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Plasma - the 4th state of matter

Plasma- the 4th State of matter- the most abundant thing in the universe - and no one knows about it! this is an introduction to plasma cosmology with a little information about Electric Universe theory

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Plasma - the 4th state of matter

  1. 1. Plasma in the Educational Context<br />The Physics and the Metaphysics of the “4th State of Matter”<br />
  2. 2. What is plasma?<br />S: (n) plasma(physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors; a gas becomes a plasma when it is heated until the atoms lose all their electrons, leaving a highly electrified collection of nuclei and free electrons. "particles in space exist in the form of a plasma“ WordNetSearch - 3.0<br />
  3. 3. A few more definitions…<br />In physics and chemistry, plasma is a gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Wikipedia<br />Unorganized material; elementary matter. <br /> Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)<br />Plasma consists of a gas heated to sufficiently high temperatures that the atoms ionize . The properties of the gas are controlled by electromagnetic forces among constituent ions and electrons , which results in a different type of behavior. Plasma is often considered the fourth state of matter (besides solid, liquid, and gas). Most of the matter in the Universe is in the plasma state.<br /> Solar Physics Glossary<br />
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  5. 5. 4 States of Matter<br /> Solid <br /> Liquid<br /> Gas <br /> Plasma (which may make up 99.99 % of the <br /> entire Universe)<br />
  6. 6. 1st State of Matter?<br />Technically, plasma should be called the 1st state of matter, as it is what all the other states arise from.<br />Plasma as a concept is not taught in schools which is odd as it comprises much of our world. Most people have no idea what it is.<br />What are some examples of plasmas?<br />
  7. 7. Our Sun<br />
  8. 8. The Solar wind<br />
  9. 9. Interstellar and Interplanetary Space<br /> Space is not an empty vacuum. It is full of plasma, which conducts waves of electricity and sound.<br />
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  12. 12. Northern lights<br />
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  14. 14. Tesla Globes or Plasma Balls<br />
  15. 15. Other plasmas<br />
  16. 16. Non thermal or cold plasmas<br />Stable at cooler temperatures<br />Being used in medicine and food packing<br />Acts as a sterilizing agent<br />
  17. 17. Plasma is everywhere!<br />The Hubble telescope and other space probes have been providing us with lots of information about plasma in the last decade.<br />Plasma can be easily produced in a lab, and its behavior is scalable<br />Numerous technologies make <br /> use of plasma<br />People have known about it for<br /> over 130 years!<br />
  18. 18. Characteristics of plasma<br />Forms filaments, cells, sheaths<br />High intensity electric current flowing through plasma takes on spiral shape (Birkeland Current)<br />Forms double layer sheaths at outer boundaries of plasmas of different characters– high electric charge between double layers<br />Forms cells of different voltages, temperatures, density and chemical properties<br />
  19. 19. Plasma Operation Modes<br />Dark Current Mode- ionospheres (plasma sheaths) of planets – strength of current is extremely low – <br /> does not usually emit light <br />Normal Glow Mode – stronger electric current –entire plasma glows – neon signs, auroras, comet tails, sun’s corona<br />Arc Mode- very strong current- forms twisting filaments- electric welders, lightning, sparks, sun’s photosphere<br />The stronger the current, the brighter the plasma<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Was the first to “discover” plasma </li></ul> in 1879, in a Crookes Tube<br /><ul><li>Called it “radiant matter”</li></ul>Sir William Crookes<br />Crooke’s Tube<br />
  21. 21. Kristian Birkeland<br />Took trips to the North Pole where he <br /> studied auroras made theories <br /> about electric currents and plasma <br /> carried from sun to earth<br />His theories were ridiculed in his time<br />Birkeland currents named after him<br />
  22. 22. <ul><li>Coined the term plasma because it </li></ul> reminded him of blood plasma (1927)<br /><ul><li>Recognized the wave forms in plasma- </li></ul> called Langmuir waves<br /><ul><li>Developed Langmuir probe for exploring properties </li></ul> of plasmas<br /><ul><li>Made first plasma welder</li></ul>Irving Langmuir<br />Langmuir probe<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>Played a central role in the </li></ul> development of modern plasma<br /> physics<br /><ul><li>Won Nobel prize in 1970 for his work with </li></ul> plasmas<br /><ul><li>Regarded as a person with unorthodox views – </li></ul> work was met with resistance from peers<br />Hannes Alfven<br />
  24. 24. Present Day Plasma Proponents<br />WalThornhill<br />Co-Author “The Electric Universe”<br />Most well known current proponent of Electric Universe theory<br />Donald Scott<br />Author of “The Electric Sky”<br />Distinguished electrics professor who is also an amateur astronomer-<br />
  25. 25. Electric Universe Theory (EU)<br />Maintains modern astrophysics and cosmology leaves out the Electric aspect of plasma – for example, NASA refers to plasma as “hot gas” in press releases and public offerings <br />Says electricity, not gravity, is the defining force of the Universe<br />EU has no need for Black Holes, The Big Bang, Dark Matter or Dark Energy to explain the behavior of galaxies<br />EU is creating a grassroots revolution in modern cosmology- still academically rejected.<br />
  26. 26. Two views of our Sun<br />Electric Sun<br />Thermonuclear sun<br />Dynamic electric plasma powered by unlimited universal power source, fed by intergalactic Birkeland currents<br />“Solar Wind” is a stream of electricity from positively charged Sun to negatively charged Earth<br />Thermonuclear furnace of hot gas burning itself out<br />Completely disconnected from the rest of the galaxy/universe<br />Solar Wind is a hot gas stream flowing around earth<br />
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  28. 28. Plasma connects<br /> “From the smallest particle to the largest galactic formation, a web of electrical circuitry connects and unifies all of nature, organizing galaxies, energizing stars, giving birth to planets and, on our own world, controlling weather and animating biological organisms. There are no isolated islands in an electric universe”.   <br />David Talbott and Wallace ThornhillThunderbolts of the Gods<br />
  29. 29. Plasma Interacts<br />
  30. 30. Terrestrial Plasmas<br />Telluric currents are electrical currents in the earth's surface- across land and water- caused by the same phenomenon that generates the Northern Lights.<br />These are scientifically mapped thousands of miles long electrical currents flowing though continents. They were used to naturally power the old Telegraph System in the USA with no need for man- made power supplies<br />Terrestrial Birkeland currents?<br />Same thing as dragon lines/ley lines? This is a metaphysical concept<br />Same thing as acupuncture meridians?<br />
  31. 31. Could everything be condensed plasma?<br />
  32. 32. Metaphysics of plasma<br />
  33. 33. Chakras, Meridians, Nadis<br />
  34. 34. Electrical Disconnection<br />These concepts of human subtle energy flow are considered pseudoscience or metaphysics because allegedly they have not been successfully proven or measured.<br />As a consequence we are divorced of our awareness of ourselves as electrical beings alive in an electrical, connected universe.<br />
  35. 35. What is the consequence of the general population not knowing about plasma?<br />Life is perceived as chaotic, cold and meaningless. “we’re a rock in a vacuum spinning through nothingness, the consequence of impersonal cosmic forces”.<br />People have a yearning for a sense of connection- in an environment where everything is perceived as separate and separated, including bodies in space.<br />
  36. 36. Newtonian/Cartesian Educational Framework<br />Billiard Ball/Clockwork/Mechanistic<br /> Universe that is winding down<br />Mind is separate from body, man is separate from nature, god, each other<br />Discrete particles exist<br />Individuals existing in vacuum<br />Self sufficient individuals in competition with each other for limited resources and wealth<br />Values empiricism, objectivism<br />
  37. 37. Physics leads the sciences<br />Advances in Physics change how<br /> we see the world<br />The observer changes the observed. Heisenberg : is light a wave or a particle? Both, based on our perception- presence of observer alters outcome- <br />Opened door for researchers to see personal experience as valid and inevitable, less emphasis on objectivism<br />Opened up education for new conversations<br />
  38. 38. Some things to think about<br />What are the cosmological implications of an electrically connected plasma universe with regards to education?<br />What powers our biology? Every thought, being <br /> neuron based, is an electrical event. Indeed, all of our perceptions are electrical events<br />If you look at the universe this way, what is intuition? What is synchronicity? What is coherence?<br />Teaching and learning are based on the social exchange of energy and information<br />Education becomes about connectivity and energy flow- shared power between individuals<br />
  39. 39. Resources/References<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Scott, Donald, The Electric Sky<br />Thornhill, Wallace, The Electric Universe<br />Alfred, Jay, Our Invisible Bodies<br />Hay, David, Something There: the Biology of the Human Spirit <br />
  40. 40. Because in the Beginning <br /> was the Plasma<br /> From “The Electric Sky” by Donald Scott<br />