Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Lecture 05 dblc

7,364 views

Published on

Database Life Cycle, RDBMS

  • Be the first to comment

Lecture 05 dblc

  1. 1. Lecture 5 Database Design
  2. 2. In this chapter, you will learn: <ul><li>That successful database design must reflect the information system of which the database is a part </li></ul><ul><li>That successful information systems are subject to frequent evaluation and revision within a framework known as the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) </li></ul><ul><li>That, within the information system, the most successful databases are subject to frequent evaluation and revision within a framework known as the Database Life Cycle (DBLC) </li></ul><ul><li>How to conduct evaluation and revision within the SDLC and DBLC frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>What database design strategies exist: top-down vs. bottom-up design and centralized vs. decentralized design </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw facts stored in databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need additional processing to become useful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required by decision maker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data processed and presented in a meaningful form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation </li></ul></ul>Changing Data into Information
  4. 4. <ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully designed and constructed repository of facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of an information system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides data collection, storage, and retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates data transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>The Information System <ul><li>Database(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Application programs </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>System Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes need and extent of an information system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of creating information system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of database design and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of database models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating storage structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loading data into database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing for data management </li></ul></ul></ul>The Information System (Con’t.)
  6. 6. Systems Development Life Cycle Figure 6.2
  7. 7. Database Lifecycle (DBLC) Figure 6.3
  8. 8. Phase 1: Database Initial Study <ul><li>Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze company situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define problems and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define scope and boundaries </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Initial Study Activities Figure 6.4
  10. 10. Phase 2: Database Design <ul><li>Most Critical DBLC phase </li></ul><ul><li>Makes sure final product meets requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on data requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Subphases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create conceptual design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS software selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create logical design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create physical design </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Two Views of Data Figure 6.5
  12. 12. I. Conceptual Design <ul><li>Data modeling creates abstract data structure to represent real-world items </li></ul><ul><li>High level of abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Four steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis and requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity relationship modeling and normalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data model verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed database design </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Data analysis and Requirements <ul><li>Focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing and gathering end-user data views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct observation of current system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfacing with systems design group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business rules </li></ul>
  14. 14. Entity Relationship Modeling and Normalization Table 6.2
  15. 15. E-R Modeling is Iterative Figure 6.8
  16. 16. Concept Design: Tools and Sources Figure 6.9
  17. 17. Data Model Verification <ul><li>E-R model is verified against proposed system processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End user views and required transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access paths, security, concurrency control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-imposed data requirements and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reveals additional entity and attribute details </li></ul><ul><li>Define major components as modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coupling </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. E-R Model Verification Process Table 6.4
  19. 19. Iterative Process of Verification Figure 6.10
  20. 20. Distributed Database Design <ul><li>Design portions in different physical locations </li></ul><ul><li>Development of data distribution and allocation strategies </li></ul>
  21. 21. II. DBMS Software Selection <ul><li>DBMS software selection is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages and disadvantages need study </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting purchasing decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS features and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS hardware requirements </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. III. Logical Design <ul><li>Translates conceptual design into internal model </li></ul><ul><li>Maps objects in model to specific DBMS constructs </li></ul><ul><li>Design components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. IV. Physical Design <ul><li>Selection of data storage and access characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More important in older hierarchical and network models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Becomes more complex for distributed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Designers favor software that hides physical details </li></ul>
  24. 24. Physical Organization Figure 6.12
  25. 25. Phase 3: Implementation and Loading <ul><li>Creation of special storage-related constructs </li></ul><ul><li>to house end-user tables </li></ul><ul><li>Data loaded into tables </li></ul><ul><li>Other issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrency controls </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Phase 4: Testing and Evaluation <ul><li>Database is tested and fine-tuned for performance, integrity, concurrent access, and security constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Done in parallel with application programming </li></ul><ul><li>Actions taken if tests fail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine-tuning based on reference manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of physical design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of logical design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade or change DBMS software or hardware </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Phase 5: Operation <ul><li>Database considered operational </li></ul><ul><li>Starts process of system evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Unforeseen problems may surface </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for change is constant </li></ul>
  28. 28. Phase 6: Maintenance and Evaluation <ul><li>Preventative maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment of access permissions </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of database access statistics to monitor performance </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic security audits based on system-generated statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic system usage-summaries </li></ul>
  29. 29. DB Design Strategy Notes <ul><li>Top-down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Identify data sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Define data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Identify data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Group them into data sets </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Figure 6.14
  31. 31. Centralized vs. Decentralized Design <ul><li>Centralized design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical of simple databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted by single person or small team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decentralized design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger numbers of entities and complex relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread across multiple sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by teams </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Decentralized Design Figure 6.16

×