Introduction to the History of English

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The origin of the English Language, its main characteristics, the periods of its development

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Introduction to the History of English

  1. 2. <ul><li>The United Kingdom; </li></ul><ul><li>The United States; </li></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth Nations (Australia, Canada, etc) </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>A West Germanic language; </li></ul><ul><li>The Indo-European language family; </li></ul><ul><li>53 Germanic languages: English (340 mln); German (120 mln); Dutch, Afrikaans, Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish); </li></ul><ul><li>Common Germanic (1 millennium BC); </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic translation of the New Testament by Ulfias (the 4 th century); </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-Frisian dialects </li></ul><ul><li>The 5 cent. AD </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: 449. Vortigen, “the Angle kin”, the Picts; </li></ul><ul><li>The Saxons, the Jutes; </li></ul><ul><li>7 kingdoms </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>AD 450 – 1100 Old English (Anglo-Saxon) – Beowulf; </li></ul><ul><li>AD 1100 – 1500 Middle English – Chaucer; </li></ul><ul><li>AD 1500 – 1800 Early Modern English (Renaissance English) – Shakespeare; </li></ul><ul><li>AD 1800 – present Modern English - the language spoken today </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Camp; </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese; </li></ul><ul><li>Cook; </li></ul><ul><li>Dragon; </li></ul><ul><li>Fork; </li></ul><ul><li>Giant; </li></ul><ul><li>Inch; </li></ul><ul><li>Kettle </li></ul><ul><li>Linen; </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Mile; </li></ul><ul><li>Noon; </li></ul><ul><li>Oil; </li></ul><ul><li>Pillow; </li></ul><ul><li>Pin; </li></ul><ul><li>Pound; </li></ul><ul><li>Soap; </li></ul><ul><li>Street; </li></ul><ul><li>Table; </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Wall; </li></ul><ul><li>wine </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Anchor; </li></ul><ul><li>Butter; </li></ul><ul><li>Cat; </li></ul><ul><li>Chest; </li></ul><ul><li>Devil </li></ul><ul><li>Dish; </li></ul><ul><li>sack </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>The mid-fifth and the mid-twelfth cent.; </li></ul><ul><li>Old Frisian; Old Saxon; the Norse language (the Vikings); </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic heritage: Good Day (Modern English) – Gōdne dæg ( Old English ) – Goedendag (M odern Dutch) – Guten Tag (Modern German) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>A fully inflected language; </li></ul><ul><li>5 grammatical cases; </li></ul><ul><li>Dual forms; </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: sēo sunne (the Sun) – feminine, se mōna (the Moon) - masculine </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Two dozen loanwords; </li></ul><ul><li>Thames; </li></ul><ul><li>Avon; </li></ul><ul><li>Dover; </li></ul><ul><li>London; </li></ul><ul><li>Kent </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Plante (plant), win (wine), cyse (cheese), catte (cat), cetel (kettle), disc (dish), candel (candle); </li></ul><ul><li>Belt (belt), weall (wall), ceaster (city), stræt (street), pund (pound), mæsse (Mass), munuc (monk) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>I – before the Saxons left Europe – Vulgar Latin – 200 words; </li></ul><ul><li>II – when the Anglo-Saxons were converted to Christianity: Heaven, Hell , God, Easter, Holy Ghost, Sin; </li></ul><ul><li>III – following the Norman invasion (1066); </li></ul><ul><li>Transition from the runic alphabet to the Latin alphabet: silent letters ( cniht –knight); variable spelling ( and: and, ond) </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The 9 th and 10 th cent.; </li></ul><ul><li>Sky, leg, they ; </li></ul><ul><li>Danelaw; </li></ul><ul><li>The decline of case endings </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>4 main dialects: Mercian, Northumbrian, Kentish, West Saxon; </li></ul><ul><li>878 – Alfred the Great </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>The runic alphabet (3 rd cent.AD) – 4 000 inscriptions; </li></ul><ul><li>Common runic alphabet – 24 letters; </li></ul><ul><li>English runic alphabet – 32 symbols – 9 th cent. - Northumbria; </li></ul><ul><li>OE alphabet proper was based on the Roman alphabet – 24 letters: a, æ, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, I, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, ϸ , ∂*, u, w, y </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>DID NOT DEPEND UPON STRICT AND DIRECT WORD ORDER; </li></ul><ul><li>The verb must come as the second concept: I saw him yesterday; Yesterday, saw I him; Yesterday, saw him I. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>VERBS: strong and weak </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Verbs (7 classes): conjugation – modern irregular verbs; </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Verbs (3 classes) – modern regular verbs; </li></ul><ul><li>Anomalous verbs – modern modal verbs; </li></ul><ul><li>NOUNS: declensions; </li></ul><ul><li>5 cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Æ ϸ elbald lufode ϸ one cyning; </li></ul><ul><li>ϸæs cyninges scip; </li></ul><ul><li>Hringas ϸ æm cyninge; </li></ul><ul><li>Lifde sweorde; </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives: 5 cases, 3 genders, numbers, strong and weak; </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners: se (the, that), ϸ es (this) </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns : number (singular, plural, dual), case, gender </li></ul>

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