levels of information are offered: 1. A group of graphs showing sensor data, subject’s location, etc. 2. A visual simulation in 3D, and 3. A text-based explanation
  5. 5. 5 A Proposal of AAL System: Necesity Necesity:  We adopt Necesity as an AAL system reference to develop and validate our AMT  Necesity is a non-intrusive AAL system designed to detect domestic incidents on elderly people who live independently  Long inactive periods due to falls, unexpected patterns of behaviour, etc.  Necesity has been tested and validated in several hundred of houses in Murcia
  6. 6. 6 A Proposal of AAL System: Necesity  Necesity is composed of:  A mini-computer with wireless communication.  Three types of wireless sensor:  Motion sensors (infrared) in rooms  Pressure sensors in beds and armchairs  A magnetic sensor in the main door for detecting any person entering or leaving the house  Sensor data are transmitted using ZigBee technology
  7. 7. 7 Checking Alerts Through a Visual Assistant  Carers in Necesity must decide whether an alert is a false alarm or it is necessary to launch an emergency protocol.
  8. 8. 8 Checking Alerts Through a Visual Assistant  We have defined a process to decide if it is necessary to launch an emergency protocol using our AMT.  This process relies on an argumentative MAS.
  9. 9. 9 Argumentative MAS for the AMT  AAL systems have to face ambiguous/inconsistent situations  We have developed an argumentative multi-agent system to evaluate sensor data.  This MAS is able to cope with inconsistent and ambiguous situations:  Inactive periods when the elderly is sleeping or resting in the armchair  Detection of different contexts when the elderly is accompanied  It allows us to generate reports to explain the alerts raised by Necesity
  10. 10. 10 Argumentative MAS for the AMT Context Layer: • Entails simple and complex contexts • Context agents for each subtype of context • Each context agent infers a specific context and builds arguments to justify it. Then, they send the to the Context Aggregator agent (CAA). • CAA uses the arguments provided to decide which context is more plausible in case of inconsistency.
  11. 11. 11 Argumentative MAS for the AMT Assessment Layer: • Evaluates contexts received from the Context Layer and generates a report indicating whether the occupant is in a safe or unsafe situation. • AssesA uses that context info, occupant’s profile data and a set of assessment rules to this end. • MAS paradigm: distributed and modular architecture which is efficiently executed and easily extended
  12. 12. 12 AMT presented  Sensor data logged by Necesity is provided to our AMT which uses the argumentative MAS to generate a report explaining the most plausible reason for the alarm.  Carer may access to more detailed information by clicking on it in the report window.  Carers should validate the report through two visual elements:  A. Sensor Monitor Panel  B. 3D Simulation
  13. 13. 13 AMT presented A. Sensor Monitor Panel
  14. 14. 14 AMT presented B. 3D Simulation
  15. 15. AMT Use Example Scenario:  The elderly is located sleeping in her bedroom  At one point during the night, a relative who sometimes sleeps in the occupant’s house enters it.  In that moment, the sensor in the main door is activated, and subsequently the motion sensor in the hall is activated as well.  Next, the relative enters his bedroom, which does not have any sensors installed in it.  As a result, the last active location registered by Necesity is the hall.  Since no new movement is detected in the hall afterwards, Necesity triggers an inactivity alert several minutes later  An unexpected lack of movement in the hall at night may indicate that the occupant has suffered a fall or faint.  This alert results in a false alarm since the occupant is actually sleeping in her bedroom, which is considered a safe context  3D simulation movie 15
  16. 16. AMT Use Example  Conflict: Occupant is in the hall and inactive? / there is an accompanist and the occupant is sleeping?  Argumentative MAS concludes the second case -> safe situation  How? -> five agents involved in an argumentation  These are the details, but our AMT allows to study them intuitively by the text report, the event charts and the simulation. 16 ARGUMENTATION  Location Context Agent (LCA): occupant’s location in the bedroom (argument ALC2)  SleepingCtx Agent: uses ALC2 to entail that occupant is sleeping.  Assessment agent (AssesA) classifies this context as safe (sleeping in the normal limits).  At 02:08, LCA detects movement in the hall, the occupant must be there (argument ALC1)  Context aggregator agent (CCA) detects a conflict between ALC1 and ALC2 and chooses ALC1 (move sensors are more reliable).  AccompaniedCtx Agent detects that a person has entered the house (no movement – door open – movement).  CAA chooses now ALC2 over ALC1 (the occupant’s profile says that she may be accompanied at nights).  AssesA classifies this context as safe and detects a possible false alarm.
  17. 17. Conclusion and Future Work  A fundamental aspect that must be taken into account when designing AAL systems is the interface between carers and these systems.  This work is focused on the design of these interfaces  We propose an alert management tool (AMT)  It allows carers to interpret and validate the alarms generated in a visual and intuitive way.  It provides text-based explanations, sensor data graphs and 3D simulations.  Future steps in the development of our AMT:  To interconnect its three interfaces  To allow the carer to pose queries. 17
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