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‫ایران‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫شهر‬ ‫آرمان‬
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫قابلیت‬ ‫ساخت‬
‫جلسه‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫درس‬‫هفتم‬
‫دانش‬ ‫عصر‬ ‫کیمیاگران‬ ‫موسسه‬
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫تعریف‬
•‫سال‬ ‫در‬ ‫که‬ ‫بود‬ ‫کسی‬ ‫اولین‬ ‫برگر‬ ‫شونی‬1982‫و‬ ‫کرد‬ ‫استفاده‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫از‬
‫دارد‬ ‫مفهوم‬ ‫این‬ ‫نوبودن‬ ‫از‬ ‫نشان‬ ‫این‬.
•‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬(WCM)‫در‬ ‫تولیدکددفدگان‬ ‫بهتفرین‬ ‫تعریف‬ ‫برای‬ ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫ای‬ ‫واژه‬
‫است‬ ‫رفته‬ ‫کار‬ ‫به‬ ‫جهان‬.
•‫ساخت‬ ‫زمیده‬ ‫در‬ ‫دوم‬ ‫صدعتی‬ ‫انقالب‬ ‫یعدی‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬‫؛‬
•‫مشتری‬ ‫با‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫و‬ ‫بازار‬ ‫به‬ ‫نسبت‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫نگرش‬ ‫یک‬ ‫یعدی‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬‫ان‬‫؛‬
•‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫و‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫در‬ ‫خدمات‬ ‫و‬ ‫کاال‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫یعدی‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬.
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫تعریف‬
•‫سف‬ ‫در‬ ‫سفاخت‬ ‫روشهای‬ ‫و‬ ‫فعالیتها‬ ‫سری‬ ‫یک‬ ‫شامل‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫کلی‬ ‫طور‬ ‫به‬‫طح‬
‫از‬ ‫عبارتدد‬ ‫آنها‬ ‫عمده‬ ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫جهانی‬:
.1‫پیوسته‬ ‫و‬ ‫ناب‬ ‫تولید‬
.2‫جامع‬ ‫کیفیت‬ ‫مدیریت‬
.3‫جامع‬ ‫و‬ ‫بهرور‬ ‫نگهداری‬
.4‫مثبت‬ ‫تغییرات‬ ‫به‬ ‫سریع‬ ‫دستیابی‬
.5‫شرکت‬ ‫امور‬ ‫در‬ ‫کارکدان‬ ‫جامع‬ ‫درگیرکردن‬ ‫و‬ ‫کارکدان‬ ‫جامع‬ ‫عملکرد‬ ‫ارزیابی‬
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫ساخت‬ ‫وجودی‬ ‫علت‬
•‫ارتباطات‬ ‫سریع‬ ‫رشد‬
•‫داران‬ ‫سرمایه‬ ‫طلبی‬ ‫مدفعت‬
•‫نقل‬ ‫و‬ ‫حمل‬ ‫وسایل‬ ‫رشد‬ ‫و‬ ‫توسعه‬
•‫امپریالیستی‬ ‫طلبی‬ ‫سلطه‬
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬
•‫شرایط‬‫ماسسفات‬ ‫از‬ ‫بسفیاری‬ ‫کفه‬ ‫اسفت‬ ‫شده‬ ‫باعث‬ ‫امروز‬ ‫دنیای‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫پرآشوب‬ ‫و‬ ‫پرشتاب‬
‫ر‬ ‫که‬ ‫گیرند‬ ‫قرار‬ ‫شرایطی‬ ‫در‬ ،‫بودند‬ ‫ای‬ ‫ویژه‬ ‫جایگاه‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫خود‬ ‫فعالیت‬ ‫حیطه‬ ‫بازار‬ ‫در‬ ‫که‬ ‫تجاری‬‫قبایی‬
‫سف‬ ‫بفه‬ ‫اطالعات‬ ‫فداوری‬ ‫رشد‬ ‫با‬ ‫که‬ ‫درحالی‬ ‫کدد؛‬ ‫تهدید‬ ‫را‬ ‫آنان‬ ‫موجودیت‬ ‫دنیا‬ ‫نقاط‬ ‫دورترین‬ ‫از‬‫تی‬
‫شد‬ ‫متصور‬ ‫سازمان‬ ‫یک‬ ‫عملکرد‬ ‫برای‬ ‫ای‬‫حیطه‬ ‫توان‬‫می‬.‫پف‬ ‫در‬ ‫تجفارت‬ ‫و‬ ‫مدیریت‬ ‫علوم‬ ‫کارشداسان‬‫ی‬
‫به‬ ‫بفرای‬ ‫راککارکفایی‬ ‫ارائفه‬ ‫و‬ ‫متحول‬ ‫محیط‬ ‫این‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫شرایط‬ ‫تفسیر‬ ‫و‬ ‫توضیح‬ ‫یافتن‬‫بفود‬
‫بهبف‬ ‫و‬ ‫تلفیف‬ ،‫جدیفد‬ ‫کای‬‫ایفده‬ ‫خلف‬ ‫به‬ ‫دست‬ ‫مدظور‬ ‫این‬ ‫به‬ ‫و‬ ‫کستدد‬ ‫سازمانها‬ ‫رقابتی‬ ‫موقعیت‬‫ود‬
‫زندد‬‫می‬ ‫موجود‬ ‫مفاکیم‬.‫مدیریت‬ ‫جدید‬ ‫مفاکیم‬ ‫این‬ ‫جمله‬ ‫از‬"‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫ساخت‬"‫باشد‬ ‫می‬.
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬
•‫کزی‬ ‫کمترین‬ ‫با‬ ‫اطمیدان‬ ‫قابلیت‬ ‫و‬ ‫،کیفیت‬ ‫کارائی‬ ‫خواکان‬ ‫مشتری‬ ‫کر‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫محیط‬ ‫در‬‫امکفان‬ ‫دفه‬
‫است‬ ‫رقابتی‬ ‫و‬ ‫پذیر‬.‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫محصول‬ ‫عمر‬ ‫چرخه‬ ‫تجاری‬ ‫مطالعات‬ ‫باید‬ ‫مهددسان‬ ،‫مقصود‬ ‫این‬ ‫به‬ ‫رسیدن‬ ‫برای‬‫نجفام‬
‫بهتفرین‬ ‫ساخت‬ ‫مدظور‬ ‫به‬ ‫اطمیدان‬ ‫قابلیت‬ ‫و‬ ‫،کیفیت‬ ‫کارائی‬ ‫ترکیب‬ ‫که‬ ‫بگیرند‬ ‫تصمیم‬ ‫تا‬ ‫دکدد‬‫چفه‬ ‫محصفول‬
‫باشد‬.
•‫بف‬ ‫ورود‬ ‫تا‬ ‫طراحی‬ ‫مرحله‬ ‫از‬ ‫محصول‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫کای‬ ‫شاخه‬ ‫تمام‬ ‫ای‬ ‫گسترده‬ ‫بصورت‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫در‬ ‫رقابت‬ ‫امروزه‬‫ه‬
‫است‬ ‫گرفته‬ ‫بر‬ ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫مصرف‬ ‫بازار‬.‫مشفتم‬ ‫و‬ ‫کفار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسفب‬ ‫فعالیفت‬ ‫کزاران‬ ‫تقاضای‬ ‫بر‬ ‫مبتدی‬ ‫رقابت‬ ‫این‬‫بفر‬ ‫ل‬
‫است‬ ‫خدمات‬ ‫و‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫فرآیدد‬ ‫و‬ ‫محصول‬ ‫توسعه‬ ، ‫بازار‬ ‫تحقیقات‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫کا‬ ‫فعالیت‬ ‫از‬ ‫وسیعی‬ ‫محدوده‬.
‫در‬ ‫سازمان‬
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬
‫جهانی‬ ‫بازار‬ ‫به‬ ‫ورود‬ ‫های‬ ‫استراتژی‬
Which strategy should be used?
• It depends on:
• Vision
• Attitude toward risk
• How much investment capital is available
• How much control is desired
Licensing
• A contractual agreement whereby one company (the licensor) makes
an asset available to another company (the licensee) in exchange for
royalties, license fees, or some other form of compensation
• Patent
• Trade secret
• Brand name
• Product formulations
Advantages to Licensing
• Provides additional profitability with little initial investment
• Provides method of circumventing tariffs, quotas, and other export
barriers
• Attractive ROI
• Low costs to implement
Disadvantages to Licensing
• Limited participation
• Returns may be lost
• Lack of control
• Licensee may become competitor
• Licensee may exploit company resources
Special Licensing Arrangements
• Contract manufacturing
• Company provides technical specifications to a subcontractor or local manufacturer
• Allows company to specialize in product design while contractors accept responsibility for
manufacturing facilities
• Franchising
• Contract between a parent company-franchisor and a franchisee that allows the franchisee to
operate a business developed by the franchisor in return for a fee and adherence to
franchise-wide policies
Investment
• Partial or full ownership of operations outside of home country
• Foreign Direct Investment
• Forms
• Joint ventures
• Minority or majority equity stakes
• Outright acquisition
Joint Ventures
• Entry strategy for a single target country in which the partners share
ownership of a newly-created business entity
Joint Ventures
• Advantages
• Allows for sharing of risk (both financial
and political)
• Provides opportunity to learn new
environment
• Provides opportunity to achieve synergy
by combining strengths of partners
• May be the only way to enter market
given barriers to entry
• Disadvantages
• Requires more investment than a
licensing agreement
• Must share rewards as well as risks
• Requires strong coordination
• Potential for conflict among partners
• Partner may become a competitor
Global Strategic Partnerships
• Possible terms:
• Collaborative agreements
• Strategic alliances
• Strategic international alliances
• Global strategic partnerships
The Nature of Global Strategic Partnerships
‫جهانی‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫مراحل‬
‫خارجی‬ ‫محیط‬ ‫با‬ ‫مواجه‬ ‫در‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫بازاریابان‬ ‫چالشهای‬
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 23
Culture
Culture
The common set of values
shared by its citizens that
determine what is socially
acceptable.
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 24
Culture
Factors to keep in mind when dealing with different
cultures:
1. Language and cultural idioms
2. Customs and traditions
3. Values and expectations of sales presentations
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 25
Economic Factors
Developed
Country
Less Developed
Country
Complex, sophisticated
industries
Basic industries
The Global Economy
“If America sneezes, then the rest of the world catches
a cold.”
Understanding and forecasting growth and demand
globally requires understanding countries around the
world.
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 26
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 27
Economic Development:
China and India
•China and India have two of the highest growth rates in
the world
•Have the world’s two largest populations, but among
highest levels of income disparity
•Both India and China have exploded in spending power,
particularly in the upper classes
28
Political Structure and Actions
No private ownership
Minimal individual freedom
Little central government
Maximum personal freedom
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 29
Legal Considerations
Tariff
Quota
Boycott
Exchange Control
Market Grouping
Trade Agreement
A tax levied on goods
Entering a country
Limit on the amount of a
product entering a country
Exclusion of products from
a country
Foreign exchange must be
sold to a control agency
Common trade alliance
An agreement to stimulate
international trade
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
30
Political and Legal
Considerations
The Uruguay Round made changes
in world trading practices
Entertainment, pharmaceuticals,
integrated circuits, and software
Financial, legal, and accounting services
Agriculture
Textiles and apparel
And created a new trade organization:
The World Trade Organization
2–31
Part 2 Strategy Formulation
‫استراتژی‬
‫شدن‬ ‫جهانی‬
• Gain access to a larger market
• Capitalize on market potential, such as China, India,
and emerging economies
• Gain access to low-cost input factors
• Labor, natural resources, technology, logistics
• Managing corporate risk
• Leverage core competencies
• Develop new competencies
• Location economies
• Unique locational advantages
10–32
‫شویم؟‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫چرا‬
‫شد‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫هالیود‬
• Hollywood movie: The quintessential American product
 However, non-US sales increased: 50% in 2000,
and 70% in 2010
 Altered global strategic focus
 Movies that fit the global market by adapting foreign scripts, hiring
international actors/actresses…etc.
• Treat emerging markets as focal targets
 Not just filmmaking industries, but also the electronics industry
(example: Korea, China), and auto industry (example: India)
 Key questions: How can a company compete effectively in a
global market place?
1–34
• Globalization 1.0: 1900–1941
 Only sales and distribution took place overseas
• Globalization 2.0: 1945–2000
Duplicating business functions overseas
• Globalization 3.0: 21st century
MNEs become global collaboration networks
(see Exhibit 10.2)
‫شدن‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫تاریخچه‬
EXHIBIT 10.2 Globalization 3.0 - Collaboration Networks
10–35
EXHIBIT 10.3 International Sales as % of Total
Data from 2010
10–36
• Liability of foreignness
• Additional cost of doing business in an
unfamiliar cultural and economic environment
• Cost of coordinating across geographic distance
• Economic development may increase the cost of
doing business
• Rising wages with improved living standards
• Difficulty in protecting intellectual property
‫شدن‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫معایب‬
‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫وظایف‬ ‫انسجام‬ ‫ساختار‬
1–39
• Wal-mart entered Germany
 Acquisition of 21 stores and 74 hypermarkets
• Wal-mart duplicated its U.S. policies and applied them in Germany
 Employees refused to accept those policies
• Wal-mart faced significant cultural differences
• Wal-mart could not develop efficient economies of scale and distribution centers to drive cost
down
• The result is a defeated Wal-mart that sold its stores to Metro, Wal-mart’s key rival in Germany
• ALDI, another of Wal-mart’s competitors in Germany, is now expanding aggressively in the
U.S.
‫آلمان‬ ‫در‬ ‫مارت‬ ‫وال‬ ‫شکست‬
Domestic Marketing Export Marketing International
Marketing
Global
Marketing
• Least
international
commitment
• Domestic focus
• Limited international
commitment
• Involves direct or
indirect export
• Ethnocentric
• Substantial
international
commitment
• Focus on individual
countries or regions
• Polycentric or
Regiocentric
• Extensive international
commitment
• Focus on segments,
rather than countries or
regions
• Geocentric
‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫بازاریابی‬ ‫مراحل‬
‫پایانی‬ ‫آغازی‬ ‫هر‬‫و‬ ‫دارد‬‫هر‬
‫پایانی‬‫زایش‬‫آغازی‬‫دوباره‬‫است‬.

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Biz dev presentation 7

  • 1. ‫ایران‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫شهر‬ ‫آرمان‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫قابلیت‬ ‫ساخت‬ ‫جلسه‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫درس‬‫هفتم‬ ‫دانش‬ ‫عصر‬ ‫کیمیاگران‬ ‫موسسه‬
  • 2. ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫تعریف‬ •‫سال‬ ‫در‬ ‫که‬ ‫بود‬ ‫کسی‬ ‫اولین‬ ‫برگر‬ ‫شونی‬1982‫و‬ ‫کرد‬ ‫استفاده‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫از‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫مفهوم‬ ‫این‬ ‫نوبودن‬ ‫از‬ ‫نشان‬ ‫این‬. •‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬(WCM)‫در‬ ‫تولیدکددفدگان‬ ‫بهتفرین‬ ‫تعریف‬ ‫برای‬ ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫ای‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫است‬ ‫رفته‬ ‫کار‬ ‫به‬ ‫جهان‬. •‫ساخت‬ ‫زمیده‬ ‫در‬ ‫دوم‬ ‫صدعتی‬ ‫انقالب‬ ‫یعدی‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬‫؛‬ •‫مشتری‬ ‫با‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫و‬ ‫بازار‬ ‫به‬ ‫نسبت‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫نگرش‬ ‫یک‬ ‫یعدی‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬‫ان‬‫؛‬ •‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫و‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫در‬ ‫خدمات‬ ‫و‬ ‫کاال‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫یعدی‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬.
  • 3. ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫تعریف‬ •‫سف‬ ‫در‬ ‫سفاخت‬ ‫روشهای‬ ‫و‬ ‫فعالیتها‬ ‫سری‬ ‫یک‬ ‫شامل‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫کلی‬ ‫طور‬ ‫به‬‫طح‬ ‫از‬ ‫عبارتدد‬ ‫آنها‬ ‫عمده‬ ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫جهانی‬: .1‫پیوسته‬ ‫و‬ ‫ناب‬ ‫تولید‬ .2‫جامع‬ ‫کیفیت‬ ‫مدیریت‬ .3‫جامع‬ ‫و‬ ‫بهرور‬ ‫نگهداری‬ .4‫مثبت‬ ‫تغییرات‬ ‫به‬ ‫سریع‬ ‫دستیابی‬ .5‫شرکت‬ ‫امور‬ ‫در‬ ‫کارکدان‬ ‫جامع‬ ‫درگیرکردن‬ ‫و‬ ‫کارکدان‬ ‫جامع‬ ‫عملکرد‬ ‫ارزیابی‬
  • 4. ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫ساخت‬ ‫وجودی‬ ‫علت‬ •‫ارتباطات‬ ‫سریع‬ ‫رشد‬ •‫داران‬ ‫سرمایه‬ ‫طلبی‬ ‫مدفعت‬ •‫نقل‬ ‫و‬ ‫حمل‬ ‫وسایل‬ ‫رشد‬ ‫و‬ ‫توسعه‬ •‫امپریالیستی‬ ‫طلبی‬ ‫سلطه‬
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ •‫شرایط‬‫ماسسفات‬ ‫از‬ ‫بسفیاری‬ ‫کفه‬ ‫اسفت‬ ‫شده‬ ‫باعث‬ ‫امروز‬ ‫دنیای‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫پرآشوب‬ ‫و‬ ‫پرشتاب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫که‬ ‫گیرند‬ ‫قرار‬ ‫شرایطی‬ ‫در‬ ،‫بودند‬ ‫ای‬ ‫ویژه‬ ‫جایگاه‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫خود‬ ‫فعالیت‬ ‫حیطه‬ ‫بازار‬ ‫در‬ ‫که‬ ‫تجاری‬‫قبایی‬ ‫سف‬ ‫بفه‬ ‫اطالعات‬ ‫فداوری‬ ‫رشد‬ ‫با‬ ‫که‬ ‫درحالی‬ ‫کدد؛‬ ‫تهدید‬ ‫را‬ ‫آنان‬ ‫موجودیت‬ ‫دنیا‬ ‫نقاط‬ ‫دورترین‬ ‫از‬‫تی‬ ‫شد‬ ‫متصور‬ ‫سازمان‬ ‫یک‬ ‫عملکرد‬ ‫برای‬ ‫ای‬‫حیطه‬ ‫توان‬‫می‬.‫پف‬ ‫در‬ ‫تجفارت‬ ‫و‬ ‫مدیریت‬ ‫علوم‬ ‫کارشداسان‬‫ی‬ ‫به‬ ‫بفرای‬ ‫راککارکفایی‬ ‫ارائفه‬ ‫و‬ ‫متحول‬ ‫محیط‬ ‫این‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫شرایط‬ ‫تفسیر‬ ‫و‬ ‫توضیح‬ ‫یافتن‬‫بفود‬ ‫بهبف‬ ‫و‬ ‫تلفیف‬ ،‫جدیفد‬ ‫کای‬‫ایفده‬ ‫خلف‬ ‫به‬ ‫دست‬ ‫مدظور‬ ‫این‬ ‫به‬ ‫و‬ ‫کستدد‬ ‫سازمانها‬ ‫رقابتی‬ ‫موقعیت‬‫ود‬ ‫زندد‬‫می‬ ‫موجود‬ ‫مفاکیم‬.‫مدیریت‬ ‫جدید‬ ‫مفاکیم‬ ‫این‬ ‫جمله‬ ‫از‬"‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫ساخت‬"‫باشد‬ ‫می‬.
  • 8. ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ •‫کزی‬ ‫کمترین‬ ‫با‬ ‫اطمیدان‬ ‫قابلیت‬ ‫و‬ ‫،کیفیت‬ ‫کارائی‬ ‫خواکان‬ ‫مشتری‬ ‫کر‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫محیط‬ ‫در‬‫امکفان‬ ‫دفه‬ ‫است‬ ‫رقابتی‬ ‫و‬ ‫پذیر‬.‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫محصول‬ ‫عمر‬ ‫چرخه‬ ‫تجاری‬ ‫مطالعات‬ ‫باید‬ ‫مهددسان‬ ،‫مقصود‬ ‫این‬ ‫به‬ ‫رسیدن‬ ‫برای‬‫نجفام‬ ‫بهتفرین‬ ‫ساخت‬ ‫مدظور‬ ‫به‬ ‫اطمیدان‬ ‫قابلیت‬ ‫و‬ ‫،کیفیت‬ ‫کارائی‬ ‫ترکیب‬ ‫که‬ ‫بگیرند‬ ‫تصمیم‬ ‫تا‬ ‫دکدد‬‫چفه‬ ‫محصفول‬ ‫باشد‬. •‫بف‬ ‫ورود‬ ‫تا‬ ‫طراحی‬ ‫مرحله‬ ‫از‬ ‫محصول‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫کای‬ ‫شاخه‬ ‫تمام‬ ‫ای‬ ‫گسترده‬ ‫بصورت‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫در‬ ‫رقابت‬ ‫امروزه‬‫ه‬ ‫است‬ ‫گرفته‬ ‫بر‬ ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫مصرف‬ ‫بازار‬.‫مشفتم‬ ‫و‬ ‫کفار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسفب‬ ‫فعالیفت‬ ‫کزاران‬ ‫تقاضای‬ ‫بر‬ ‫مبتدی‬ ‫رقابت‬ ‫این‬‫بفر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫است‬ ‫خدمات‬ ‫و‬ ‫تولید‬ ‫فرآیدد‬ ‫و‬ ‫محصول‬ ‫توسعه‬ ، ‫بازار‬ ‫تحقیقات‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫کا‬ ‫فعالیت‬ ‫از‬ ‫وسیعی‬ ‫محدوده‬.
  • 10. ‫جهانی‬ ‫بازار‬ ‫به‬ ‫ورود‬ ‫های‬ ‫استراتژی‬
  • 11. Which strategy should be used? • It depends on: • Vision • Attitude toward risk • How much investment capital is available • How much control is desired
  • 12. Licensing • A contractual agreement whereby one company (the licensor) makes an asset available to another company (the licensee) in exchange for royalties, license fees, or some other form of compensation • Patent • Trade secret • Brand name • Product formulations
  • 13. Advantages to Licensing • Provides additional profitability with little initial investment • Provides method of circumventing tariffs, quotas, and other export barriers • Attractive ROI • Low costs to implement
  • 14. Disadvantages to Licensing • Limited participation • Returns may be lost • Lack of control • Licensee may become competitor • Licensee may exploit company resources
  • 15. Special Licensing Arrangements • Contract manufacturing • Company provides technical specifications to a subcontractor or local manufacturer • Allows company to specialize in product design while contractors accept responsibility for manufacturing facilities • Franchising • Contract between a parent company-franchisor and a franchisee that allows the franchisee to operate a business developed by the franchisor in return for a fee and adherence to franchise-wide policies
  • 16. Investment • Partial or full ownership of operations outside of home country • Foreign Direct Investment • Forms • Joint ventures • Minority or majority equity stakes • Outright acquisition
  • 17. Joint Ventures • Entry strategy for a single target country in which the partners share ownership of a newly-created business entity
  • 18. Joint Ventures • Advantages • Allows for sharing of risk (both financial and political) • Provides opportunity to learn new environment • Provides opportunity to achieve synergy by combining strengths of partners • May be the only way to enter market given barriers to entry • Disadvantages • Requires more investment than a licensing agreement • Must share rewards as well as risks • Requires strong coordination • Potential for conflict among partners • Partner may become a competitor
  • 19. Global Strategic Partnerships • Possible terms: • Collaborative agreements • Strategic alliances • Strategic international alliances • Global strategic partnerships
  • 20. The Nature of Global Strategic Partnerships
  • 21. ‫جهانی‬ ‫کار‬ ‫و‬ ‫کسب‬ ‫توسعه‬ ‫مراحل‬
  • 22. ‫خارجی‬ ‫محیط‬ ‫با‬ ‫مواجه‬ ‫در‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫بازاریابان‬ ‫چالشهای‬
  • 23. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 23 Culture Culture The common set of values shared by its citizens that determine what is socially acceptable.
  • 24. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 24 Culture Factors to keep in mind when dealing with different cultures: 1. Language and cultural idioms 2. Customs and traditions 3. Values and expectations of sales presentations
  • 25. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 25 Economic Factors Developed Country Less Developed Country Complex, sophisticated industries Basic industries
  • 26. The Global Economy “If America sneezes, then the rest of the world catches a cold.” Understanding and forecasting growth and demand globally requires understanding countries around the world. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 26
  • 27. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 27 Economic Development: China and India •China and India have two of the highest growth rates in the world •Have the world’s two largest populations, but among highest levels of income disparity •Both India and China have exploded in spending power, particularly in the upper classes
  • 28. 28 Political Structure and Actions No private ownership Minimal individual freedom Little central government Maximum personal freedom
  • 29. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 29 Legal Considerations Tariff Quota Boycott Exchange Control Market Grouping Trade Agreement A tax levied on goods Entering a country Limit on the amount of a product entering a country Exclusion of products from a country Foreign exchange must be sold to a control agency Common trade alliance An agreement to stimulate international trade
  • 30. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 30 Political and Legal Considerations The Uruguay Round made changes in world trading practices Entertainment, pharmaceuticals, integrated circuits, and software Financial, legal, and accounting services Agriculture Textiles and apparel And created a new trade organization: The World Trade Organization
  • 31. 2–31 Part 2 Strategy Formulation ‫استراتژی‬ ‫شدن‬ ‫جهانی‬
  • 32. • Gain access to a larger market • Capitalize on market potential, such as China, India, and emerging economies • Gain access to low-cost input factors • Labor, natural resources, technology, logistics • Managing corporate risk • Leverage core competencies • Develop new competencies • Location economies • Unique locational advantages 10–32 ‫شویم؟‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫چرا‬
  • 33. ‫شد‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫هالیود‬ • Hollywood movie: The quintessential American product  However, non-US sales increased: 50% in 2000, and 70% in 2010  Altered global strategic focus  Movies that fit the global market by adapting foreign scripts, hiring international actors/actresses…etc. • Treat emerging markets as focal targets  Not just filmmaking industries, but also the electronics industry (example: Korea, China), and auto industry (example: India)  Key questions: How can a company compete effectively in a global market place?
  • 34. 1–34 • Globalization 1.0: 1900–1941  Only sales and distribution took place overseas • Globalization 2.0: 1945–2000 Duplicating business functions overseas • Globalization 3.0: 21st century MNEs become global collaboration networks (see Exhibit 10.2) ‫شدن‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫تاریخچه‬
  • 35. EXHIBIT 10.2 Globalization 3.0 - Collaboration Networks 10–35
  • 36. EXHIBIT 10.3 International Sales as % of Total Data from 2010 10–36
  • 37. • Liability of foreignness • Additional cost of doing business in an unfamiliar cultural and economic environment • Cost of coordinating across geographic distance • Economic development may increase the cost of doing business • Rising wages with improved living standards • Difficulty in protecting intellectual property ‫شدن‬ ‫جهانی‬ ‫معایب‬
  • 38. ‫جهانی‬ ‫کالس‬ ‫در‬ ‫وظایف‬ ‫انسجام‬ ‫ساختار‬
  • 39. 1–39 • Wal-mart entered Germany  Acquisition of 21 stores and 74 hypermarkets • Wal-mart duplicated its U.S. policies and applied them in Germany  Employees refused to accept those policies • Wal-mart faced significant cultural differences • Wal-mart could not develop efficient economies of scale and distribution centers to drive cost down • The result is a defeated Wal-mart that sold its stores to Metro, Wal-mart’s key rival in Germany • ALDI, another of Wal-mart’s competitors in Germany, is now expanding aggressively in the U.S. ‫آلمان‬ ‫در‬ ‫مارت‬ ‫وال‬ ‫شکست‬
  • 40. Domestic Marketing Export Marketing International Marketing Global Marketing • Least international commitment • Domestic focus • Limited international commitment • Involves direct or indirect export • Ethnocentric • Substantial international commitment • Focus on individual countries or regions • Polycentric or Regiocentric • Extensive international commitment • Focus on segments, rather than countries or regions • Geocentric ‫المللی‬ ‫بین‬ ‫بازاریابی‬ ‫مراحل‬
  • 41. ‫پایانی‬ ‫آغازی‬ ‫هر‬‫و‬ ‫دارد‬‫هر‬ ‫پایانی‬‫زایش‬‫آغازی‬‫دوباره‬‫است‬.