Written production and grammatical Metaphor in Secondary School

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Apresentação realizada no AAAL, Atlanta - Março, 2010.

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Written production and grammatical Metaphor in Secondary School

  1. 1. AAALAtlantaMarch, 2010Written production and grammatical metaphor in secondary school Adriana Nogueira Nóbrega, Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro Lúcia Pacheco de Oliveira, Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro Magda Bahia Schlee Rio de Janeiro State University
  2. 2. Background Research project: ‘Writing and social inclusion: corpus analysis and grammatical metaphor in secondary school’ • Focus Examine the written production of adolescents from different socio-cultural contexts Relate literacy and social inclusion in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  3. 3. Secondary public school:student writing Oralized writing Lack of punctuation Phonetic spelling Lengthy sentences Poor spelling Difficulty in understanding text instructions Limited use of varied grammatical patterns
  4. 4. Motivation Written Brazilian Portuguese sometimes viewed as a foreign language by secondary public school students Problems faced by secondary students when writing texts might be related to the lack of grammatical metaphor mastery Difficulties in producing and understanding texts in different school subjects might be connected to the lack of grammatical metaphor awareness (Martin, 1993; Christie, 2006; Oliveira, 2006, Halliday, 1994; Heyvaert, 2003)
  5. 5. Objectives Study the use of grammatical metaphor in public school secondary student writing: IdentifIcation and quantification of the use of grammmatical metaphors in argumentative student texts Observation of students’ socio-educational condition variables Comparison of metaphorical language use in secondary school writing and university entrance exams
  6. 6. Questions Do Brazilian secondary public school students use grammatical metaphor in their texts? Is students’ textual production in accordance with late secondary school writing requirements? Does the use of metaphorical language vary in secondary school writing and university entrance exams?
  7. 7. Grammatical Metaphor The process of metaphor is one of reconstruing the patterns of realization in a language‘– particularly at the interface between the grammar and the semantics. A meaning that was originally construed by one kind of wording comes instead to be construed by another.’ ‘.... grammatical abstracness is the key for entering into literacy, and to primary educational knowledge, so grammatical metaphor is the key for entering into the next level, that of secondary education, and of knowledge that is discipline-based and technical.’ (Halliday,2009:117, 125)
  8. 8. Nominalizations They are the predominant form of grammatical metaphor They consist in the use of a nominal form to express a process meaning They may have different functions: Creation of technical language Creation of non-negotiable ‘thingfied’ experience Encapsulation of meaning Development of argumentation
  9. 9. Method Participants: 12th grade Brazilian public school students from 14-18 years old (N=98) Corpus: Written argumentative texts collected in federal and state schools Topic adequate for: Students’ age Schools socio-educational context
  10. 10. Method Data collection instruments: Questionnaire on socio-educational conditions Writing proposal with picture and newspaper headlines as prompts Samples: 250-word texts on quality of life in Rio de Janeiro (N=92) Questionnaires on reading and writing habits (N=98)
  11. 11. Questionnaire:socio-educational condition variables Students’ frequency of spontaneous vs. mandatory reading and writing Students’ reading habits Students’ family reading habits
  12. 12. STUDENTS AGE 19-24 > 25 yearsyears old old 11% 0% 14-18 years old 89%
  13. 13. STUDENTS READING HABITS Spontaneous reading 9% ObligatoryNo reading reading 38% 53%
  14. 14. STUDENTS SELF-EVALUATION ON WRITINGDifficulty Facility toto write write 37% 63%
  15. 15. WRITTEN GENRES PRACTICED BY STUDENTS Poetry No Varied writing 6% 10% 6% Journal 5%Orkut 37% School texts 36%
  16. 16. FAMILY READING HABITS No reading 6% Frequent reading 41%Scarcereading 53%
  17. 17. Text Analysis Texts analyzed manually and with the help of computational tools Nominalizations from agnate verbs identified and counted : Search based on productive noun suffixation in Portuguese (Basilio, 2007) Normalization of basic frequencies Means calculated for each group
  18. 18. ProposalEscreva um texto argumentativo, com cerca de 25 linhas, em que vocêapresente o seu ponto de vista sobre a qualidade de vida na cidade do Riode Janeiro. A figura e as manchetes abaixo sugerem alguns aspectos quepodem ser abordados. Rio: a cidade mais feliz do mundo, segundo pesquisa internacional. Rio vai enfrentar enorme desafio para receber olimpíadas 2016. Vandalismo destrói história do rio e custa caro aos cofres da cidade. Operação choque de ordem atua no centro do Rio. Interchange. CUP, 2005
  19. 19. Results:Schools - means of nominalizations -cia -cias -ção -ções -dor -dores -ssão -ssões -mento -mentosSchool 1 0,12 0,06 1,41 0,29 0,00 0,12 0,06 0,00 0,35 0,18School 2 0,71 0,07 1,96 0,50 0,04 0,32 0,07 0,00 0,68 0,18School 3 0,23 0,09 1,77 0,34 0,06 0,34 0,04 0,00 0,81 0,09 School 1 (State) : 17 texts / 2.776 words Group frequencies normalized to 5000 words School 2 (Federal) : 28 texts / 6.045 words School 3 (State) : 47 texts / 9.716 words
  20. 20. Results: comparison with universityentrance exams Texts from three universities (CORPOBRAS PUC- Rio *) (N=75): − Two public and one private Texts selected according to passing grades (≥ 5,0) Same analytical procedures (* Representative corpus of Brazilian Portuguese)
  21. 21. Sample 1:Public Secondary School Como será o Rio nas Olimpíadas 2.016 Todos nós sabemos que para receber as Olimpíadas 2.016 o Rio de Janeiro vai passar por um processo longo e intenso de obras. Essas obras tem a finalidade de limpar nossos rios, lagoas e praias para as provas que neles serão realizadas; construir hotéis para receber e acomodar os turistas; melhorar o transporte para que as pessoas possam chegar nos locais em um tempo adequado; reformar estádios para receber os jogos e os torcedores com mais conforto; aumentar a segurança em nossa cidade para que todos possam caminhar sem o medo de ser assaltado ou de ser surpreendido por uma troca de tiros, e outras reformas mais. Porém será que a limpeza dos rios, lagoas e praias, o aumento da segurança e outras coisas mais não deveriam ser medidas tomadas a muito tempo, mesmo sem as Olimpíadas. Como será que vai ficar o Rio de Janeiro depois que passar as Olimpíadas. As melhorias serão conservadas pela população e pelo poder público, ou vai ser abandonada. A idéia de trazer as Olimpíadas 2.016 para o Rio de Janeiro é muito animadora. Mas temos que pensar nos pontos bons e tambem nos ruins. (191 words)
  22. 22. Sample 2:Public university AS RELAÇÕES HUMANAS E A GLOBALIZAÇÃO A consolidação do sistema capitalista e a adoção da ideologia neoliberal proporcionaram além de profundas alterações sob a ótica econômica, modificações nas relações humanas. Diante disso, discute-se, atualmente, o desenvolvimento do sentimento de inveja do homem moderno, visto a valorização da competitividade e do individualismo. É importante salientar que a abertura de mercados num mundo globalizado é determinante para o acirramento do mercado de trabalho. Esse fato evidencia tanto a concorrência entre as empresas globais quanto a disputa entre indivíduos por emprego e participação no sistema econômico do país. Outro fator relevante que incita o surgimento da inveja na sociedade atual consiste na propagação do consumismo como base de sustentação da ideologia capitalista. É fundamental e preocupante considerar, ainda, a grave desigualdade na distribuição de renda existente no país como entrave às efetivas transformações sociais. Nota-se, dessa forma, a necessidade de combater as disparidades sociais e a subordinação do bem coletivo em relação aos interesses econômicos, a fim de garantir a inclusão social e o resgate da cidadania. Para tanto, o respeito aos valores morais e éticos, bem como o desenvolvimento de programas voluntários de solidariedade se fazem essenciais. Fica claro, portanto, que a globalização econômica e a padronização de costumes na sociedade atual confundem a busca por qualidade devida com o conceito de inveja, o que contribui para formar uma geração alienada politicamente e à problemática social brasileira. (229 words)
  23. 23. Comparison of school and entrance exam writing 4,00 3,55 3,50 3,00 cia cias 2,50 çãoMean scores ções dor 2,00 dores ssão 1,44 1,42 ssões 1,50 mento 1,09 mentos 1,00 0,55 0,50 0,31 0,00 Universities Schools
  24. 24. Samples: summary of findings Secondary public school students use fewer nominalizations than those entering the university Written texts do not match the writing proposal: more discriptive (more processes than nominalizations) Students’ written production is in accordance with the expected production of early to mid secondary school Students’ self-evaluation of their mastery of writing is based on ‘out of school’ texts
  25. 25. Discussion Brazilian secondary public school students’ written production is misleveled: At school they are expected to master different genres in different subjects that require the use of metaphorical language Transposition of oral language characteristics to written language Students’ perception towards their mastery in writing versus problems observed in the selected samples The mismatch may be related to students’ feeling that written Brazilian Portuguese is, for them, “a foreign language” This mismatch between secondary school literacy requirements and students’ written production may lead into school failure
  26. 26. Implications Make teachers aware of the need to teach the grammatical metaphor Make secondary students understand the function of grammatical metaphor in writing Make learners able to use it in their texts in different disciplines Make educators - in general - aware of the real literacy situation which might be strictly connected to social exlcusion
  27. 27. ReferencesBASÍLIO, M. M. P. ( 2007). Teoria Lexical. 8th. ed. São Paulo: Atica.CASTRO, L. A. (2009). Escrita e letramento no Ensino Médio: Uma abordagem sistêmico-funcional e de Lingüística Aplicada. Dissertação de Mestrado, Departamento de Letras. Rio de Janeiro: PUC-Rio.CHRISTIE, F.(2006). Developmental progress in learning English in secondary schooling. Paper presented at the 33rd International Systemic Functional Congress: PUC/SP: São Paulo.CHRISTIE, F. & DEREWIANKA, B. (2008). School Discourse . London & New York: Continuum.HALLIDAY, M.A.K. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. 2nd ed. London: Edward Arnold.HALLIDAY, M.A.K. (2006). Grammatical Metaphor. In J.J. Webster (Ed) Collected Works of M.A.K. Halliday, The Language of Science, volume 5, pp. 3-7. London & New York: Continuum.HALLIDAY, M.A.K. (2009). Grammatical Metaphor. In J.J. Webster (Ed), The Essential Halliday , pp.116-138. London & New York: Continuum.HEYVAERT, L. (2003). Nominalization as Grammatical Metaphor: on the need for a radically systemic and metafunctional approach. In: A-M Simon-Vandenbergen, M. Taverniers, & L. Ravelli, Grammatical Metaphor: views from systemic functional linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.MARTIN, J. R. (1993). Genre and Literacy – modeling context in educational linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 141-172.OLIVEIRA, L. P. (2006). Grammatical metaphors in academic texts: Cross-linguistic and cross-disciplinary contrasts. Paper presented at the 33rd International Systemic Functional Congress. PUC/SP, São Paulo,OLIVEIRA, L.P & VALÉRIO, R. (forthcoming). A metáfora gramatical na construção discursiva de gêneros do contexto pedagógico. Procedings of X Forum de Estudos Linguísticos, Rio de janeiro, UERJ.SIMON-VANDENBERGEN, A-M; TAVERNIERS,M. & RAVELLI, L. (2003).Grammatical Metaphor: views from systemic functional linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.VALÉRIO, R. G., BRITO, M. G. & OLIVEIRA, L.P. (2007). CORPOBRAS PUC-Rio: Um corpus do Português do Brasil e análise do discurso acadêmico. Paper presented at the VII Encontro da Ciência Empírica de Letras. Rio de Janeiro: UFRJ.

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