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Epics and User Stories

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Understand Epics and User stories in context of Agile / Scrum

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Epics and User Stories

  1. 1. Epics and User Stories
  2. 2. Agenda  Need of Epics and User Stories  Understanding Epics  Understanding User Stories
  3. 3. Need There should be a way to:  define requirements / features at high level  break high level requirements into smaller understandable pieces  quickly estimating of schedule (both short term and long term)  prioritizing requirements of higher business value over lower ones  communicate requirements to development team more simply / effectively
  4. 4. Epic
  5. 5. Epic  Product Backlog item or User Story too big to complete in 1 Sprint  Simple Epic  may be small enough to be completed in as few as two Sprints  need to be broken down so that the team can deliver value in a given Sprint – Done at Backlog Refinement  Large Epic  might take the entire company several Quarters or Years  Requires the PO to work with Leadership and the Team to create Road Map, so most valuable features are created first
  6. 6. Epic as PBI (Product Backlog Item)  Most User Stories or PBIs as originally written are Epics  Usually written by a PO or a Customer with knowledge of the product but not of the development process  Backlog Refinement meeting is where the Team works with the PO to break the Epic down appropriately
  7. 7. Epics and Business Value  Epics are components of the Enterprise’s vision  Business Value can be best estimated at this level
  8. 8. Levels Daily level Sprint level Release level Product level Version / Theme / Large Epic EPIC 1 / Feature 1 Story 1 Task 1 Story 2 EPIC 2 Story 1 Task 1
  9. 9. Break Epics into Stories  As a frequent flyer I want to book flights customized to my preferences, so I save time  As a frequent flyer I want to book a trip using miles so that I can save money  As a frequent flyer I want to easily book a trip I take often so that I can save time  As a premium frequent flyer I want to request an upgrade so I can be more comfortable
  10. 10. User Stories
  11. 11. What is a User Story?  Simple, Clear, short description of customer valued functionality  User Stories are NOT part of the Scrum framework  User Stories are an eXtreme Programming technique  This may optionally be used to capture Product Backlog Items  The Product Backlog is the Scrum Artifact  User Stories capture Who, What and Why of any requirement  3Cs – Card, Conversation, Confirmation  Conversation rather than documentation
  12. 12. Leveraging User Roles and Personas  Write story from user’s perspective  Understand the user’s goal for the story  Understand the user’s value from the story  Use human users  Avoid generic “as a user” or “as a customer”  If you have identified Personas, the story could be written from the point of view of this character/user
  13. 13. User Story Template Title: Priority: As a [type of user], I want [goal] so that [Value] Notes: Assumptions: Constraints: Estimate:
  14. 14. User Story Example Checkout Using Credit Card Priority: 25 As a book shopper, I can checkout using my credit card So that I can purchase a selected book. Notes: Support mc, visa, amex Constraints: Must use SBI payment gateway Estimate: 13pts
  15. 15. Acceptance Criteria  Given [context]  When [some event]  Then [outcome]
  16. 16. Acceptance Criteria  Checkout using Credit Card  Test with valid mc, visa, amex - passes  Test with valid other cards – fails  Test with expired cards – fails  Test with invalid cvv – fails  Test with invalid zip – fails
  17. 17. Collaboration  Conversation  How do I describe what I want?  How do I validate that this work is done?  How do I code this feature?  What are the details of this feature?
  18. 18. Progressive Elaboration Upcoming Sprint Future Sprint Next Release
  19. 19. Attributes of a Good User Story  Good User Story can be written by following I.N.V.E.S.T.  I = Independent  N = Negotiable  V = Valuable  E = Estimable  S = Sizeable small to be completed in a Sprint  T = Testable
  20. 20. Additional Documentation  The conversation might lead to additional documentation  HLD document  Detailed design document  Specifications document  RTM  Test Plan  Wireframes  Use cases  Just in time documentation  Just enough documentation
  21. 21. Which is Most Important?  Who – As a type of user ..  What – I want..  Why – So that..  How – Conversation..  Acceptance Criteria..
  22. 22. When to Split User Stories  Split stories that are dependent on each other  Split stories that are too big  Split stories into spikes if complex or risky  Split compound stories  A good rule of thumb is to watch out for conjunctions:  As a restaurant seeker I need to be able to find a restaurant that fit my taste and budget and is close to my location and that takes online reservations so that I can plan a dinner outing with friends
  23. 23. How to Split User Stories  Stories should represent some level of end to end functionality  Do not split into task like design, code frontend, code middle tier, code backend  Deliver cohesive subset of all layers  Do simplest thing that could possibly work
  24. 24. Vertical Slicing Story 1 Story 2 Story 3
  25. 25. Pattern for Splitting Stories  Cross Cutting Concerns  Security  Logging  Error handling  Performance  Priority  Necessity  Flexibility  Safety  Comfort, luxury, performance  Business rules
  26. 26. Building the Initial Product Backlog 1. What are the high level stories (epics) ? 2. What are the stories ? 3. Which epics are most important ? MOSCOW, Kano, ROI, NPV, NPV/point 4. Which stories are most important within a epic ? 5. What transaction by which user yields the most immediate revenue, Do this first. 6. This starts to generate a single ordered list – the Product Backlog 7. Get the top of the Product Backlog READY for the first Sprint
  27. 27. 28 Q&A
  28. 28. Manish Agrawal, [CSP] 29 Thanks

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