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PLC, by Mohamed Al-Emam, Session 1


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One of my past projects to share knowledge in CSED foundation in CAT. presented in the Mansoura Faculty of Engineering. 02-02-2009

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PLC, by Mohamed Al-Emam, Session 1

  1. 1. Session 01By Emamof Presented in 02-02-2009
  2. 2. TARGET TO  CONTROL SYS. Automatic Controller WHAT Origin of PLC History Sizes of PLC’s Cycle of Operation Which APPLICATIONS N REAL PLC H.W Components: INPUT TO PLC ,SENSING CONCEPTS
  3. 3. Open loopClosed loop Control System
  4. 4. AnalogDigital Control System
  5. 5. Control systemMotion Sequential
  6. 6. Batch Processhas a beginning and an end “complete product control process” , Some applications require that specific quantities of raw materials be combined in specific ways for particular durations to produce an intermediate or end result.Example:production of food and medicine.
  7. 7. Continuous ProcessOften, a physical system is represented though variables that are smooth and uninterrupted in time.Example :control of the water temperature in a heating jacket,
  8. 8. DiscreteIt is Not independent, Most discrete manufacturing involves the production of discrete pieces of productExamples : metal stamping. automotive production.
  9. 9. Hybrid Applications having elements of discrete, batch and continuous process control are often called hybrid applications.
  10. 10. Sequential ControlControl a process that is a series of tasks to be performed (sequence of operation ),each task is performed under :- Time driven . Common in open loop sys Event driven . Common in closed loop sysExample washing machineIn PLC the SFC is powerful Lang for it .
  11. 11. Motion ControlControlling motion in electromechanical sys Rotational or Linear by Servomotor. Digital by NC (Numerical Control). 3 dimension by Robotic.
  13. 13. Automatic controllers  µC==Microcontroller.  FPGA not FBGA.  PC  Mr. PLC  DCS== Distributed Control System  SCADA == Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition  CNC == Computer Numerical Control  PAC ==Programmable Automation Controller
  14. 14. SCADA
  15. 15. WHAT Programmable logic controllers, also called programmable controllers or PLCs, are solid-state members of the computer family, using integrated circuits instead of electromechanical devices to implement control functions. They are capable of storing instructions, such as sequencing, timing, counting, arithmetic, dat a manipulation, and communication, to control industrial machines and processes
  16. 16. Intro 2 Microprocessor andMicrocontroller world.
  17. 17. Microprocessor The block that will have a built in capability to Add “multiply, divide, subtract”, and move its contents from one memory location onto another is called "central processing unit" (CPU).
  18. 18. Characteristics differentiatemicroprocessors Instruction set The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute bandwidth The number of bits processed in a single instruction clock speed Given in megahertz MHz the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute
  19. 19. MicrocontrollerA microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a functional computer system-on-a-chip.It contains a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.
  20. 20. Microcontroller Architecture
  21. 21. Why Coz we can say Microcontroller= Microprocessor +Memory +i/o Peripherals. PLC’s=Microcontroller +I/O Interfaces.
  22. 22. Dick Morley==Richard E. MorleyFounder of Modicon (now Schneider Automation, Inc)
  23. 23. History of PLCs The first Programmable Logic Controllers were designed and developed by Modicon as a relay replacer for GM and Landis The first PLC, model 084, was invented by Dick Morley in 1969 The first commercial successful PLC, the 184, was designed by Michael Greenberg in 1973
  24. 24. Sizes of PLC’s
  25. 25. Single Board PLCs “ Open FramePLCs”.
  26. 26. PLC System With High-DensityI/O (64-point modules).
  27. 27. PLC market canbe segmentedinto five groups:1. micro2. small3. medium4. large5. very large
  28. 28. Cycle of operate PLC’s input  scan  execute programme  degonistic and commenucation scan  output scan
  29. 29. PLC conceptual applicationdiagram.
  30. 30. Sequence of PLC control When a process is controlled by a PLC it uses inputs from sensors to make decisions and update outputs to drive actuators The process is a real process that will change over time. Actuators will drive the system to new states (or modes of operation). This means that the controller is limited by the sensors available, if an input is not available, the controller will have no way to detect a condition “real time system “.
  31. 31. Number Of Scan Special I/O Time Modules Memory Communications SoftwareNumber Of AvailabilityLogical I/O Select PLC Peripherals Type Of Controller
  32. 32. Packaging Machine
  33. 33. Pick And Place Robot Control
  34. 34. swimming pool
  35. 35. sewage/water treatment
  36. 36. Chemical processing plant
  37. 37. Food/Drugs Production
  38. 38. Petrochemical ,Petrol/Gas Plant
  39. 39. Amusement Park Control
  40. 40. Scientific Experiments CERN LHC CERN built LHC 27Klm …this experiment is controlled by PLC
  41. 41. Also Martial Handling Plastic Machine Conveyor System Semi Conductors/IC Pump Control Manufacturing Paper And Pulp Industries Air Condition Control "For Glass Manufacturing Huge Sheller " Precast Concrete Generator Control System Industries Lift Control System Cement Manufacture Iron And Steel Manufacturing Printing Industries Traffic Light System Electro-plating Plants Power Stations Machine Tools
  42. 42. BUTthere is NO horizon for the Applications !!
  43. 43. PLC H.W Components: CPU =ALU +CU System Busses Memory I/O Sections Power Supply Unit Programming Device
  44. 44. Programming DeviceThe programming device is used to enter the required program into the memory of the processor.The program is DEVELOPED in the programming device and then TRANSFERRED TO MEMORY unit of the PLC.
  45. 45. CPUMicroprocessor based, allow arithmetic operations, logic operators, block memory moves, computer interface ,and local area network, functions,.. etc.CPU makes a great number of CHECK-UPS of the PLC controller itself so eventual errors would be discovered early.This is an intro to a point in next session
  46. 46. I/O SectionsInputs monitor field devices, such as switches and sensors.Outputs control other devices, such as motors, pumps, solenoid valves, and lights.
  47. 47. Power Supply UnitMost PLC controllers work either at 24 VDC or 220 VAC.Some PLC controllers have electrical supply as a separate module, while small and medium series already contain the supply module.Max current is 10mA.
  48. 48. MemorySystem (ROM) to give permanent storage for the operating system and the fixed data used by the CPU.RAM for data. This is where information is stored on the status of input and output devices and the values of timers and counters and other internal devices. EPROM for ROM’s that can be programmed and then the program made permanent.
  49. 49. Cpu
  50. 50. Von Neumann
  51. 51. System BussesThe internal paths along which the digital signals flow within the PLC are called busses.The system has four busses:  The CPU uses the DATA BUS for sending data between the different elements,  The ADDRESS BUS to send the addresses of locations for accessing stored data,  The CONTROL BUS for signals relating to internal control actions,  The SYSTEM BUS is used for communications between the I/O ports and the I/O unit.
  52. 52. Switches
  53. 53. Proximity switchInductive Capacitive
  54. 54. Sensors Feed back elements which convert the physical quantity into electrical signals Now we introduce some sensors as refreshment ,Let me go ahead ☺
  55. 55. Useful RuleIfU can measure it ,U can control itObama say if the sun light is can measure it and emamof say this is the 1st exception is provide the truth of the rule 
  56. 56. 1- Potentiometers
  57. 57. 2- Encoders
  58. 58. Incremental encoder
  59. 59. 3 -Tachometers
  60. 60. Tachometers
  61. 61. 4- Linear Variable DifferentialTransformers (LVDTs)
  62. 62. LVDTs
  63. 63. 5 - Moire Fringes
  64. 64. $5 Moire Fringes These are used in high precision applications over long distances, often meters. They can be purchased from a number of suppliers, but the cost will be high. Typical applications include Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs).
  65. 65. $6 Accelerometers
  66. 66. 6- Chemical pH The pH of an ionic fluid can be measured over the range from a strong base (alkaline) with pH=14, to a neutral value, pH=7, to a strong acid, pH=0. These measurements are normally made with electrodes that are in direct contact with the fluids.
  67. 67. 7 -Thermocouples
  68. 68. 8 -Resistive TemperatureDetectors (RTDs)
  69. 69. RTDs
  70. 70. 9 -Venturi Valves
  71. 71. 10-Photoelectric
  72. 72. OPPOSED
  74. 74. REFLECTION
  76. 76. 11- Pressure
  77. 77. Break Can u tell me which of sensors can use as position sensor in last example ?
  78. 78.  This is not all thing about sensors we can not talk about more, Coz the target is DONE ISA