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Eman Shirazi

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  1. 1. Fossil Fuels<br />By: EmanShirazi<br />Period 9<br />
  2. 2. What are Fossil Fuels?<br />Fossil Fuels are a non-renewable source of energy. They are formed from plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago, fossil fuels are found beneath the earth. The fuels are burned to release the chemical energy that is stored within this resource. We need energy every day. Over 85% of our energy are met by fossil fuels.<br />
  3. 3. What are the Different Types of Fossil Fuels?<br />There are three types of fossil fuels which can all be used for energy, coal, oil and natural gas.<br />Coal- is hard, and black. Its like a rock substance. It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and a little sulphur. There are three main types of coal - anthracite, bituminous and lignite. Anthracite coal -hardest and has more carbon, this has higher energy .<br />Lignite is the softest.Low in carbon but high in hydrogen and oxygen. Bituminous is in between.<br />Natural gas- Is a fossil fuel that is abundant and clean compared to coal and oil. Like oil it is made up of remains of marine microorganisms. It is a relatively new type of energy source.<br />Oil-is a liquid fossil fuel that is formed from the remains of marine microorganisms that were left on the bottom of the sea floor. Oil is the most widely used fossil fuel.<br />
  4. 4. How is Coal Formed<br />Its formed by a process called "coalification." During coalification, peat goes through several changes as a result of bacterial decay, compaction, heat, and time.<br />This Picture says it all.<br />
  5. 5. How we use Oil, Coal, and Natural Gas as Fossil Fuels.<br />In America, we use oil for fuel for lamps and lighting. Humans also use oil to manufacture medicine, plastics and other materials.<br />Natural gas is used to create steal, glass, paper, electricity and more. Some raw materials that use this gas are fertilizers, paints, photographic film, and much more. People also use natural gas as a heating supplementary in their homes. We can also use it for dryers, stoves and water heaters. I also mentioned this before.<br />Industries take apart coal and use its ingredients to make products such as plastic, medicines and more. 93% of the coal used in the United States is used for producing electricity. Also<br />
  6. 6. How is Oil and Natural Gas Formed?<br />After crude oil is removed from the ground is is sent to a refinery. At the refinery, different parts of the crude oil are separated into useable petroleum products. Crude oil is measured in barrels. <br />Natural gas is a gas that consists of methane. It is found associated with other fossil fuels. Usually found in coal beds. It is created by methanogenic organisms. It is an important fuel source. It is used to produce steel, glass , paper, brick, electricity. Also paints, fertilizer, plastic, antifreeze, dyes, photographic film, medicines, and explosives<br />
  7. 7. Natural Gas Formation Continue.<br />Natural gas is usually found near petroleum underground. It is pumped from below ground and travels in pipelines to storage areas. Natural gas usually has no smell and you can't see it. Before it is sent to the pipelines and storage tanks, it is mixed with a chemical that gives a strong odor. The odor smells almost like rotten eggs. The odor makes it easy to smell if there is a leak.<br />
  8. 8. Refineries<br />Refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value.<br />There important because, oil refinery or petroleum refinery is a industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, like gasoline. Oil refineries are usually large building with a lot of piping running through it. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of as types of chemical plants.<br />
  9. 9. Exxon Valdez Oil spill<br />The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William sound, Alaska on march 24, 1989, when the Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker bound for long Beach, California, hit Prince William Sounds Bligh Reef and spilled about 10.8 million US gallons of crude oil. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human- caused envirmental disasters ever to occur in history. It’s the biggest oil spill in US. <br />Oil, worth millions of dollars, flowing out of the Exxon ValdezcostedExxon about $1.28 billion dollars to clean up. Each Sea Otter saved would cost Exxon forty thousand dollars after feeding them lobster and crayfish that was flown in every day. The boats used in the cleanup were chartered for as much as eight thousand dollars a day. Fishermen were given seventy-five million dollars to make up for lost fishing revenues. Exxon provided villages along shorelines with food because hunting and fishing had been interrupted. The cost of this cleanup was equivalent to one fifth of Exxon's revenue for the year.<br />
  10. 10. Continue of Exxan Valdez<br />The effect on the animals and birds has been huge. The immediate impact of the oil spill was readily apparent as 33,126 birds, their feathers soaked in oil, were found either dead or dying. Sea Otters were especially vulnerable because the oil disintegrated the fur's ability to insulate and caused a loss in buoyancy.<br />The animals froze to death and drowned in the arctic waters. The otters tried to lick the oil off their fur coat, an act that resulted in the ingestion of oil which prompted further fatalities. The death toll for the otters rose to approximately three thousand. The already slim eagle population decreased with the loss of one hundred and thirty-eight birds. The effects on the bears, whales, sea lions, salmon, herring and a multitude of other animals remained unknown as cleanup efforts were confused and very expensive.<br />
  11. 11. Deep Water Horizon Oil.<br />Deepwater Horizon Oil Catastrophe Deepwater Horizon was an ultra-deepwater, dynamically positioned, semi-submersible offshore drilling rig which sank on April 22, 2010, causing the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The spill was the result of an explosion two days earlier where 11 crewmen died. Deepwater Horizon was built in 2001 in South Korea. It released in September 2013. It was registered in Majuro , Marshall Islands . In September 2009, the rig drilled the deepest oil well in history at a vertical depth of 35,050 feet and measured depth of 35,055 feet. The oil spill may become one of the worst environmental disasters in United States history.<br />
  12. 12. The Deep Water Horizon Clean up and Effect it had on enviroment.<br />officials launched a major clean-up operation. They were deploying 500,000 feet of boom to contain the spill and spraying chemicals from aircraft to disperse the oil. Several boats were deployed to skim the oil from the surface.<br />170 vessels and almost 7,500 human resources involved in the cleanup, with another 2,000 volunteers assisting. The environment was threatened when there was news of a slick, endangering more than 400 species<br />
  13. 13. Extra.<br />Fossil fuels are popular and widely used because when they burn in air, energy is released. This energy is used for cars, aircraft's and to supply electricity. Natural gas is used for cooking and heating. Some power stations burn huge amounts of coal to produce enough energy for electricity supply to towns and cities.<br />
  14. 14. Exxan Spill <br />Deep Water Horizon<br />
  15. 15. Extra Pictures.<br />