Simposia : Establishing an international knowledge netwokQUB, USP, UFSC, PUC-RioMay 3, 2011   Grammatical metaphor, academ...
Presentation: Research project Objetives of the research Grammatical metaphor Data analysis Implications and problems Futu...
Research project: Introduction: ‘Writing and social inclusion: corpus analysis and grammatical metaphor in secondary educa...
Motivation:•Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) Group:Systemic-Functional Linguistics, Corpus Linguisticsand Discou...
Background studies:Research on academic textsResearch articles:Linguistics and Nutrition; English and Portuguese(Oliveira,...
Secondary School Writing:Project contextualization  Written Brazilian Portuguese sometimes viewed as a foreign language by...
School Contexts in Rio de Janeiro:Federal, State and Private                            North Zone: Federal               ...
Public and Private Secondary Schools    651 texts                     Periphery                    79 texts               ...
Objectives of the present research|:  Study the use of grammatical metaphor in public school  secondary student writing:  ...
Grammatical Metaphor“ The metaphor brings about a reconstrual of  experience, in which reality comes to consist of  things...
Grammatical Metaphor   The process of metaphor is one of reconstruing the patterns   of realization in a language– particu...
Grammatical Metaphor All human adults and all human languages possess this ability to shift from the clausal to the nomina...
Nominalizations  They are the predominant form of grammatical metaphor  They consist in the use of a nominal form to expre...
Questions  Do Brazilian secondary public school students use grammatical  metaphor in their texts?  Is students’ textual p...
Method  Participants:     12th grade Brazilian public school students from 14-18     years old (N=98)  Corpus:    Written ...
Method Data collection instruments:   Questionnaire on socio-educational conditions   Writing proposal with picture and ne...
Questionnaire:socio-educational condition variables    Students’ frequency of spontaneous vs. mandatory    reading and wri...
STUDENTS AGE  19-24                 > 25 yearsyears old                  old   11%                      0%                ...
STUDENTS READING HABITS               Spontaneous                 reading                   9%                            ...
STUDENTS SELF-EVALUATION ON                  WRITINGDifficulty                        Facility toto write                 ...
WRITTEN GENRES PRACTICED BY STUDENTS                      Poetry         No        Varied                     writing     ...
FAMILY READING HABITS            No          reading            6%                       Frequent                        r...
Text Analysis  Texts analyzed manually and with the help of computational  tools:     Concordancer: MonoConc Pro  Nominali...
ProposalEscreva um texto argumentativo, com cerca de 25 linhas, em que vocêapresente o seu ponto de vista sobre a qualidad...
Secondary public school studentwriting: General features Oralized writing    Lack of punctuation    Phonetic spelling    L...
Results:Schools - means of nominalizations              -cia     -cias     -ção     -ções    -dor     -dores    -ssão    -...
Sample:Public Secondary School Como será o Rio nas Olimpíadas 2.016 Todos nós sabemos que para receber as Olimpíadas 2.016...
Summary of findings Secondary public school students use fewer nominalizations than those entering the university   The mo...
Discussion:  Brazilian secondary public school students’ written production is  misleveled:     At school they are expecte...
Implications Make teachers aware of the need to teach the grammatical metaphor Make secondary students understand the func...
Problems:  Difficulties to identify and count nominalizations:  Consider correct or incorrect forms?     Ex: “condissões”;...
Future developments: Add the subcorpus of learner texts to the CORPOBRAS PUC- Rio ; Present results and publications in a ...
ReferencesBASÍLIO, M. M. P. ( 2007). Teoria Lexical. 8th. ed. São Paulo: Atica.CASTRO, L. A. (2009). Escrita e letramento ...
Grammatical metaphor, academic writing and corpus analysis
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Grammatical metaphor, academic writing and corpus analysis

  1. 1. Simposia : Establishing an international knowledge netwokQUB, USP, UFSC, PUC-RioMay 3, 2011 Grammatical metaphor, academic writing and corpus analysis Lúcia Pacheco de Oliveira Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro
  2. 2. Presentation: Research project Objetives of the research Grammatical metaphor Data analysis Implications and problems Future research
  3. 3. Research project: Introduction: ‘Writing and social inclusion: corpus analysis and grammatical metaphor in secondary education (FAPERJ – 2009-2011) • Focus Examine the written production of adolescents from different socio-cultural contexts Relate literacy and social inclusion issues in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Collect a learner corpus and apply computational tools in the analysis
  4. 4. Motivation:•Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) Group:Systemic-Functional Linguistics, Corpus Linguisticsand Discourse Analysis (PUC-Rio, 2006 - 2011);•Reports from research group members who work asteachers in elementary and secondary schools;•Previous studies on writing, based on the systemic-functional perspective, with emphasis on grammaticalmetaphor.
  5. 5. Background studies:Research on academic textsResearch articles:Linguistics and Nutrition; English and Portuguese(Oliveira, 2006; Valério, Brito & Oliveira, 2007)Theses and Dissertations:Linguistics – Introductions and Conclusions ; Portuguese.(Valério & Oliveira, 2007);Theses and Dissertations:Linguistics and Literature; Portuguese.(Oliveira, 2010);Secondary school essays :Argumentative texts ; Portuguese( Castro, 2009; Oliveira,Schlee & Nóbrega, 2009; Ramos, 2010)
  6. 6. Secondary School Writing:Project contextualization Written Brazilian Portuguese sometimes viewed as a foreign language by secondary public school students. Problems faced by secondary students when writing texts in their first language might be related to the lack of grammatical metaphor mastery . Difficulties in producing and understanding texts in other school subjects might also be connected to the lack of grammatical metaphor awareness and might , consequently, impair success in the construction of knowledge in the school environment. Grammatical metaphor as a fundamental linguistic resource for the elaboration of texts produced in academic and school contexts , which implies, among other aspects, the transformation of more concrete ideas into more abstract ones, through the use of nominalizations in place of verbal processes. (Martin, 1993; Christie, 2006; Oliveira, 2006, Halliday, 1994; Heyvaert, 2003)
  7. 7. School Contexts in Rio de Janeiro:Federal, State and Private North Zone: Federal and State Schools South Zone: Private school West Zone: State Schools Central Zone: Private School Periphery Zone : Private School
  8. 8. Public and Private Secondary Schools 651 texts Periphery 79 texts North 108 textsSouth173 texts Região metropolitana West 202 texts Center 89 texts
  9. 9. Objectives of the present research|: Study the use of grammatical metaphor in public school secondary student writing: Identification and quantification of the use of grammatical metaphors in argumentative student texts Observation of students’ socio-educational condition variables Comparison of metaphorical language use in secondary school writing and university entrance exams
  10. 10. Grammatical Metaphor“ The metaphor brings about a reconstrual of experience, in which reality comes to consist of things rather than doing and happening”.“ It would be wrong, however, to equate grammatical metaphor with nominalization. Nominalization is predominant, in the sense that most metaphoric shift is shift into nominal group. But not all of it”. (Halliday, 2009: 125, 127)
  11. 11. Grammatical Metaphor The process of metaphor is one of reconstruing the patterns of realization in a language– particularly at the interface between the grammar and the semantics. A meaning that was originally construed by one kind of wording comes instead to be construed by another.’ ‘.... grammatical abstracness is the key for entering into literacy, and to primary educational knowledge, so grammatical metaphor is the key for entering into the next level, that of secondary education, and of knowledge that is discipline-based and technical.’ (Halliday,2009:117, 125)
  12. 12. Grammatical Metaphor All human adults and all human languages possess this ability to shift from the clausal to the nominal construal of experience, but this inherent potential in the grammar....is most characteristic of scientific discourse and the need to construct technical taxonomies and sequential argument” (Halliday, 2009: 116)
  13. 13. Nominalizations They are the predominant form of grammatical metaphor They consist in the use of a nominal form to express a process meaning They may have different functions: Creation of technical language Creation of non-negotiable ‘thingfied’ experience Encapsulation of meaning Development of argumentation
  14. 14. Questions Do Brazilian secondary public school students use grammatical metaphor in their texts? Is students’ textual production in accordance with late secondary school writing requirements?
  15. 15. Method Participants: 12th grade Brazilian public school students from 14-18 years old (N=98) Corpus: Written argumentative texts collected in federal and state schools Topic adequate for: Students’ age Schools socio-educational context
  16. 16. Method Data collection instruments: Questionnaire on socio-educational conditions Writing proposal with picture and newspaper headlines as prompts Samples: 250-word texts on quality of life in Rio de Janeiro (N=92) Questionnaires on reading and writing habits (N=98)
  17. 17. Questionnaire:socio-educational condition variables Students’ frequency of spontaneous vs. mandatory reading and writing Students’ reading habits Students’ family reading habits
  18. 18. STUDENTS AGE 19-24 > 25 yearsyears old old 11% 0% 14-18 years old 89%
  19. 19. STUDENTS READING HABITS Spontaneous reading 9% ObligatoryNo reading reading 38% 53%
  20. 20. STUDENTS SELF-EVALUATION ON WRITINGDifficulty Facility toto write write 37% 63%
  21. 21. WRITTEN GENRES PRACTICED BY STUDENTS Poetry No Varied writing 6% 10% 6% Journal 5%Orkut 37% School texts 36%
  22. 22. FAMILY READING HABITS No reading 6% Frequent reading 41%Scarcereading 53%
  23. 23. Text Analysis Texts analyzed manually and with the help of computational tools: Concordancer: MonoConc Pro Nominalizations from agnate verbs identified and counted : Search based on productive noun suffixation in Portuguese (Basilio, 2007) Normalization of basic frequencies Means calculated for each group
  24. 24. ProposalEscreva um texto argumentativo, com cerca de 25 linhas, em que vocêapresente o seu ponto de vista sobre a qualidade de vida na cidade do Riode Janeiro. A figura e as manchetes abaixo sugerem alguns aspectos quepodem ser abordados. Rio: a cidade mais feliz do mundo, segundo pesquisa internacional. Rio vai enfrentar enorme desafio para receber olimpíadas 2016. Vandalismo destrói história do rio e custa caro aos cofres da cidade. Operação choque de ordem atua no centro do Rio. Interchange. CUP, 2005
  25. 25. Secondary public school studentwriting: General features Oralized writing Lack of punctuation Phonetic spelling Lengthy sentences Difficulty to understand text instructions Limited use of varied grammatical patterns
  26. 26. Results:Schools - means of nominalizations -cia -cias -ção -ções -dor -dores -ssão -ssões -mento -mentosSchool 1 0,12 0,06 1,41 0,29 0,00 0,12 0,06 0,00 0,35 0,18School 2 0,71 0,07 1,96 0,50 0,04 0,32 0,07 0,00 0,68 0,18School 3 0,23 0,09 1,77 0,34 0,06 0,34 0,04 0,00 0,81 0,09 School 1 (State) : 17 texts / 2.776 words Group frequencies normalized to 5000 words School 2 (Federal) : 28 texts / 6.045 words School 3 (State) : 47 texts / 9.716 words
  27. 27. Sample:Public Secondary School Como será o Rio nas Olimpíadas 2.016 Todos nós sabemos que para receber as Olimpíadas 2.016 o Rio de Janeiro vai passar por um processo longo e intenso de obras. Essas obras tem a finalidade de limpar nossos rios, lagoas e praias para as provas que neles serão realizadas; construir hotéis para receber e acomodar os turistas; melhorar o transporte para que as pessoas possam chegar nos locais em um tempo adequado; reformar estádios para receber os jogos e os torcedores com mais conforto; aumentar a segurança em nossa cidade para que todos possam caminhar sem o medo de ser assaltado ou de ser surpreendido por uma troca de tiros, e outras reformas mais. Porém será que a limpeza dos rios, lagoas e praias, o aumento da segurança e outras coisas mais não deveriam ser medidas tomadas a muito tempo, mesmo sem as Olimpíadas. Como será que vai ficar o Rio de Janeiro depois que passar as Olimpíadas. As melhorias serão conservadas pela população e pelo poder público, ou vai ser abandonada. A idéia de trazer as Olimpíadas 2.016 para o Rio de Janeiro é muito animadora. Mas temos que pensar nos pontos bons e tambem nos ruins. (191 words)
  28. 28. Summary of findings Secondary public school students use fewer nominalizations than those entering the university The most frequent suffix is ção (ções): similar tendency in other genres (ex:research articles, theses and dissertations) Written texts do not match the writing proposal: more descriptive (more processes than nominalizations) Students’ written production is in accordance with the expected production of early to mid secondary school Students’ self-evaluation of their mastery of writing is based on ‘out of school’ texts
  29. 29. Discussion: Brazilian secondary public school students’ written production is misleveled: At school they are expected to master different genres in different subjects that require the use of metaphorical language Students’ perception towards their mastery in writing versus problems observed in the selected samples The mismatch between secondary school literacy requirements and students’ written production may lead into school failure
  30. 30. Implications Make teachers aware of the need to teach the grammatical metaphor Make secondary students understand the function of grammatical metaphor in writing Make learners able to use it in their texts in different disciplines Make educators - in general - aware of the real literacy situation which might be connected to social exclusion
  31. 31. Problems: Difficulties to identify and count nominalizations: Consider correct or incorrect forms? Ex: “condissões”; “atiramento” Which forms are actually metaphorical? Ex: “fazer saneamento básico”/ sanear How to apply automatic processing and computational tools to learners’ problematic texts? Ex: Software Palavras and Unitex
  32. 32. Future developments: Add the subcorpus of learner texts to the CORPOBRAS PUC- Rio ; Present results and publications in a site; Develop the analysis: to compare variation of the grammatical metaphor according to types of schools, different grades, etc. to study other lexico-grammatical transformations; Hold an event and prepare reports to share results with schools (teachers and students) Write teaching materials on the use of the grammatical metaphor
  33. 33. ReferencesBASÍLIO, M. M. P. ( 2007). Teoria Lexical. 8th. ed. São Paulo: Atica.CASTRO, L. A. (2009). Escrita e letramento no Ensino Médio: Uma abordagem sistêmico-funcional e de Lingüística Aplicada. Dissertação de Mestrado, Departamento de Letras. Rio de Janeiro: PUC-Rio.CHRISTIE, F.(2006). Developmental progress in learning English in secondary schooling. Paper presented at the 33rd International Systemic Functional Congress: PUC/SP: São Paulo.CHRISTIE, F. & DEREWIANKA, B. (2008). School Discourse . London & New York: Continuum.HALLIDAY, M.A.K. (1994). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. 2nd ed. London: Edward Arnold.HALLIDAY, M.A.K. (2006). Grammatical Metaphor. In J.J. Webster (Ed) Collected Works of M.A.K. Halliday, The Language of Science, volume 5, pp. 3-7. London & New York: Continuum.HALLIDAY, M.A.K. (2009). Grammatical Metaphor. In J.J. Webster (Ed), The Essential Halliday , pp.116-138. London & New York: Continuum.HEYVAERT, L. (2003). Nominalization as Grammatical Metaphor: on the need for a radically systemic and metafunctional approach. In: A-M Simon-Vandenbergen, M. Taverniers, & L. Ravelli, Grammatical Metaphor: views from systemic functional linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.MARTIN, J. R. (1993). Genre and Literacy – modeling context in educational linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 141-172.OLIVEIRA, L. P. (2006). Grammatical metaphors in academic texts: Cross-linguistic and cross-disciplinary contrasts. Paper presented at the 33rd International Systemic Functional Congress. PUC/SP, São Paulo,OLIVEIRA, L.P & VALÉRIO, R. (forthcoming). A metáfora gramatical na construção discursiva de gêneros do contexto pedagógico. Procedings of X Forum de Estudos Linguísticos, Rio de janeiro, UERJ.SIMON-VANDENBERGEN, A-M; TAVERNIERS,M. & RAVELLI, L. (2003).Grammatical Metaphor: views from systemic functional linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.VALÉRIO, R. G., BRITO, M. G. & OLIVEIRA, L.P. (2007). CORPOBRAS PUC-Rio: Um corpus do Português do Brasil e análise do discurso acadêmico. Paper presented at the VII Encontro da Ciência Empírica de Letras. Rio de Janeiro: UFRJ.

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