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Personal Computer Hardware
Components (Internal Devices) Part 1
Mr. Melchor S. Castro
Instructor
Learning Objectives
• Identify the Internal Devices of a Computer Hardware
• Differentiate the types of RAM, Socket, Bus, Data
Cables
• Explain how the motherboard works.
Internal Computer Hardware Devices
1. Motherboard
2. Central Processing Unit
3. Random Access Memory
4. Hard disk drive (HDD)
5. Optical drive
6. Floppy disk drive
7. Adapter Card adds
8. Power Supply unit (PSU)
9. Power and Data Cables
1. Motherboard
Also called mainboard, is the printed circuit board (PCB)
found in computers. It holds many of the essential
electronic components of the system such as the CPU,
memory, video cards, network cards, and hard drives. It
also provides connectors for other peripherals.
1. Motherboard
Here are some of the most popular motherboard form factors:
• Mini-ITX motherboard is specifically designed with Mobile on
Desktop Technology (MoDT) that uses mobile CPUs for lower power
requirement, less heat generation, and better application capability.
Its dimension is 5.9 x5.9 inches.
1. Motherboard
Here are some of the most popular motherboard form factors:
MicroATX motherboard is a smaller variant of the ATX form factor, 9.6 x
9.6 inches. It is compatible with most ATX cases, but since it is smaller it has
fewer slots than ATX, and smaller power supply unit.
1. Motherboard
Here are some of the most popular motherboard form factors:
ATX motherboard is the motherboard that was produced by the Intel in
mid-90s. It is still one of the most popular form factors for motherboards. Its
typical size is 9.6 x 12 inches.
Parts and Features of Motherboard
Parts and Features of Motherboard
Processor Socket - It determines what kind of CPU the motherboard uses.
Socket arrangements are usually named for the number of pins in grid array
(PGA).
Socket Function
Socket 478 For older Pentium and Celeron processors
Socket 754 For AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors
Socket 939 For newer and faster AMD Athlon processors
Socket AM2 For the newer AMD Athlon processors
Socket A For older AMD Athlon processors
Parts and Features of Motherboard
Socket LCA755 – is one of the newest Intel CPU and it does not have pins.
The pins are now part of the socket instead of the CPU. It is also called
Socket T.
ATX 24-pin connector – allows you to connect an ATX 24-pin power supply.
ATX 12V power connector – is used to provide power to the CPU.
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) connector - allows you to connect up to two IDE/ATA
drives, a master and a slave.
Serial ATA (SATA) connector – allows you to connect one hard disk device.
Memory slot is used for installing memory modules.
Chipset connects the microprocessor to the other parts of the motherboard
– the northbridge and the southbridge. It allows the communication of all
computer components with the CPU.
Parts and Features of Motherboard
Front Side bus (FSB) is a circuit that also connects one part of the
motherboard to another. The more data that a bus can handle at a given
time, the faster it allows information to travel. The speed of the bus is
measured in megahertz (MHz) that refers to the speed of the front side bus
(FSB) that connects the CPU to the northbridge. FSB speeds can range to 66
MHz to over 800 MHz. Since the CPU reaches the memory controller
through the northbridge. FSB speed can dramatically affect computer’s
performance.
Figure 1. Connection
diagram of
northbridge,
southbridge and bus.
The following are some busses found on a
motherboard
Bus Function
Memory Bus It connects the northbridge to the memory.
IDE-ATA.Serial ATA
Bus
It connects the southbridge to the disk drives.
Accelerated Graphics
Port (AGP) Bus
It connects the video card to memory and CPU. The Speed of
the AGP bus is usually 66 MHz.
Peripheral
Component
Interconnect (PCI)
Bus
It connects PCI slots to the southbridge. Usual speed is 33 MHz
and is compatible with PCI Express that is much faster than PCI
but is still compatible with current software and operating
systems. PCI Express is likely to replace both PCI and AGP
Busses.
2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain
of the computer that performs the
calculations. It comprised of millions of
logic gates that is used for variety of
operations.
3. Random Access Memory (RAM) is where
all program execution and data
processing takes place. It determines
the amount of data that can be
processed instantly and the size and
number of programs that can be run
simultaneously.
Power and Data Cables -
internal cables are used
to distribute electricity
from the power supply to
the motherboard and
other components.
Serial Advanced Technology
Attachment (SATA) power
connectors are 15-pin connector.
They are used to connect hard disk
drives, optical drives, or any
devices that have a SATA power
socket.
• Molex power connectors
are used for hard drives
and optical drives that
do not have SATA power
sockets.
• Berg Power Connector
have 4 pins that supply
power to a floppy drive.
Types of Data Cables
Data cables transmit data between the
motherboard and storage devices such
as hard drives. Other cables that you
may see connect the buttons and
indicator lights on the front of the
computer case to the motherboard.
Types of Data Cables
• Parallel advanced technology attachment (PATA)
cable is also called ribbon cable because it is wide
and flat. The PATA cable can have either 40 or 80
conductors. One connector at the end of the
cable connects to the motherboard and the
other two connectors to the drives.
• If multiple hard drives are installed, the master
drive connects to the end connector while the
slave drive connects to the middle connector.
• A stripe on the data cable denotes the location of
Pin 1 that is usually closer to the power
connector on the drive.
• Floppy drive data cable has a 34-pin
connector. Like the PATA data cable,
the floppy drive data cable has a stripe
to denote the location of Pin 1.
• SATA data cable has a 7-pin connector.
One end of the cable is connected to
the motherboard and the other end is
connected to any drive that has a SATA
data connector such as HDD or ODD.
Assignment:
• Explain briefly the function of Motherboard.
• Reiterate the role of the Northbridge and the
Southbridge as drawn in slide 12.
• Submit your assignment in Assignment Link.

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Similar to Here are the answers to the assignment questions:1. The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer that holds and allows communication between many of the essential electronic components of the system such as the CPU, memory, video cards, network cards, and hard drives. It also provides connectors for other peripherals. 2. As shown in slide 12, the northbridge connects the CPU to the memory and graphics card. It handles communications between these critical components. The southbridge connects slower peripheral devices such as hard drives, optical drives, serial ports and parallel ports. It offloads work from the northbridge and CPU to improve system performance

Similar to Here are the answers to the assignment questions:1. The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer that holds and allows communication between many of the essential electronic components of the system such as the CPU, memory, video cards, network cards, and hard drives. It also provides connectors for other peripherals. 2. As shown in slide 12, the northbridge connects the CPU to the memory and graphics card. It handles communications between these critical components. The southbridge connects slower peripheral devices such as hard drives, optical drives, serial ports and parallel ports. It offloads work from the northbridge and CPU to improve system performance (20)

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Here are the answers to the assignment questions:1. The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer that holds and allows communication between many of the essential electronic components of the system such as the CPU, memory, video cards, network cards, and hard drives. It also provides connectors for other peripherals. 2. As shown in slide 12, the northbridge connects the CPU to the memory and graphics card. It handles communications between these critical components. The southbridge connects slower peripheral devices such as hard drives, optical drives, serial ports and parallel ports. It offloads work from the northbridge and CPU to improve system performance

  • 1. Personal Computer Hardware Components (Internal Devices) Part 1 Mr. Melchor S. Castro Instructor
  • 2. Learning Objectives • Identify the Internal Devices of a Computer Hardware • Differentiate the types of RAM, Socket, Bus, Data Cables • Explain how the motherboard works.
  • 3. Internal Computer Hardware Devices 1. Motherboard 2. Central Processing Unit 3. Random Access Memory 4. Hard disk drive (HDD) 5. Optical drive 6. Floppy disk drive 7. Adapter Card adds 8. Power Supply unit (PSU) 9. Power and Data Cables
  • 4. 1. Motherboard Also called mainboard, is the printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers. It holds many of the essential electronic components of the system such as the CPU, memory, video cards, network cards, and hard drives. It also provides connectors for other peripherals.
  • 5. 1. Motherboard Here are some of the most popular motherboard form factors: • Mini-ITX motherboard is specifically designed with Mobile on Desktop Technology (MoDT) that uses mobile CPUs for lower power requirement, less heat generation, and better application capability. Its dimension is 5.9 x5.9 inches.
  • 6. 1. Motherboard Here are some of the most popular motherboard form factors: MicroATX motherboard is a smaller variant of the ATX form factor, 9.6 x 9.6 inches. It is compatible with most ATX cases, but since it is smaller it has fewer slots than ATX, and smaller power supply unit.
  • 7. 1. Motherboard Here are some of the most popular motherboard form factors: ATX motherboard is the motherboard that was produced by the Intel in mid-90s. It is still one of the most popular form factors for motherboards. Its typical size is 9.6 x 12 inches.
  • 8. Parts and Features of Motherboard
  • 9. Parts and Features of Motherboard Processor Socket - It determines what kind of CPU the motherboard uses. Socket arrangements are usually named for the number of pins in grid array (PGA). Socket Function Socket 478 For older Pentium and Celeron processors Socket 754 For AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors Socket 939 For newer and faster AMD Athlon processors Socket AM2 For the newer AMD Athlon processors Socket A For older AMD Athlon processors
  • 10. Parts and Features of Motherboard Socket LCA755 – is one of the newest Intel CPU and it does not have pins. The pins are now part of the socket instead of the CPU. It is also called Socket T. ATX 24-pin connector – allows you to connect an ATX 24-pin power supply. ATX 12V power connector – is used to provide power to the CPU. Hard Disk Drive (HDD) connector - allows you to connect up to two IDE/ATA drives, a master and a slave. Serial ATA (SATA) connector – allows you to connect one hard disk device. Memory slot is used for installing memory modules. Chipset connects the microprocessor to the other parts of the motherboard – the northbridge and the southbridge. It allows the communication of all computer components with the CPU.
  • 11. Parts and Features of Motherboard Front Side bus (FSB) is a circuit that also connects one part of the motherboard to another. The more data that a bus can handle at a given time, the faster it allows information to travel. The speed of the bus is measured in megahertz (MHz) that refers to the speed of the front side bus (FSB) that connects the CPU to the northbridge. FSB speeds can range to 66 MHz to over 800 MHz. Since the CPU reaches the memory controller through the northbridge. FSB speed can dramatically affect computer’s performance.
  • 12. Figure 1. Connection diagram of northbridge, southbridge and bus.
  • 13. The following are some busses found on a motherboard Bus Function Memory Bus It connects the northbridge to the memory. IDE-ATA.Serial ATA Bus It connects the southbridge to the disk drives. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) Bus It connects the video card to memory and CPU. The Speed of the AGP bus is usually 66 MHz. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus It connects PCI slots to the southbridge. Usual speed is 33 MHz and is compatible with PCI Express that is much faster than PCI but is still compatible with current software and operating systems. PCI Express is likely to replace both PCI and AGP Busses.
  • 14. 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer that performs the calculations. It comprised of millions of logic gates that is used for variety of operations. 3. Random Access Memory (RAM) is where all program execution and data processing takes place. It determines the amount of data that can be processed instantly and the size and number of programs that can be run simultaneously.
  • 15. Power and Data Cables - internal cables are used to distribute electricity from the power supply to the motherboard and other components.
  • 16.
  • 17. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) power connectors are 15-pin connector. They are used to connect hard disk drives, optical drives, or any devices that have a SATA power socket.
  • 18. • Molex power connectors are used for hard drives and optical drives that do not have SATA power sockets. • Berg Power Connector have 4 pins that supply power to a floppy drive.
  • 19. Types of Data Cables Data cables transmit data between the motherboard and storage devices such as hard drives. Other cables that you may see connect the buttons and indicator lights on the front of the computer case to the motherboard.
  • 20. Types of Data Cables • Parallel advanced technology attachment (PATA) cable is also called ribbon cable because it is wide and flat. The PATA cable can have either 40 or 80 conductors. One connector at the end of the cable connects to the motherboard and the other two connectors to the drives. • If multiple hard drives are installed, the master drive connects to the end connector while the slave drive connects to the middle connector. • A stripe on the data cable denotes the location of Pin 1 that is usually closer to the power connector on the drive.
  • 21. • Floppy drive data cable has a 34-pin connector. Like the PATA data cable, the floppy drive data cable has a stripe to denote the location of Pin 1. • SATA data cable has a 7-pin connector. One end of the cable is connected to the motherboard and the other end is connected to any drive that has a SATA data connector such as HDD or ODD.
  • 22. Assignment: • Explain briefly the function of Motherboard. • Reiterate the role of the Northbridge and the Southbridge as drawn in slide 12. • Submit your assignment in Assignment Link.

Editor's Notes

  1. The form factor is the specification of a motherboard like the dimensions, power supply type, location of mounting holes, number of ports on the back panel, etc.