Unit 7 ww1


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Unit 7 ww1

  1. 1. World War I
  2. 2. The Great Powers in Europe <ul><li>5 main rivals nations in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. BRITAIN <ul><li>Ruled an Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to protect it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Owned rich industries </li></ul><ul><li>Needed strong navy due to being an island </li></ul>
  4. 4. FRANCE <ul><li>Owerseas Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Resented losing Alsace and Lorraine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franco-Prussian War 1871 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. RUSSIA <ul><li>Poor but biggest country in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by Tsar Nicholas II </li></ul><ul><li>No lands overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted Land in Europe and Asia with access to the sea. </li></ul>
  6. 10. Russian empire in 1914
  7. 12. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY <ul><li>Central European Empire </li></ul><ul><li>10 different nationalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of them wanted independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ruled by Franz Joseph II </li></ul>
  8. 13. Austria Hungary Empire 1913
  9. 14. Dual Monarchy
  10. 15. GERMANY <ul><li>Small Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm II </li></ul><ul><li>Jelaous of Britain’s superior sea power and colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to increase German influence and wealth </li></ul>
  11. 17. Alliances <ul><li>Dual Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Franco-Russian Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Entente Cordiale </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Entente </li></ul>
  12. 18. Causes of WW1
  13. 19. Nr.1 Assassination in Sarajevo
  14. 20. The Outbreak of War <ul><li>28 June 1914- shot dead of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne (while travelling in an open-topped car) </li></ul>
  15. 21. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
  16. 22. <ul><li>Gavrilo Prinzip, a Bosnian Serb citizen of Austria-Hungary and member of the Young Bosnia killed him. </li></ul>Arrest of Prinzip
  17. 23. Gavrilo Prinzip
  18. 24. <ul><li>The political objective of the assassination was to break Austria-Hungary's south-Slav provinces off so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia. </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>The assassins belonged to the movement called Young Bosnia (or Black Hand). </li></ul><ul><li>Serbian military officers stood behind the attack. </li></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>Gavrilo Prinzip said during his trial that </li></ul><ul><li>‘ &quot;I am a Yugoslav nationalist and I believe in unification of all South Slavs in whatever form of state and that it be free of Austria&quot; </li></ul>
  21. 27. But… <ul><li>Prinzip confessed that the guns were given by agents of the Serb Goverment. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory is nowadays support by all the historians. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary acusses Serbia of the assasination. </li></ul>Bridge Prinzip
  22. 28. <ul><li>On 23 July 1914, an ultimatum was sent to Serbia with ten demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Some were extreme. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia rejected the sixth demand </li></ul>6. To take judicial proceedings against the guilties
  23. 29. A-H will take part in the investigations
  24. 30. <ul><li>25th July, supported by Russia, The Serb goverment rejected Austrian Police to investigate the murder in the Serb territory. </li></ul>Austrian executing Serbs
  25. 31. <ul><li>AH 10 points ultimatum </li></ul><ul><li>S refuses it </li></ul><ul><li>R mobilises troops to help S </li></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>G demands that R stop mobilising </li></ul><ul><li>R refuses. </li></ul><ul><li>G declares war on R </li></ul><ul><li>F mobilises to help R </li></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>G declares war on F. Schlieffen Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium neutral </li></ul><ul><li>B orders G to draw away </li></ul><ul><li>G refuses </li></ul><ul><li>Britain declares war on G </li></ul><ul><li>AH declares war on R </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>Diplomatic relations are now blocked. </li></ul>
  29. 35. Nr.2 Alliances
  30. 37. Dual Alliance <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul>
  31. 38. Triple Alliance <ul><li>Italy + Dual Alliance </li></ul>France + Russia NERVOUS
  32. 39. Franco-Russian Alliance
  33. 40. ENTENTE <ul><li>NO MILITARY AGREEMENTS </li></ul>Finally , it changed
  34. 41. Entente Cordiale (“Entendimiento Cordial) <ul><li>Britain + France </li></ul>
  35. 42. Triple Entente <ul><li>Russia + Britain + France </li></ul>
  36. 43. Results <ul><li>More tension </li></ul><ul><li>G + AH + I felt surrounded </li></ul><ul><li>R worried about AH intentions in Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>UK + G building best navy in the world </li></ul>
  37. 44. Balkans
  38. 45. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Balkans_Animation_1800-2006.gif
  39. 46. Nr. 3 Tension builds: Imperialism and militarism
  40. 47. Europe drifting towards a major war <ul><li>Arms race </li></ul><ul><li>Competition between two or more parties for real or apparent military supremacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or superior military technology in a technological escalation. </li></ul>
  41. 48. Arms race <ul><li>1900-1914 G built 40 battleships and cruisers </li></ul>
  42. 49. Britain policy <ul><li>Two Power Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Navy always had to be as big as the next 2 strongest navies in Europe put together </li></ul></ul>
  43. 50. <ul><li>UK built the first Dreadnought in 1906 </li></ul>
  44. 51. <ul><li>Germany built its version in 1917 Hochseeflotte </li></ul><ul><li>UK had a new by 1911 British Grand Fleet </li></ul><ul><li>1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK had 29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G had 17 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 52. Nr. 4 Nationalism
  46. 53. <ul><li>Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's country. </li></ul>
  47. 54. <ul><li>The Congress of Vienna, held after the Napoleonic wars left both Germany and Italy as divided states. </li></ul>
  48. 55. <ul><li>France was angry because the settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian war had given Alsace-Lorraine to Germany. </li></ul>
  49. 56. <ul><li>Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived. </li></ul>
  50. 57. Dual Monarchy
  51. 58. Nr. 5 Crises
  52. 59. Crises over Morocco <ul><li>Moroccan crisis (1905-1906) </li></ul><ul><li>Agadir crisis (1911) </li></ul>
  53. 60. Moroccan crisis (1905-1906) <ul><li>Was uncolonised African country </li></ul><ul><li>In 1904 Morocco had been given to France by Britain, but the Moroccans wanted independence and were supported by Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>War was avoided, but in 1911, the Germans were again protesting against French possession of Morocco. </li></ul>
  54. 61. Agadir crisis (1911) <ul><li>Agadir is a major city in southwest Morocco, capital of the Agadir province </li></ul>
  55. 62. Bosnian Crisis <ul><li>In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over Bosnia. </li></ul><ul><li>This angered Serbians who felt the province should be theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia threatened Austria-Hungary with war, Russia, allied to Serbia, mobilised its forces. </li></ul>
  56. 63. <ul><li>Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary mobilised its forces and prepared to threaten Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>War was avoided when Russia backed down. </li></ul>
  57. 64. <ul><li>In 1911 and 1912 there was war in the Balkans ‘the powder-keg of Europe’ when the Balkan states drove Turkey out of the area. </li></ul><ul><li>The states then fought each other over which area should belong to which state. </li></ul>
  58. 65. <ul><li>Austria-Hungary intervened and forced Serbia to give up land. </li></ul><ul><li>Tension between Serbia and Austria-Hungary was high. </li></ul>
  59. 66. Countdown to conflict…a matter of time <ul><li>Alliance system </li></ul><ul><li>Arms race </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Moroccan crises </li></ul><ul><li>Bosnian crisis. </li></ul>
  60. 67. The beginning of the war Attack with poisonous gas
  61. 68. A long war french soldier
  62. 69. Mustard gas victim
  63. 70. Russian soldiers in the front
  64. 71. Colonial french soldier and his hygiene equipment
  65. 72. German soldier and his hand grenade
  66. 73. Winter Horseshoes
  67. 74. French grenades and parachute-bomb
  68. 76. BBC movies WW1 <ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_wwone_movies.shtml </li></ul>
  69. 78. It didn´t work for 3 reasons <ul><li>Belgium refused to let German army through to attack France </li></ul><ul><li>G enter B by force </li></ul><ul><li>R was ready for war quicker than G expected </li></ul><ul><li>G sent valuable troops to East </li></ul>
  70. 79. The Battle of Marne and the trench warfare <ul><li>Neither army could win in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ypres </li></ul></ul>
  71. 80. Virtual view of Trench <ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_vt_trench_life.shtml </li></ul>
  72. 81. Luxury trench <ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_vt_dugout_int.shtml </li></ul>
  73. 86. Stalemate (=deadlock) in the West <ul><li>This war was different for the general and the soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Deadlock in the trenches </li></ul>
  74. 92. Trench Foot <ul><li>Trench foot , also known as fat foot, is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary and cold conditions. </li></ul>
  75. 94. Shellshock! <ul><li>Early symptoms tiredness, irritability, lack of concentration, headaches. Eventual mental breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>affected 2% of soldiers (80,000) </li></ul><ul><li>http://es.youtube.com/watch?v=RRv56gsqkzs&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>1:18 </li></ul>
  76. 95. Verdun-Shellshock http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SS1dO0JC2EE&feature=related
  77. 97. The reality of the war
  78. 98. The British government wanted to encourage men to enlist for war. They said the war would be safe, hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by Christmas. They used advertising posters to encourage this idea! A picture of soldiers going ‘ Over the Top’
  79. 99. The reality of ‘going over the top’ was very different!
  80. 100. Soldiers were expected to carry all of their equipment with them at all times. They were supposed to keep it clean and in good condition – they were British after all.
  81. 101. How the uniform and equipment changed after just three weeks in the trenches…
  82. 102. Posters always showed men ready and willing to fight. They never showed the boredom of the trenches or actual fighting taking place. Why do you think the government showed no fighting?
  83. 104. No smiling and relaxed faces… No clean uniforms… Their equipment is scattered everywhere… Boredom and sleep are obvious…
  84. 105. Mass Devastation
  85. 106. Freezing Winters
  86. 108. The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.
  87. 111. Casualties
  88. 112. Trenchline nowadays
  89. 113. Verdun memorial
  90. 118. Russian prisoners
  91. 128. Ottoman Victory
  92. 129. The Middle East
  93. 130. WW1 did not stop at western front <ul><li>Navy’s blockades in the North Sea and the Baltic were really important in wearing Germany down </li></ul><ul><li>Blockades were more important than all-out battles </li></ul>
  94. 131. Blockades <ul><li>Royal Navy patrolled the North Sea and the Baltic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to stop food supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented German ships from getting out to open sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans had the U-boats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Torpedo made it very successful. </li></ul></ul>
  95. 133. At first <ul><li>Germany was careful not to attack ships from neutral countries or passenger ships </li></ul>
  96. 134. So… <ul><li>Britain started shipping arms and ammunition in passenger ships </li></ul>
  97. 135. Lusitania <ul><li>Was used to bring over weapons in April 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>Germans torpedoed it and 1000 civilians died </li></ul>
  98. 136. <ul><li>100 of the 1000 were from the USA </li></ul><ul><li>USA decided to suport the allies, and joined the war in 1917 </li></ul>
  99. 137. Lusitania’s piers in NY
  100. 138. Arriving to NY
  101. 142. <ul><li>2 fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Naval blockades. </li></ul><ul><li>USA troops+supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Allied tanks broke the stalemate. </li></ul>
  102. 143. <ul><li>Finally ended in November 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Luddendorf decided to send one more big attack </li></ul><ul><li>Allies counterattacked from different sides </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare had worn Germany down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutinies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution in Germany </li></ul></ul>
  103. 144. The peace treaty was signed at Versailles in January 1919 From left to right, British PM David Lloyd George, italian PM Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, french PM Georges Clemenceau, and finally President Woodrow Wilson from United States.
  104. 146. Signing in the hall
  105. 147. Treaty of Versailles Signing, Hall of Mirrors
  106. 148. Mass demonstration in front of the Reichstag against the Treaty of Versailles
  107. 150. F wanted a hard punishment to G <ul><li>Lloyd George: better not a bitter punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Versailles treaty embittered and bankrupted G </li></ul>
  108. 152. In 1918, Wilson laid down 14 points for a better world after WW1
  109. 156. Just domestic safety