Open source


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history of open source are also advantages and disadvantages.

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Open source

  1. 1. Open Source Open source is a term for software which source code is provided by the developer to the public in order to learn how it works , modified or further developed , and disseminated . If the program makers forbid anyone to modify and redistribute the program or made, then the program is not open source , although the source code is available . Open source is one of the terms free software . Free software is definitely open source software , but open source software is not necessarily free software . Examples of free software is Linux . Examples of open source software is FreeBSD . Linux is licensed free software can not be converted into free software is not licensed , while FreeBSD is a licensed open source software can be changed to not open source . FreeBSD ( open source ) is one of the basis for the Mac OSX ( not open source ) . licenses includes the types of open source licenses . Beginning in 1994-1995 , the servers at the ITB started using FreeBSD as the operating system . FreeBSD is an open source operating system and resilient to network and server security . But then the network administrator at Computer Network Research Group ( CNRG ) ITB prefer laptop Mac with Mac OS X operating system BSD -based operating systems other than. The term open source ( open source code ) itself recently popularized in 1998. However , the history of open source software itself can be pulled far back since the hacker culture developed in the computer labs at American universities such as Stanford , Berkeley , Carnegie Mellon , and MIT in the 1960s and 1970s . Originally grew out of a community of programmers who are small but very tightly where they used to exchange the program code , and each person can modify a program created in accordance with the interests of others . Modification results also they disclose to the community .
  2. 2. The above developments such as pioneered by Richard Stallman and his colleagues are developing many applications in DEC PDP - 10 computer . Early 1980s hacker community at MIT and other universities were dissolved because stopping DEC PDP - 10 . As a result, many applications developed in the PDP - 10 to be much expired . PDP - 10 replacement , such as VAX and 68020 , has its own operating system , and none of them are free software . Users must sign a nondisclosure agreement to be able to get applications that can run on these operating systems . That's why in January 1984, Richard Stallman came out of MIT , so that MIT could not claim the devices he developed software . And in 1985 he founded the Free Software Foundation a non-profit organization . The main goal of this organization is to develop the operating system . With Stallman FSF has developed various software : gcc ( Compilers C ) , gdb ( debugger , Emacs ( text editor ) and other paraphernalia , which is known as GNU software . FSFnya But Stallman and until now have not succeeded in developing a system kernel operating its main target . failure There are several causes , one of which is the underlying operating system is developed by a small group of developers , and does not involve the broader community in its development . In 1991 , a student S2 in Finland began developing an operating system called Linux . Linus Torvalds throw in its development of the Linux source code is open for the community to be developed together . Linux community continues to grow which then eventually gave birth to Linux distributions are different but have the same foundation , namely the Linux kernel and the GNU glibc libraries such as RedHat , SuSE , Mandrake , Slackware , and Debian and other . Some of the above distributions have survived and large , even to produce a derivative distro , for example, is Distro Debian GNU / Linux . This distro has produced dozens of distros children , among others Ubuntu , Knoppix , Xandros , and others . Another major contribution of FSF software is in addition to the GPL ( GNU Public License ) , in which this license gives users the freedom to use and see the source code , modify and redistribute the software and also the freedom to make the results of these modifications remain freely distributed . Linus Torvalds also use this license on the basis of the development of Linux . Along with the stable release of the Linux distribution , is also increasing interest in the software is free for sharing such as Linux and the GNU , it also
  3. 3. increases the need to define the type of the software . But the terminology " free " is by the FSF raises many perceptions of each person . Most interpret freedom as defined in the GPL , and some interpret to mean free in the economy . The executives in the business world is also concerned because the existence of free software is considered strange . This prompted the emergence of the term " open source " in 1998, which also encourages the formation of the OSI ( Open Source Initiative ), a nonprofit organization that encourages socialization and integration of " Open Source " , which was initiated by Eric Raymond and his team . #Reasons to Use Open Source Software (+ Advantages and drawbacks) Open Source is a new system of distributing software to users by providing programs and source code for free. Even the user can learn and make modifications to make the software according to their needs. Security issues faced by the open source system, covers general security philosophy and how to make the system safer from intruders. Some computer users who are members of the user community of Open Source Software (OSS) and the free software argue that their program code is more secure because of weakness of their code more easily found and fixed by the user of the program. Meanwhile, community property rights argue that opening up access to the OSS program code will make it easier for certain groups to attack the program. The main features of the characteristics of open source is freedom of the user to: 1. Using the software as he wishes. 2. Have software available as needed. 3. Distribute software to other users.
  4. 4. Unlimited freedom for each person to access the source code is a double-edged sword for the software itself. This is due to the freedom to provide information about software flaws. Then, what happens is the exploitation of weaknesses. The hackers will use this weakness to do things that could harm the user software. The result will be worse if the software is vital software for users because it will allow the occurrence of fraud, identity theft, information theft, and so on. Some of the advantages of open source software , namely : 1. The existence of the right to distribute modifications and improvements to the code . 2. Availability of source code and the right to modify . 3. Not held hostage vendors , open source using open data formats , thus data is transparent and can be freely processed at different computers , while still maintaining safety. Thus , consumers are no longer bound to the will of the vendor to be able to use the data . 4. The number of personnel ( HR ) to work on projects , open source projects usually attract a lot of developers , such as the
  5. 5. development of the Apache web server draws thousands of people to participate in the development and monitoring . 5. Errors ( bugs , error ) be found and corrected quickly , this is because the number of developers it very much and are not restricted. Visual inspection ( eye - balling ) methodology is one of the most effective search bugs . In addition, the source code is available to make every person can suggest improvements without having to wait from the vendor . 6. Product quality is guaranteed , this is because the evaluation can be done by many people that the product quality could be better . However , this only applies to the bustling open source products developed people . Not forever open source developed by many people , because it can also be done by the individual . 7. Cost-effective , most developers are not paid . Thus , the cost can be saved and used for expenses that can not be delayed , eg buy server for web hosting . 8. Development does not repeat , repetition ( re - inventing the wheel ) is a waste . Any open source code that opens the way for a programmer to see the solutions that have been done by others . However , the fact remains a lot of repetition . 9. Users can modify and lock so that only a limited number of people who can read the code and modify it . 10. Privacy software which prevents unlawful .
  6. 6. Some disadvantages are : 1. Lack of human resources that can leverage open source , given the availability of the source code can be in vain, if human resources can not use it . Human resources was only able to use the product only, If so , then there is no difference between the product and the propriertary open source and closed . 2. The absence of protection of IPR , most people still think that open source is an asset that should be kept confidential . This is associated with the amount of effort that has been expended to make the product . Because of its nature can be abuse by people to steal ideas and work of others .
  7. 7. 3. Difficulty in knowing the status of the project . 4. There is no guarantee of development . 5. Modification by the limitations - certain people who create or modify previously . 6. For some platforms , for example JAVA which has a principle one could write and run anywhere, but there are some things that are not of JAVA competible with other platforms . For example J2SE SWT - AWT her bridge can not be run on Mac OS platforms . 7. Open Source is used for sharing , can pose a risk of lack of differentiation between the other software , if it happens to use some of the same open Source .