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Educational robotics and SRA-
programming in Education
Dr. Nardie Fanchamps
Assistant Professor - Open University - The Netherlands
nardie.fanchamps@ou.nl
*Permission has been obtained for all pictures used
in this presentation
Workshop outline
In this hands-on workshop and presentation, physical computing using SRA-programming with educational
robotics is central.
To explore several tangible SRA-based programming environments, we have prepared for you:
• OzoBot
• Lego WeDo 2.0
• Lego Boost
• Osmo
• Lego Spike
• Lego Ev3
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
2
Introduction
Computer Science, Computational Thinking and Coding
3
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Introduction
Programming and computational thinking in primary education.
More research is needed on how to promote computational
thinking with associated reasoning skills and underlying
programming concepts in education.
Computational thinking refers to skills and concepts that are
thought-provoking for solving computer technology-based issues
and programming problems.
Our research focused on how primary school pupils learn to grasp
and apply programming concepts by means of SRA-programming
related to a development in computational thinking.
The results obtained can make a further contribution to the
development of knowledge on computational thinking in
education. 4
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Sense-Reason-Act (SRA) programming
In everyday life we have already, perhaps unconsciously, experienced the principles underlying
SRA-programming.
5
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Sense-Reason-Act (SRA) programming
Sense-Reason-Act (SRA) programming can be described as the process in which external, sensor-based
observations (sense) are entered into a microprocessor, so that these observations can be compared with
internal pre-set conditions (reason) which infers executing desired programming actions (act).
6
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Linear programming
7
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Educational perspectives on SRA
8
Workshop: Computational Thinking with your
hands
Aims & Scope
1. Examine whether SRA-programming can be functionally
applied in primary education,
2. Determine what effects SRA-programming has on the
development of computational thinking,
3. Illustrate the impact of the application of different task
designs and types of programming environments,
4. Determine whether SRA-programming can make a
substantial contribution to a better understanding of
complex programming concepts.
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
9
Central objectives underlying
the SRA research.
Overview
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
10
In six sub-studies, the impact of Sense-Reason-Act programming on Computational Thinking
was investigated. A variation in the programming environments used, a diversity in the
characteristics of the task design, and different types of output have been applied.
Underlying pedagogical perspectives have also been addressed.
Feasibility study
The Influence of SRA-
programming on
algorithmic thinking and
self-efficacy using Lego
robotics in two types of
instruction
Literature
exploration
Towards a research
agenda for developing
computational thinking
skills by sense-reason-act
programming with
robots
Task requirements
The effect on
computational thinking
using SRA-programming
anticipating changes in a
dynamic problem
environment
Teacher influence
The effect of teacher
interventions and SRA
robot programming on
the development of
computational thinking
On-screen
simulations
The impact of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
in a visual oriented
programming
environment
Output differences
The effect of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
and the impact on
complex programming
concepts using visual
programming with on-
screen or tangible output
First study
11
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Literature
exploration
Towards a research
agenda for developing
computational thinking
skills by sense-reason-act
programming with
robots
Task requirements
The effect on
computational thinking
using SRA-programming
anticipating changes in a
dynamic problem
environment
Teacher influence
The effect of teacher
interventions and SRA
robot programming on
the development of
computational thinking
On-screen
simulations
The impact of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
in a visual oriented
programming
environment
Output differences
The effect of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
and the impact on
complex programming
concepts using visual
programming with on-
screen or tangible output
Feasibility study
The Influence of SRA-
programming on
algorithmic thinking
and self-efficacy using
Lego robotics in two
types of instruction
Second study
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
12
Feasibility study
The Influence of SRA-
programming on
algorithmic thinking and
self-efficacy using Lego
robotics in two types of
instruction
Task requirements
The effect on
computational thinking
using SRA-programming
anticipating changes in a
dynamic problem
environment
Teacher influence
The effect of teacher
interventions and SRA
robot programming on
the development of
computational thinking
On-screen
simulations
The impact of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
in a visual oriented
programming
environment
Output differences
The effect of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
and the impact on
complex programming
concepts using visual
programming with on-
screen or tangible output
Literature
exploration
Towards a research
agenda for developing
computational thinking
skills by sense-reason-
act programming with
robots
Third study
13
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Static task design Dynamic task design
Feasibility study
The Influence of SRA-
programming on
algorithmic thinking and
self-efficacy using Lego
robotics in two types of
instruction
Literature
exploration
Towards a research
agenda for developing
computational thinking
skills by sense-reason-act
programming with
robots
Teacher influence
The effect of teacher
interventions and SRA
robot programming on
the development of
computational thinking
On-screen
simulations
The impact of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
in a visual oriented
programming
environment
Output differences
The effect of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
and the impact on
complex programming
concepts using visual
programming with on-
screen or tangible output
Task requirements
The effect on
computational thinking
using SRA-programming
anticipating changes in
a dynamic problem
environment
Fourth study
14
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Feasibility study
The Influence of SRA-
programming on
algorithmic thinking and
self-efficacy using Lego
robotics in two types of
instruction
Literature
exploration
Towards a research
agenda for developing
computational thinking
skills by sense-reason-act
programming with
robots
Task requirements
The effect on
computational thinking
using SRA-programming
anticipating changes in a
dynamic problem
environment
On-screen
simulations
The impact of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
in a visual oriented
programming
environment
Output differences
The effect of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
and the impact on
complex programming
concepts using visual
programming with on-
screen or tangible output
Teacher influence
The effect of teacher
interventions and SRA
robot programming on
the development of
computational thinking
Fifth study
15
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
On-screen linear programming On-screen SRA-programming
Feasibility study
The Influence of SRA-
programming on
algorithmic thinking and
self-efficacy using Lego
robotics in two types of
instruction
Literature
exploration
Towards a research
agenda for developing
computational thinking
skills by sense-reason-act
programming with
robots
Task requirements
The effect on
computational thinking
using SRA-programming
anticipating changes in a
dynamic problem
environment
Teacher influence
The effect of teacher
interventions and SRA
robot programming on
the development of
computational thinking
Output differences
The effect of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
and the impact on
complex programming
concepts using visual
programming with on-
screen or tangible output
On-screen
simulations
The impact of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
in a visual oriented
programming
environment
Sixth study
16
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Tangible output SRA-programming On-screen output SRA-programming
Feasibility study
The Influence of SRA-
programming on
algorithmic thinking and
self-efficacy using Lego
robotics in two types of
instruction
Literature
exploration
Towards a research
agenda for developing
computational thinking
skills by sense-reason-act
programming with
robots
Task requirements
The effect on
computational thinking
using SRA-programming
anticipating changes in a
dynamic problem
environment
Teacher influence
The effect of teacher
interventions and SRA
robot programming on
the development of
computational thinking
On-screen
simulations
The impact of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
in a visual oriented
programming
environment
Output differences
The effect of SRA-
programming on
computational thinking
and the impact on
complex programming
concepts using visual
programming with on-
screen or tangible output
Hands-on workshop
• Select one of the tangible SRA-programming educational robotics environments.
• Try out for yourself how it works and how it should be programmed.
• Program all educational robots using the SRA approach by using sensor based information.
• Think about the impact of SRA-programming on computational thinking by applying more complex
concepts of programming.
• Also try another SRA-programming robotic environment.
• Determine how SRA-programming by means of tangible educational robotics can be of added value
when integrated into an educational context.
• Exchange your findings with fellow participants.
17
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Findings
Application of SRA-programming proves to cause
a significant development of computational
thinking skills and also more understanding of
complex programming concepts
The effects identified are dependent in the
operationalisation of SRA-programming to
influence the development of computational
thinking skills.
Our research addresses the following
determining factors for a significant influence of
SRA-programming on computational thinking:
• The effect and nature of the type of task design
(static – dynamic)
• The relationship between pedagogical aspects
(teacher guidance – teacher interventions –
self-efficacy)
• The programming task and the application of
different visual programming environments
(robotics – simulations)
• The influence of differences in output of the
programming environment used
(on-screen / tangible)
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
18
Wrap-up and Q&A
19
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
Future Directions &
Recommendations
• To determine the extent to which SRA-programming can
contribute to the ability to solve computational thinking
problems by means of problem-based computer science
learning.
• Application of other types of physical and on-screen SRA-
programming environments to further determine the
effectiveness of SRA.
• To identify whether psychological needs of the user determine
preferences regarding the type of input/output of the SRA-
programming environment to be used.
• Whether the same yields caused by SRA-programming can be
generated in other types of education (secondary education –
higher education).
• If unplugged environments can generate similar development on
CT in a comparison with SRA programming.
• The need to develop more versatile assessment-tools to
determine development on computational thinking.
Where do we go from here?
Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in
Education
20
Contact:
nardie.fanchamps@ou.nl

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2022_06_30 «La robótica educativa y la programación SRA en la educación»

  • 1. Educational robotics and SRA- programming in Education Dr. Nardie Fanchamps Assistant Professor - Open University - The Netherlands nardie.fanchamps@ou.nl *Permission has been obtained for all pictures used in this presentation
  • 2. Workshop outline In this hands-on workshop and presentation, physical computing using SRA-programming with educational robotics is central. To explore several tangible SRA-based programming environments, we have prepared for you: • OzoBot • Lego WeDo 2.0 • Lego Boost • Osmo • Lego Spike • Lego Ev3 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education 2
  • 3. Introduction Computer Science, Computational Thinking and Coding 3 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education
  • 4. Introduction Programming and computational thinking in primary education. More research is needed on how to promote computational thinking with associated reasoning skills and underlying programming concepts in education. Computational thinking refers to skills and concepts that are thought-provoking for solving computer technology-based issues and programming problems. Our research focused on how primary school pupils learn to grasp and apply programming concepts by means of SRA-programming related to a development in computational thinking. The results obtained can make a further contribution to the development of knowledge on computational thinking in education. 4 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education
  • 5. Sense-Reason-Act (SRA) programming In everyday life we have already, perhaps unconsciously, experienced the principles underlying SRA-programming. 5 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education
  • 6. Sense-Reason-Act (SRA) programming Sense-Reason-Act (SRA) programming can be described as the process in which external, sensor-based observations (sense) are entered into a microprocessor, so that these observations can be compared with internal pre-set conditions (reason) which infers executing desired programming actions (act). 6 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education
  • 7. Linear programming 7 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education
  • 8. Educational perspectives on SRA 8 Workshop: Computational Thinking with your hands
  • 9. Aims & Scope 1. Examine whether SRA-programming can be functionally applied in primary education, 2. Determine what effects SRA-programming has on the development of computational thinking, 3. Illustrate the impact of the application of different task designs and types of programming environments, 4. Determine whether SRA-programming can make a substantial contribution to a better understanding of complex programming concepts. Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education 9 Central objectives underlying the SRA research.
  • 10. Overview Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education 10 In six sub-studies, the impact of Sense-Reason-Act programming on Computational Thinking was investigated. A variation in the programming environments used, a diversity in the characteristics of the task design, and different types of output have been applied. Underlying pedagogical perspectives have also been addressed. Feasibility study The Influence of SRA- programming on algorithmic thinking and self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction Literature exploration Towards a research agenda for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason-act programming with robots Task requirements The effect on computational thinking using SRA-programming anticipating changes in a dynamic problem environment Teacher influence The effect of teacher interventions and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking On-screen simulations The impact of SRA- programming on computational thinking in a visual oriented programming environment Output differences The effect of SRA- programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts using visual programming with on- screen or tangible output
  • 11. First study 11 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education Literature exploration Towards a research agenda for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason-act programming with robots Task requirements The effect on computational thinking using SRA-programming anticipating changes in a dynamic problem environment Teacher influence The effect of teacher interventions and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking On-screen simulations The impact of SRA- programming on computational thinking in a visual oriented programming environment Output differences The effect of SRA- programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts using visual programming with on- screen or tangible output Feasibility study The Influence of SRA- programming on algorithmic thinking and self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction
  • 12. Second study Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education 12 Feasibility study The Influence of SRA- programming on algorithmic thinking and self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction Task requirements The effect on computational thinking using SRA-programming anticipating changes in a dynamic problem environment Teacher influence The effect of teacher interventions and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking On-screen simulations The impact of SRA- programming on computational thinking in a visual oriented programming environment Output differences The effect of SRA- programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts using visual programming with on- screen or tangible output Literature exploration Towards a research agenda for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason- act programming with robots
  • 13. Third study 13 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education Static task design Dynamic task design Feasibility study The Influence of SRA- programming on algorithmic thinking and self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction Literature exploration Towards a research agenda for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason-act programming with robots Teacher influence The effect of teacher interventions and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking On-screen simulations The impact of SRA- programming on computational thinking in a visual oriented programming environment Output differences The effect of SRA- programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts using visual programming with on- screen or tangible output Task requirements The effect on computational thinking using SRA-programming anticipating changes in a dynamic problem environment
  • 14. Fourth study 14 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education Feasibility study The Influence of SRA- programming on algorithmic thinking and self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction Literature exploration Towards a research agenda for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason-act programming with robots Task requirements The effect on computational thinking using SRA-programming anticipating changes in a dynamic problem environment On-screen simulations The impact of SRA- programming on computational thinking in a visual oriented programming environment Output differences The effect of SRA- programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts using visual programming with on- screen or tangible output Teacher influence The effect of teacher interventions and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking
  • 15. Fifth study 15 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education On-screen linear programming On-screen SRA-programming Feasibility study The Influence of SRA- programming on algorithmic thinking and self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction Literature exploration Towards a research agenda for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason-act programming with robots Task requirements The effect on computational thinking using SRA-programming anticipating changes in a dynamic problem environment Teacher influence The effect of teacher interventions and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking Output differences The effect of SRA- programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts using visual programming with on- screen or tangible output On-screen simulations The impact of SRA- programming on computational thinking in a visual oriented programming environment
  • 16. Sixth study 16 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education Tangible output SRA-programming On-screen output SRA-programming Feasibility study The Influence of SRA- programming on algorithmic thinking and self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction Literature exploration Towards a research agenda for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason-act programming with robots Task requirements The effect on computational thinking using SRA-programming anticipating changes in a dynamic problem environment Teacher influence The effect of teacher interventions and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking On-screen simulations The impact of SRA- programming on computational thinking in a visual oriented programming environment Output differences The effect of SRA- programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts using visual programming with on- screen or tangible output
  • 17. Hands-on workshop • Select one of the tangible SRA-programming educational robotics environments. • Try out for yourself how it works and how it should be programmed. • Program all educational robots using the SRA approach by using sensor based information. • Think about the impact of SRA-programming on computational thinking by applying more complex concepts of programming. • Also try another SRA-programming robotic environment. • Determine how SRA-programming by means of tangible educational robotics can be of added value when integrated into an educational context. • Exchange your findings with fellow participants. 17 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education
  • 18. Findings Application of SRA-programming proves to cause a significant development of computational thinking skills and also more understanding of complex programming concepts The effects identified are dependent in the operationalisation of SRA-programming to influence the development of computational thinking skills. Our research addresses the following determining factors for a significant influence of SRA-programming on computational thinking: • The effect and nature of the type of task design (static – dynamic) • The relationship between pedagogical aspects (teacher guidance – teacher interventions – self-efficacy) • The programming task and the application of different visual programming environments (robotics – simulations) • The influence of differences in output of the programming environment used (on-screen / tangible) Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education 18
  • 19. Wrap-up and Q&A 19 Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education
  • 20. Future Directions & Recommendations • To determine the extent to which SRA-programming can contribute to the ability to solve computational thinking problems by means of problem-based computer science learning. • Application of other types of physical and on-screen SRA- programming environments to further determine the effectiveness of SRA. • To identify whether psychological needs of the user determine preferences regarding the type of input/output of the SRA- programming environment to be used. • Whether the same yields caused by SRA-programming can be generated in other types of education (secondary education – higher education). • If unplugged environments can generate similar development on CT in a comparison with SRA programming. • The need to develop more versatile assessment-tools to determine development on computational thinking. Where do we go from here? Educational Robotics and SRA-programming in Education 20

Editor's Notes

  1. WELCOME
  2. This hands-on, tangible robotics workshop identifies educational interventions that stimulate computational thinking development within SRA-programming environments. It clarifies the impact of learning to program robots on cognitive development where programming with sensors requires different authentic learning environments in comparison to a more mainstream educational setting. The aim is to illustrate what requirements an SRA-programming environment must meet, what interventions predominate, and what instructional guidance can be most effective in enabling to program problem-solving in a robotics SRA-programming environment. Learning to programme with sensors requires different authentic learning environments that are flexible and requires different coaching skills when learning to program robots by means of SRA-programming.
  3. INTRODUCTION Your alarm on your alarm clock awakes you in the morning – that’s powered by computer science. You check your smart-fridge if you have to buy groceries – that’s also powered by computer science. You order coffee on the Starbucks app on the way to work – you guessed it. You log in to your school computer – mhmm. You pull up your LMS – 😉. You find a video on YouTube – sure is. In the meantime, you check twitter for classroom inspiration – computer science again. Computer science has shaped so much of our day-to-day experiences that we are almost unaware of it. Computer science has resulted in this massive bucket for technology and computational systems as well as the mindset and thinking of the scientists behind it all. Computer science itself ranges from the digital skills needed to use technology to the advanced programming skills needed to design that technology. In many ways, computer science exists in classrooms already if students are using technology, but this just scratches the surface for the possibilities. Teaching computational thinking and coding to kids are also important to learning and not just from a programming perspective. Computational thinking teaches students how to think critically and logically. It enables students to leverage advancements made possible by computer science, from data collection to in-depth research. With coding, students learn to translate this critical thinking and problem solving into algorithms that can leverage the power of technology to perform work. Computer science is a game changer for what education looks like, and it is at the core of new approaches to teaching and learning, like project-based or inquiry-based learning, personalization, gamification, and technology integration. And these approaches also benefit from students having experience with computational thinking and coding. computational thinking encompasses a set of skills and processes that enable students to navigate complex problems. Though often used to develop code, computational thinking can be much more broadly applied. This process is a map from curiosity to understanding that makes it easier to tackle large and small problems in both ‘plugged’ and ‘unplugged’ scenarios. By resulting in an algorithm, computational thinking ensures that the process can be replicated. In other words, it is about the problem-solving process itself just as much as it is about solving the problem. Moreover, computational thinking builds metacognitive skills that teach students how to think, which is especially important as education moves from content acquisition to higher-order thinking skills. While computational thinking is the problem-solving process that can lead to code, coding is the process of programming different digital tools with algorithms. It is a means to apply solutions developed through the processes of computational thinking. Algorithms, in this case, are a series of logic-based steps that communicate with technological tools and help them execute different actions. All those computer science examples shared earlier? Those all rely on code. When coding programs, there are existing algorithms, like scheduling, route-finding, or compression algorithms, that coders need to know, but there is also the need to create new algorithms. Beginning to develop students’ coding prowess, however, does not require formal practice with either of these or even access to technology. Have students map directions for a peer to navigate a maze, create visual flowcharts for tasks, or develop a coded language. In whatever way it’s approached in the classroom, coding encourages students to communicate clearly and logically through an algorithm. To arrive at an algorithm (especially as algorithms advance in complexity), they must apply computational thinking to solve problems and practice metacognition as they do so. In this process, students become more adept technology users in general and can leverage these to advance and deepen their learning as they inherently practice computer science both in and out of the classroom.
  4. INTRODUCTION So developing digital skills and knowledge is as we all know an important goal in today's primary education > so lets start from that basic level (age 3 and further). Already more specific attention is being paid to learning to program as a tool for developing computer science-based thinking skills and concepts, referred to as "computational thinking". However, although pupils in primary education have experience with computer science driven artefacts and ICT-applications such as games, internet, word, PowerPoint, excel and apps, and maybe have applied several programming environments before, the educational application of computational thinking is still a limited field of development. Moreover, there are still too few practical and scientific insights on how education can best develop computational thinking and reasoning skills and underlying programming concepts. Computational thinking refers to skills and concepts that are thought-provoking for solving computer technology-based issues and programming problems. As we illustrated before, they are strongly related to the word of computer science. Computational thinking includes four key concepts: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithmic thinking. What is Decomposition? Decomposition is the process of breaking down problems into smaller, more manageable parts. What is Pattern Recognition? Pattern recognition seeks out connections and similarities amongst the different parts. What is Abstraction? Abstraction removes the ‘noise’ of irrelevant information to find the most important pieces in each decomposed problem. What is Algorithmic Thinking? Algorithmic thinking details the problem-solving process into easily understood steps. It’s essential to remember that algorithmic thinking doesn’t necessarily result in code. Instead, algorithmic thinking is a reflection on the process and its multiple iterations, challenges, and solutions. It can help facilitate endeavors like research, project planning, historical reasoning or literary analysis. We focused on how primary school pupils learn to grasp and apply programming concepts by means of SRA-programming related to a development in computational thinking by usage of the Brennan and Resnick framework that describes Computational Concept, Computational Practices and Computational Perspectives. - Concepts: Sequences, loops, parallelism, events, conditionals, operators, and data - Practices Being incremental and iterative, testing and debugging, reusing and remixing, and abstracting and modularizing - Perspectives: Expressing, Connecting, Questioning The results from our research obtained can make a further contribution to the development of knowledge on computational thinking in education. This in such an integrated way that the benefits, from equipping pupils with computational thinking skills and having more understanding of complex programming concepts by application of SRA-programming, can also have a positive impact and effect on other school subjects.
  5. SENSE-REASON-ACT (SRA) PROGRAMMING In everyday life we have already, perhaps unconsciously, experienced the principles underlying Sense-Reason-Act Programming. These experiences may already have been gained through: The thermostatic heating system at home, Through the automatic light and windscreen wiper system in cars, or When preparing food in a temperature-controlled oven. Characteristic of these applications is that they are all based on and can be related to the principles underlying SRA-programming.
  6. SENSE-REASON-ACT (SRA) PROGRAMMING Sense-Reason-Act (SRA) programming can be described as the process in which external, sensor-based observations (sense) are entered into a microprocessor, so that these observations can be compared with internal pre-set conditions (reason) which infers executing desired programming actions (act). The ability to anticipate changing conditions in the task design through sensor-based observations requires a different programming approach in comparison to sequential, linear programming solutions. SRA-programming involves the functional understanding and application of complex programming concepts such as iterations, conditionals, functions and nesting. Programming with an application of sensors, as a characteristic of SRA-programming, is also known as a smart way of programming and includes sensor driven feedback loops. Being able to respond to changes in the task design by means of SRA-programming, which infers to a better understanding of complex programming concepts, can ensure that users' computational thinking ability develops at a higher level.
  7. In contrast to SRA-programming, we distinguish linear programming, which is characterised by successive series of programming commands, arranged in strings. When the constructed program is executed, the programming commands are processed straight forward, one after the other. A linear program will always execute the same sequence of instructions, and it will always produce the same results. In the world of computer science, we call this an deterministic algorithm. It is an algorithm that, given a particular input, will always produce the same output, with the underlying machine always passing through the same sequence of states. Deterministic algorithms are by far the most studied and familiar kind of algorithm, as well as one of the most practical, since they can be run on real machines efficiently.
  8. 3 perspectives in physical computing (hardware, software, context) which are related and interconnect to eachother. Intrinsic domain structure, whereby the didactical approach is different from the intrinsic approach. As a teacher you make the choice where you start. But be aware that from an educational perspective, there are interrelations.
  9. AIMS AND SCOPE To investigate the influence of SRA, our aims and scope were: First: To examine whether SRA-programming can be functionally applied in primary education, Second: To determine what effects SRA-programming has on the development of computational thinking, Third: To illustrate the impact of the application of different task designs and types of programming environments, Fourth: To determine whether SRA-programming can make a substantial contribution to a better understanding of complex programming concepts.
  10. OVERVIEW In six sub-studies, successively a Feasibility study, a Literature exploration, and examination of Task requirements, Teacher influence, On-screen simulations and Output differences, the impact of Sense-Reason-Act programming on Computational Thinking was investigated. A variation in the programming environments used, a diversity in the characteristics of the task design, and different types of output have been applied. Underlying pedagogical perspectives have also been addressed.
  11. FIRST STUDY As a first study, a feasibility study was conducted that examined the effect of SRA-programming on the development of algorithmic skills, as a characteristic of computational thinking, and the impact on self-efficacy using Lego robotics in two types of instruction (direct instruction / scaffolding). In this study, primary school pupils of grade 5 and 6 used Lego Mindstorms NXT robots to solve programming tasks in several missions by applying SRA-programming. As a pre- and post-test assessment, pupils solved grid diagrams of increasing difficulty as algorithmic mathematical tasks based on Pascal's triangle. We also assessed the level of self-efficacy in the pre- and post-measurements.
  12. SECOND STUDY The second study comprised a theoretical in-depth literature exploration in order to establish a theoretical framework and treatise, culminating in a research agenda in which an outline for four sub-studies was described for developing computational thinking skills by sense-reason-act programming with robots. The research agenda included the direction to which the following research questions were addressed: Whether and how the nature of the programming task and the programming environment is of significant relevance to apply SRA-programming? Whether, when using SRA-programming, the type of programming paradigm as also the output of a programming environment influences the development of aspects of computational thinking and the use of SRA-approaches? Whether, in an opposite to a tangible robotics environment, there is a difference in yield in the development of computational thinking skills when pupils program in a visual, screen-oriented programming environment either with an SRA-approach or with an linear-approach respectively with or without the use of sensor-based information, loops, conditionals, functions and routines? What the relationship is of pedagogical aspects such as teacher interventions and self-effectiveness, making use of SRA-programming and its affect on the development of computational thinking skills?
  13. THIRD STUDY The third study focused on the requirements in the task design to elicit SRA-programming with an impact on computational thinking. In this study, we assessed among primary school pupils grade 5 whether and how the nature of the programming task and the programming environment is of significant relevance to apply SRA-programming with an impact on computational thinking. We therefore set-up two different task environments (static – dynamic) in which we used Lego Mindstorms EV-3 robots.
  14. FOURTH STUDY The fourth study Illustrated the importance of the effect of teacher behaviour and SRA robot programming on the development of computational thinking. In this study, we assessed the relationship of pedagogical aspects (such as the teacher's instructional approach and the effect of teacher interventions) making use of SRA-programming and its affect on the development of computational thinking skills among primary school pupils when using programmable robots.
  15. FIFTH STUDY The fifth study demonstrated the application of SRA-programming and the impact on computational thinking in a visual programming environment with purely a visual, on-screen output. In this study we assessed among primary school pupils grade 5, whether SRA-programming can also be applied in programming environments with a purely visual on-screen output as a simulation of reality, or if SRA-programming is restricted only to an application in the physical robotics world. We therefore used Bomberbot as a visual programming environment with on-screen output.
  16. SIXTH STUDY The sixth study described the effect of SRA-programming on computational thinking and the impact on complex programming concepts by using visual programming environments which differ in the type of output. In this study among primary school pupils grade 5 and 6, we assessed a comparison in development and yield regarding the impact on understanding of complex programming concepts and computational thinking by application of SRA-programming with either a visual on-screen output or a tangible robotic output.
  17. 10 minutes to try out an SRA Educational Robotics programming environment.
  18. Findings: Our findings show that: Application of SRA-programming proves to cause a significant development of computational thinking skills and also more understanding of complex programming concepts. Furthermore, the results of our research indicated that SRA-programming offers the opportunity of grasping the more difficult and complicated aspects of complex programming concepts (such as nested loops, repeat until, if-else, if-then-else, while, functions with parameters, etc.) in an enlightening and meaningful way, Also: The effects identified are dependent in the operationalisation of SRA-programming to influence the development of computational thinking skills by means of parallel thinking and conditional reasoning, which are strong underlying characteristics of SRA-thinking. Moreover: Our research addresses the following determining factors for a significant influence of SRA-programming on computational thinking: The effect and nature of the type of task design (static – dynamic) 2) The relationship between pedagogical aspects (teacher guidance – teacher interventions – self-efficacy) 3) The programming task and the application of different visual programming environments (robotics – simulations) 4) The influence of differences in output of the programming environment used (on-screen / tangible)
  19. FUTURE DIRECTIONS & RECOMMONDATIONS From our results and findings, the following directions for future research and recommendations can be described: 1) To determine the extent to which SRA-programming can contribute to the ability to solve computational thinking problems by means of problem-based computer learning. 2) To examine the application of other types of physical/tangible and on-screen SRA-programming environments to further determine the effectiveness of SRA. 3) To identify whether psychological needs of the user determine preferences regarding the type of input/output of the SRA-programming environment to be used. 4) Whether the same yields caused by SRA-programming can be generated in other types of education (secondary education – higher education). 5) If unplugged environments can generate similar development on CT in a comparison with SRA programming. 6) The need to develop more versatile assessment-tools to determine development on computational thinking.
  20. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION