Defining non-defining clauses

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Defining and non defining relative clauses.

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Defining non-defining clauses

  1. 1. Defining / Non-definingrelative clauses Elsa Maximiano 2012
  2. 2. Defining or restrictive clausesDefining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictiverelative clauses) give detailed information defining a general termor expression.Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.Look at the picture and analyse the sentence. Not all the people like the rain. Some people smile when it rains. I like those people.
  3. 3. Defining or restrictive clausesDefining relative clauses are often used in definitions.A seaman is someone who works on a ship.Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped.(Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are calledContact Clauses.)The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.
  4. 4. Non-Defining or non-restrictive clausesNon-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something,but do not define it.Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.Look at the picture and analyse the sentence. All the people like the rain. , All the people smile when it rains. I like all those people.
  5. 5. Non-Defining or non-restrictive clausesNote: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replacedwith that.Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.
  6. 6. Defining or Non-Defining?
  7. 7. Defining or Non-Defining? Defining
  8. 8. Defining or Non-Defining? Defining
  9. 9. Defining or Non-Defining? DefiningNon-Defining
  10. 10. Defining or Non-Defining? DefiningNon-Defining
  11. 11. Defining or Non-Defining?Join the sentences with relative pronouns starting them as suggested. a) That lady was really nice. Her son is my workmate. (That lady) b) People may be disappointed. They have cyber relationships. (People) c)  Peter was really puzzled. He wondered how the old man knew so much about him. (Peter) d) People often lie in chatrooms. They pretend they are something they are definitely not (People) e)  Cyber romances are nice. They are based on the sharing of feelings. (Cyber romances) f) Students forget their duties. Their free time is spent in chatrooms. (Students) g) Póvoa is a nice city. Its inhabitants are friendly. (Póvoa) h) Online affairs are risky. They are often deceiving. (Online affairs) i) The girl sent me an electronic message. I met her at the conference. j) The boy was injured in the fire. He is now in hospital. k) Those ladies were very helpful. We’ve asked them for new sites. l) The police have found the little boy. His parents were on TV asking for help. m) The people were very friendly. They asked us for help with the car.
  12. 12. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  13. 13. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  14. 14. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  15. 15. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  16. 16. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  17. 17. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  18. 18. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  19. 19. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. g) Póvoa, whose inhabitants are friendly, is a nice city. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  20. 20. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. g) Póvoa, whose inhabitants are friendly, is a nice city. h) Online affairs, which are often deceiving, are risky. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  21. 21. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. g) Póvoa, whose inhabitants are friendly, is a nice city. h) Online affairs, which are often deceiving, are risky. i) The girl (that) I met at the conference sent me an e-mail. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  22. 22. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. g) Póvoa, whose inhabitants are friendly, is a nice city. h) Online affairs, which are often deceiving, are risky. i) The girl (that) I met at the conference sent me an e-mail. j) The boy who is now in hospital was injured in the fire. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  23. 23. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. g) Póvoa, whose inhabitants are friendly, is a nice city. h) Online affairs, which are often deceiving, are risky. i) The girl (that) I met at the conference sent me an e-mail. j) The boy who is now in hospital was injured in the fire. k) Those ladies, whom we asked them for new sites, were very helpful. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  24. 24. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. g) Póvoa, whose inhabitants are friendly, is a nice city. h) Online affairs, which are often deceiving, are risky. i) The girl (that) I met at the conference sent me an e-mail. j) The boy who is now in hospital was injured in the fire. k) Those ladies, whom we asked them for new sites, were very helpful. l) The police have found the little boy whose parents were on TV asking for help. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  25. 25. Defining or Non-Defining?Correction: a) That lady, whose son is my workmate, was really nice. b) People who have cyber relationships may be disappointed. c) Peter, who wondered how the old man knew so much about him, was really puzzled. d) People who pretend they are something they are definitely not often lie in chatrooms. e) Cyber romances, which are based on the sharing of feelings, are nice. f) Students whose free time is spend in chatrooms forget their duties. g) Póvoa, whose inhabitants are friendly, is a nice city. h) Online affairs, which are often deceiving, are risky. i) The girl (that) I met at the conference sent me an e-mail. j) The boy who is now in hospital was injured in the fire. k) Those ladies, whom we asked them for new sites, were very helpful. l) The police have found the little boy whose parents were on TV asking for help. m) The people who asked us for help with the car were very friendly. Sources: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses http://www.notapositiva.com/resumos/ingles/relativeclause.htm
  26. 26. Great work! Elsa Maximiano - 2012 teacherelsasblog.wordpress.com

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