Countries who allow women toserve in combat include: Australia Israel Canada Italy Denmark New Zealand Finland Norway France Sweden Germany Switzerland
Greece India the United Kingdom and the United Statesallow women to serve in Artillery roles.
Women serving in the military face unique personal and professional challenges that their male counterparts don’t:
1. Physical Fitness Women, on the average, have only 60 percent of the physical strength of men. They are shorter and smaller than men, with 25-30% less aerobic capacity, which is essential for endurance. The female skeletal system is less dense, and more prone to breakages.
Problem Women are not permitted into certain arenas of battle. Though there are periods in history where women have entered combat (Joan of Arc, during the Civil War, the World War II). Women are looked as too physically weak to withstand the challenges of combat and society considers it unacceptable for a woman to be killed or imprisoned and that military should remain a “male business”.
Israel ’ s military Israel is the only country in the world to conscript women and assign some of them to infantry combatant service which places them directly in the line of enemy fire.
2. HealthWomen’s physiology is different than men’s and it has a serious impact on their performance as soldiers.
Health Gender-Specific Needs: 1. The period, which requires more hygienic conditions than usual. 2. The demand of feminine hygiene products or gender-specific prescription. 3. Hormones can have influence on woman’s mood (stress) and sometimes on the ability to make credible decisions.
Health Mental Health Issues: Women who have been exposed to war zones may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition characterized by anxiety, depression, panic attacks, anger, nightmares, and more.The effects of sexual trauma (including harassment, assault, rape or other violent acts) can include depression, substance abuse, suicidal and intrusive thoughts. 13 to 30% of women serving in the military have experienced a form of such trauma.
Health Reproductive and Sexual Health: Women have sexual health and reproductive needs that can be more complicated and sensitive than mens.
No doubt, that men will turn their heads when a female soldier walks by. Of course, branches of the military have extremely strict policies and disciplinary codes. If you put males and females together in the closed area, far from home, for a long period of time one can’t expect them not having sex. This is a big problem because sexual relations have a serious impact on morale and relations between soldiers.
3. Sexual harassment Another side of sex problem is sexual harassment. It happens very often. Females will always be seen by males as sexual objects, regardless of them wearing uniform or not.
It’s shocking investigation into widespread sexual assault in the U.S. military as an urgent call to action. The film’s intention is not to tarnish the U.S. military or to reveal another psychological scar on its servicemen, and the director is careful to avoid directly linking the pervasive sexual misconduct to soldiers involved in the Iraq or Afghanistan conflicts. The purpose is simply to shed light on a horrifying situation and bring an end to the military authority’s inaction.
Pregnancy The pregnancy rate is at least 10% among servicewomen. Another 5% have had their babies and brought them back to the post. Pregnant female members may request a discharge, but such discharges are no longer automatic.
Problem 1. The military health care system faces difficulty for women delivering services suited to their needs. 2. Women may not report sexual trauma cases in fear of being held back in their careers, retribution from fellow soldiers or embarrasment.
4. ROLE The women’s roles in the military do not differ significantly from those of male members, aside from a few rules that have been instituted regarding their ability to participate in heavy combat situations.
All women in the military must learn to merge their two identities: woman and soldier. Sometimes they can lead certain male troops as officers
Problem 1. Female troops suffer a much higher divorce rate than do the military men. 2. The most important reason for leaving the military before retirement is the amount of time separated from family (the pull between family and career). 3. Women are forced to leave their children and spouse.
5. Career Advancement Career progression is often slower for women than for their male counterparts and they are underrepresented in the military’s senior ranks. Many servicewomen said they believed they had to work harder to receive the same level of recognition servicemen received.
In 2011 Marcia Andersen became the first African-American woman in the US army promoted to Major General (a high-ranking officer).
6. Cultural and Ethnic Discrimination Women in the military are more likely to be of a minority racial or ethnic background than their male counterparts. 20% of women in service are black, while 7% are Hispanic and 2% are Asian. Besides having to battle sexism, these minority servicewomen may find themselves battling racial stereotypes and cultural discrimination as well.