WHY OER?• Do we really have an alternative? – Sir John Daniels, former President of the Commonwealth of Learning 2012: – “First, UNESCO’s 2009 World Conference on Higher Education identified rapidly increasing demand as the major trend because nearly one-third of the world’s population (29.3%) is under the age of 15. – Today there are 165 million people enrolled in tertiary education. Projections suggest that participation will peak at 263 million in 2025. Accommodating the additional 98 million students would require more than four major campus universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years. This suggests that alternative models of provision will be needed.”Source: http://www.col.org/resources/speeches/2012presentations/Pages/2012-04-12.aspx
OPEN EDUCATION IS EVOLVING AS WE WANT?• MOOCs are a progression of the kind of open education ideals suggested by open educational resources.• Our proposal OCW-S – Creation of open massive courses reusing and adapting open educational resources – Generation of recommendations for personal learning paths from the analysis of usage dat – Interaction and enrichment of OCW courses resources that are posted on social networks like Twitter
NOT ALL THE MOOCS ARE EQUALLisa Lane : http://lisahistory.net/wordpress/2012/08/three-kinds-of-moocs/
CMOOC VS. XMOOCAlan Levine: http://cogdogblog.com/2012/09/21/just-ds106/
Course Approximately 200 online courses. Students Approximately 1.5 million students enrolled. Unofficial Certification. Some instructors offer signed certificates of Credential completion, but it is not official university certification. Short video lectures and presentations, as well as Experience such additional elements as online quizzes and interactive discussion forums. Peer-reviewed assessments of quizzes,Assessment homeworks, problem sets.Contact with professor None Social Online forums, study groups, and meet ups Interaction organized by students. Online and free of charge. Resources must not beAvailability of resources copied, reproduced, distributed, published, nor modified. Credits Not offered.
Course 18 Students ~ 160.000 Credential An unofficial certificate signed by instructors. Experience Short videos, quizzes feedback. Software grades tests, problem sets,Assessment programming assignment with automatic grading system.Contact with professor None Social Online forums and study groups, meet-ups Interaction organized by students in over 450 cities.Availability of resources Open-licensed and free of charge. Credits None
Course 9 online courses. Students Approximately 1 million students enrolled. Official Certificate of completion. Certificates are issued by edX under the name of the university from Credential where the course originated, i.e. HarvardX, MITx or BerkeleyX. Experience edX open source, videos. Automatic software to grade homeworks and tests.Assessment Essay grading software. Minimum 70% of class assistance required.Contact with professor None Incomplete: Online discussion groups. Only one Social Interaction course, given by the Harvard School of Public Health in quantitative methods, has regional get-togethers.Availability of resources Open-licensed and free of charge. Credits Not offered.
Platform - Course Catalogue by category - List of Universities provided - Community of teachers and universities: those who create the courses are experts in the field MOOCs Integrated expert tool for creating MOOC courses. authoring My class progress: monitoring and management tool. Experience Short videos, quizzes, feedback. Learning Performance of students, content, training, Analytics interaction between student. Online forums and study groups, meet-ups organized Social Interaction by students. Motivational system based on karma and badges.Availability of resources Open-licensed and free of charge.Accreditation Mozzila Open Badges
COMPARISON BETWEEN OCW AND MOOCS Stage Traditional OCW MOOC Course delivery mode. Online Online The delivery mode is used to indicate the method of course delivery. Access As access to any web site. OCW users: Massive, give access to a larger group of teachers, students, and self-learners (may students. Massive. A MOOC builds on the not be massive). active engagement of several hundred to several thousand “students” who self- organize their participation according to learning goals, prior knowledge and skills, and common interests.. Platform CMS or Web site Learning Interactive and massive environment Pre-requisites to Normally the authors documented the In general, MOOCS does not require exams of enrollment background to use the OCW. prior knowledge (though this some cases may be possible). Educational resources OCW typically provide open access to class, Each course includes short video lectures on syllabus, curricula, and teachers’ guides, different topics, recommend reading, reading calendars, lecture notes, overheads, for assignments and assignments to be presentations, assignments, problem sets submitted, usually on a weekly basis. In most and solutions, examinations, reading lists, humanities and social science courses, and references and readings, tests, samples, other assignments where an objective simulations, experiments and standard may not be possible, a peer review demonstrations, and in many cases audio system is used. or video. Do-it-yourself available Yes, in some cases Yes, in almost all cases labs
COMPARISON BETWEEN OCW ANDStageCertification MOOCS Traditional OCW MOOC of OCW initiatives typically do not Certificate of competency when learning/competency. provide a degree, credit, or assignment, homework is certification submitted and a final exam is passed. *Coursera and Udacity offer unofficial certification which is not acknowledged officially as a University degree, while edX offers official certification issued by Berkeley, MIT and Harvard. .modes of delivering Ideally utilizing multiple modes of Ideally utilizing multiple modes of content delivering content: video, audio, delivering content (video, audio, text, and animation. text, animation). This could be pre- recorded, live or a combination of the two.Open licensing of content, Always. Content is published using Open licensing of content may not open structure open licenses. be present in all MOOC projects.Self-Assessments and Participants may complete and Participants may complete and tasks submit tasks at any time submit tasks at any time while the course is active.
COMPARISON BETWEEN OCW AND MOOCS Stage Traditional OCW MOOC Tuition Zero Zero Interaction and peer-to-peer No Yes. MOOC integrates the Exchanges connectivity of social networking. Support The courses are created by MOOC Integrates the faculty experts in a field of facilitation of an knowledge. However, OCW acknowledged expert in institutions do not typically a field of study. provide access to faculty. A lack of professional support provided by subject tutors or experts Tutoring and guidance A lack of guidance provided by Guidance provided support specialists Facilitate asynchronous No. Yes. interaction Cost Cost to produce the content, Cost to produce the there is also a cost to host and content, there is also a disseminate the content. There cost to host and is also a cost to develop the disseminate the platform. content. There is also a cost to develop the platform.
The OCW-S concept. Certification• Option 1: OCW-S Certificate: – Certification process: Certification of knowledge and skills through final evaluation. – Cost: Zero• Option 2: Certificate Validated by a University: – Certification process: Certification of knowledge and skills through final evaluation. – Cost: costs depend on the policy of each institution.
The OCW-S concept. Content organization– Pedagogy Model: OCW-S are based on several principles from connectivist pedagogy. Content is structured in a ‘self-learning’ or ‘self-teaching’ method.– OCW-S requires instructional design that facilitates large-scale feedback and interaction.– Preparation of educational content
The OCW-S concept. Mentoring and support– Approach: An important subject is to decrease the feeling of confusion and disorientation for students who are used to strict, syllabus directed, lecture courses.– Strategies: OCW-S uses tools and strategies based on the Social Web and connectivist design principles.
The OCW-S concept. Monitoring and self-Assessment– Approach: use tools and strategies based on the Social Web.– Self-Assessment Tool is required. It is important that the tool helps determine strengths and areas for improvement or new learning. It is also important that the tool retaining personal performance records.– Facilitate asynchronous interaction between as many participants as possible.
Conclusions– OCW-S • gives every student the possibility to obtain both official and unofficial certification • requires instructional design that facilitates large-scale feedback and interaction • guarantees the quality of all the educational materials created with the course. These ones can be edited or added online to other content produced in different places. • uses tools and strategies based on the Social Web and connectivism design principles which offer complete integration and social networking between peers.