ACC Integrated Movement Strategy: Changing Travel Behaviour


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ACC Integrated Movement Strategy: Changing Travel Behaviour

  1. 1. Adelaide City Council’s Integrated Movement StrategyCHANGING TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR Discussion Paper 5 1
  2. 2. 1 INTRODUCTIONAdelaide City Council is currently drafting a new Integrated Movement Strategy that will become its frameworkfor movement and transport issues in the City.Currently in the early stages of exploring ideas for the Strategy, Council wants to facilitate a greaterunderstanding of the issues and get a feel for a range of opinions on some preliminary ideas. It has,therefore, prepared a series of discussion papers on different aspects of movement and transport in the city.The papers aim to inform you about some of the main issues and to suggest a range of potentialstrategies. The proposed strategies are not necessarily those that will form part of the IntegratedMovement Strategy, nor do they form part of Council’s official position on the issue.This Discussion Paper is number 5 in a series of 7 and addresses changing travel behaviour. It is notintended to be a complete discussion, but includes only those topics on which we are seeking input to ourproposed solutions.We are seeking comment on the proposed strategies. The key proposed strategies are:  Implementation of Travel Behaviour Programs  Better promotion of sustainable transport options through events  Better promotion of sustainable transport options through education and awareness campaigns  Better information for sustainable transport options  Expansion of the City Car Share scheme  Better support for taxis in the city  Expansion of the Free City Bike scheme  Development of a City of Adelaide car pool website  Reduce parking levels in the cityThe full list of Discussion Papers is:Discussion Paper 1 - Managing the city’s movement networkDiscussion Paper 2 - Sharing street spaceDiscussion Paper 3 - Transport and movement in the Park LandsDiscussion Paper 4 - Night time transport and movementDiscussion Paper 5 - Changing travel behaviourDiscussion Paper 6 - ParkingDiscussion Paper 7 - Supporting the cityAll the discussion papers are available at Your Say Adelaide. For more information on Council’s overarching Strategic Plan that guides the vision and objectives of the Integrated Movement Strategy, read Help Shape the Future of your City. 2
  3. 3. 2 HOW TO PROVIDE FEEDBACKYour feedback is valued. We would specifically like to know whether you generally support the strategyoptions detailed in Section 5.To provide feedback, use the relevant discussion blog on our Transport in the city webpage.Alternatively, fill in the feedback form at the back of this paper. You can either return it via e-mail, or post it to: Nick Nash Adelaide City Council GPO Box 2252 ADELAIDESA 5001.Or you can simply e-mail your comments to CONTEXT3.1 Why We Need Travel Behaviour Change? 1Adelaide is one of the most car dominated cities in the world, with up to 82% of trips undertaken by car. 2While the journey to work for city trips by car is better at 56% it is still considered high compared to otherprosperous Australian capital cities (such as, Sydney 30%, Melbourne 42%).Given the population growth projections for the city and inner rim suburbs, as per the 30 Year Plan for GreaterAdelaide, the associated travel increases are likely to be accompanied by extensive congestion should currenttravel patterns and behaviours be sustained. A preliminary analysis suggests that potentially an additional205,000 trips (about a 42% increase) will be travelling to, from and within the city by 2038. This suggests thatif residential and business growth in the city is to be achieved in an environmentally sustainable anduncongested manner, then a substantial proportion of existing and potential future car trips need to occur onpublic transport, bike, foot or car share schemes.Our current travel behaviours and associated reliance on the car is a significant concern for governments (atall levels) on account of:Congestion costs: Significant costs are associated with urban congestion. In 2005, congestion was 3estimated to cost Adelaide’s economy $0.6 billion, which is forecasted to increase to $1.1 billion by 2020 .Road safety trauma & costs: In Australia, about 1,700 people die from road crashes each year. Just inAdelaide City over the last 5 years (2006 to 2010) there has been about 2,230 casualty crashes recordedinvolving five fatalities. In addition to the personal trauma experienced, the costs associated with an unsaferoad environment are enormous. The annual economic cost of road crashes in Australia was conservativelyestimated to be at least $18 billion in 2005.Living affordability: Owning and running cars represents a major cost for households, accounting for 15-20% of expenditure by South Australian households. These costs can be a source of financial stress and arelikely to increase as fuel prices rise.Decline in health and fitness: As more trips are made by car, fewer are HEALTH RISKS of inactivitymade (in part or entirely) by walking or cycling – up to 45% of South are 20 times greater thanAustralian adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity for good the risk of a potentialhealth. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease cycling accident.and other preventable conditions that impact on the public health budget.1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Journey to Work (JTW) 2006 data2 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Journey to Work (JTW) 2006 data3 BTRE Estimating Urban Traffic and Congestion Cost Trends for Australian Cities, Working Paper No. 71 3
  4. 4. High levels of carbon emissions: Greenhouse gases from transportare a significant and growing component of South Australia’s totalemissions. In 2006, transport accounted for 50% of City of Adelaide’scarbon emissions.Cars are an inefficient use of road space: Cars are large users ofspace (see Figure 1) both when moving and stationary, and especiallywhen carrying only one occupant. To date, the public realm of the cityhas been significantly compromised to accommodate the car. Toachieve good sustainable transport outcomes in more and more placesthroughout the city, some of this space will be needed for other, moreefficient uses, including wider footpaths for pedestrians, bus lanes andcycle lanes. Figure 1: Space efficiency of various modes of3.2 Key Travel Behaviour Initiatives by Council personal transport Source: Melbourne Transport Strategy update 2011Travel Behaviour ProgramsCouncil in the past has been involved in Travel Smart programs, but not actively since late 2007. Councildeveloped its first Green Travel Plan in December 2003. The Green Work Place Travel Plan wasimplemented successfully for a period of 3 years, in which a number of actions were delivered by Councilincluding (but not limited to): Discounted public transport tickets for staff Improvement of the cycling end trip facilities for staff Regular 10,000 Step Challenges where pedometers were available for staff to borrow Participation in relevant awareness raising events that encouraged sustainable travel behaviour e.g. Ride to Work Day, Parking Day Development and delivery of CycleSafe courses, combining classroom and on-road bicycle skills training (in partnership with Bicycle SA)Council no longer formerly participates in the Green Work Place Travel Plan despite the successes that wereachieved. A 2007 staff survey indicated 57% of staff travelled to work by public transport, 12% that drove carpooled, 5% cycled and 3% walked. The greatest success of the Plan was that 20% of respondents thatparticipated in Green Travel Plan activities changed their travel mode to work from car to bike, foot or publictransport to some degree.City Car Share SchemeCurrently Adelaide has seven car share vehicles located on-street in the city with operator GoGet. The carshare scheme has predominately been used by residents, but is available for business use. The currentscheme requires members of the scheme to make reservations in advance, pay by the hour and pick up andreturn cars from the same location.Free City Bike SchemeThe Free City Bike fleet currently comprises 180 bikes at seven bike nodes located throughout the city. Thescheme is currently maintained and operated by Bike SA under a sponsorship agreement with Council. Thescheme has been supported with a 30% increase in use annually from 2006 to 2010. The predominant usersof the scheme (70%) are tourists. The current scheme requires users to hire a bike from one of the sevenFree City Bike outlets between 9am and 4.30pm and return the bike to the place of hire. 4
  5. 5. 3.3 Key Initiatives DPTI SupportThe Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure (DPTI) has been running Travel Behaviour Changeprograms and developing initiatives in conjunction with local government since the early 2000s. DPTI hasproactively initiated these programs to inform and motivate people to change their travel behaviour throughvoluntary and personal choice, as well as support councils to deliver on local and state government targets forpublic transport, cycling and walking.The current travel behaviour (Travel Smart) programs that DPTI currently support are: Reduction in car work / commute trips through smarter travel @ work: a program that helps businesses to reduce the number of single occupant trips used for business and commute travel. Reduction in car household trips through TravelSMART Households: a program that helps residents / communities to reduce their car use, and promote safer, greener and more active travel. Reduction in car school trips through Way2Go: a program that supports greener and more active travel for South Australian primary schools. Promotion of sustainable transport initiatives through Local Government Partnerships: a program designed to build collaborative working relationships with South Australian councils to reduce car use. Promotion of cycling through cycle instead journey planner: a program that generates cycling routes based on your origin and destination.3.4 Trends and PatternsThe key trends and patterns that support and impact travel behaviour change are:More residents in the city: More residents are living in the city. In 2010, the city had an estimated 19,880residents, which is a 50% increase from 2001 numbers. The 30 Year Plan for Adelaide anticipates about27,000 new residents in the city; and 37,000 new residents in the city’s inner rim by 2038.More employees in the city: More people are coming into the city for work. In 2010, the number of jobs inthe city was estimated to be 126,000, which is a 35% increase from 2003 numbers. The 30 Year Plan forAdelaide projects 50,000 new employees in the city by 2038.As travel demand increases in the city with the forecast population and About 50% OF TRIPS TO CITYemployment growth targets, it is important that a greater proportion of are under 10 km….trips (in particular short trips) are made by sustainable transport modes. which can easily be carried out by BIKEMore people accessing the city by bike, foot and public transport:Data is telling us that more people are walking, cycling and using publictransport to access the city. 4 Cycling: Journey to work data (JTW) shows a 61.5% increase in cycle (work) trips to the city from 2001 to 2006. This is further substantiated by Council cordon counts, which show cycling into the City to have increased by 40% from 2003 to 2010. Walking: JTW shows a 61% increase in walking (work) trips to the city from 2001 to 2006. The majority of people who walked to the city, however, were also shown to live in the city. Public Transport: JTW data shows a 23% increase in public transport (work) trips to city. This is further substantiated by DPTI public transport boarding data that shows a 20.6% increase in bus patrons from 2006 to 2010, and a 29% increase in tram patrons since the tram extension in 2008.4 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Journey to Work 2001 and 2006 5
  6. 6. Despite the steady growth observed in cycling and walking in thelast decade, the overall mode share is still shown to be low,representing only 3% and 4% respectively.Parking is plentiful in the city: The city has over 70,000 carparks with 31% comprising off-street commercial parking and 24%on-street parking. The remainder is the ancillary and residentialoff-street parking. Due to the large amount of parking available inthe city, the average daily off-street parking fee in Adelaide is thelowest when compared to other Australian capital cities (seeFigure 2). This makes it difficult to encourage public transport usewhen the differential price between parking and public transport ismarginal. Figure 2: Average daily parking fee Source: ACC MRC Parking Study3.5 Policies and ProjectsAll current and developing state and local government strategies (whether it be the 30 Year Plan, SouthAustralian Strategic Plan, Adelaide City Council Strategic Plan etc) have been developed to address theconcerns discussed in Section 3.1, and accordingly all include strategies, actions and targets that signify theneed for reducing the level of reliance on the private car, and increasing the use of walking, cycling and publictransport. The key State Government (South Australian Strategic Plan 2011) targets relating to travelbehaviour change that also affect Council are:Target 2 Cycling - double the number of people cycling in South Australia by 2020.Target 22 Road safety - reduce road fatalities and serious injuries by at least 30% by 2020.Target 59 Greenhouse gas emissions reduction - achieve the Kyoto target by limiting the state’s greenhouse gas emissions to 108% of 1990 levels during 2008-2012, as a first step towards reducing emissions by 60% by 2050.Target 63 Use of public transport - increase the use of public transport to 10% of metropolitan weekday passenger vehicle kilometres travelled by 2018.Target 78 Healthy South Australians - increase the healthy life expectancy of South Australians to 73.4 years for males and 77.9 years for females by 2020.Target 82 Healthy weight - increase by 5 percentage points the proportion of South Australian adults and children at a healthy body weight by 2017.In addition, a number of committed and proposed iconic and major developments will be taking place in thecity over the next 10 to 15 years, including New Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide Oval Redevelopment,Riverbank Precinct, Rundle Mall Redevelopment, Victoria Park Redevelopment and Victoria SquareRedevelopment. Travel behaviour change initiatives will be critical to ensure successful transport outcomes,not just for the development per se, but for the city as a whole.3.6 Community and Stakeholder Expectations and AspirationsAs part of the Integrated Movement Strategy review, Council carried out a number of engagement activitiesduring the July to October 2011 period. The general theme from the engagement process was: People want a more people friendly, vibrant, accessible and sustainable City.To achieve this it was recognised by key stakeholders (state and local government) that providing physicaland service improvements alone will not maximise the role of sustainable travel options, but changing travelbehaviour programs, schemes and policies will also be an important, if not a critical, element. 6
  7. 7. 4 THE CHALLENGEThe key issue when it comes to travel behaviour change is what comes first, travel behaviour change or theinfrastructure? In essence it is a bit of a chicken and egg issue, which at times creates a spiralling effect (seeFigure 3). From the user level, improved infrastructure is required to support sustainable travel modes andencourage more users. However, at the government level, increases in sustainable transport users arerequired to provide justification for improving infrastructure. Figure 3: The spiralling effect Source: Geoff Rose, Monash University SourceThe key challenges for Council to address the spiralling effect issue are: D Educating and making residents, visitors and businesses more aware of the need for increased sustainable transport choices to protect the city’s lifestyle and economy. Delivery of sustainable transport mode infrastructure in a timely manner to affect travel patterns. Ensuring the transport needs of all city users is met. Identifying travel behaviour programs, events and schemes that will increase the mode share of cycling, walking and public transport, as well as provide cost effective outcomes. Identifying and providing the personal and intrinsic motivation for city users that will encourage an uptake of cycling walking and public transport use for city trips (to, from and within). Obtaining funding and resources to deliver the proposed strategy ideas identified in Section 5.5 STRATEGY OPTIONS FOR THE FUTUREIn a time where funding for new infrastructure projects is difficult due to the many competing priorities, thetravel behaviour change strategy ideas listed below provide a way that Council can take action immediately,and maximize the use and efficiency of existing and new infrastructure. 7
  8. 8. Strategy Idea 5.1 Implementation of travel behaviour programsPotential option 5.1.1: Develop and implement community travel behaviour programs in partnershipwith DPTI for city residents, business and schools. A good deal more net benefit could beImplications & what other cities are doing generated by re-balancing the residual spend away from road capacity, to beCouncil recognises the significant benefits of partnering with DPTI focussed on lower cost, high returnon their current travel behaviour programs for residents schemes. These include road safety and(TravelSMART Households), businesses (smarter travel @ work) travel behaviour changes through ‘smarterand schools (Way2Go). These programs aim to achieve the choices’desired outcomes of reduced car usage and correspondingly Commission for Integrated Transport (2010),higher levels of walking, cycling and public transport use by: ‘Transport Challenges and Opportunities: Getting more from less Providing people with the necessary information to correct misperceptions about the cost, convenience and amenity of Figure 4: Travel Smart Australia vision alternatives to the private car. Source: Travel Smart Australia website Providing people with the opportunity and motivation to try alternatives. In some cases (e.g. workplace, schools) making selective improvements to facilities to enhance walking, cycling and public transport options. Providing people with the necessary information and skills to make the new travel activity a convenient, safe and congenial one.Travel behaviour programs (residents, workplaces and schools) that have been implemented in SouthAustralia, nationally (Perth, Melbourne, Brisbane) and internationally (UK) have been well received. If theseprograms are actively pursued by Council as a community wide program, this could facilitate makingsignificant strides in improving sustainable transport mode share for the city. Statistically, travel behaviourchange programs have shown to be an important option in any transport strategy with proven effectiveness(Ker 2004): 8 – 14% reduction in car use (households) 5 – 20% reduction in car use (workplace) up to 50% reduction in car use (schools)A recent success in South Australia was the TravelSmart Households in the West project. This projectassisted 22,103 households in Adelaide’s western suburbs to collectively reduce their car use by 18%.To deliver these programs successfully will require support, commitment and funding, not just by Council, butalso at state level.Potential option 5.1.2: Continue Council’s Green Travel Plan and implement initiatives to encourageCouncil staff to travel sustainably.ImplicationsTo foster good sustainable transport outcomes, it is important that Council leads by example, by reducing thecar dependency of its staff as well as operations. 8
  9. 9. Strategy Idea 5.2 Better promotion of sustainable transport options through eventsPotential option 5.2.1: Raise awareness and promote sustainable transport options throughcommunity events.ImplicationsOrganised community events give people the opportunity to trysustainable transport options in a safe and supportiveatmosphere. These events provide a positive experience forparticipants through direct encouragement and promotion, and One of the Adelaide Parking Day 2011 parking installations along Rundle Streetare good instigators to support voluntary behaviour change.Council over the years has supported and promoted a number ofcommunity events such as National Ride to Work Day, TourDown Under, Tour De Work and Adelaide Parking Day (seeFigure 5). Other national and international events that Councilcould actively participate and support include Walk to Work Day, Figure 5: Parking installation onWalk Safely to School day, World Car Free Day, Bike Week … Adelaide Parking Day 2011The success of these events has been proven by the increased participation each year. For example, in 2010nationally 110,000 people participated in Ride to Work Day, and in 2011 this increased to 150,000.Organising of community events can be resource intensive, requiring a lot of work and effort. Council will notbe able to participate in all major events as listed above. The events selected will need to be aimed atmaximising community participation.Strategy Idea 5.3 Better promotion of sustainable transport options through education and awarenesscampaignsPotential option 5.3.1: Educate the community of thebenefits of travel behaviour change through effectivemarketing campaigns.Implications & what other cities are doingTo achieve travel behaviour change, the community needs tobetter understand the reasons why unrestrained car use will notbe sustainable in the future. Education and promotion inschools, work places and in the media can raise awareness ofthe impacts of private vehicle use; provide detailed informationof alternatives such as public transport and cycling; and provideefficient ways to make more effective use of cars. Figure 6: LA Metro, Promoting Mass TransitSuccessful marketing campaigns need to be promoted in such a Source: that the consumer feels proud to be seen making this choice.Examples include: City of Sydney has recently (2010) developed and implemented an Enabling Cycling Strategy, which involves an ongoing publicity campaign to encourage people to cycle in Sydney. The campaign provided a suite of interventions designed to address the social barriers which limit cycling participation for inner Sydney residents and visitors. Los Angeles Metro has been promoting its bus services as a better alternative to the car by making their buses attractive through the use of bright colours and running a number of playful advertisements on billboards, buses (see Figure 6) and bus stops. 9
  10. 10. Potential option 5.3.2: Offer cycle confidence training for staff, city residents, businesses and schools.ImplicationsA lack of skills and / or confidence to ride in busy traffic environments is often cited as a key barrier to theuptake of commuter cycling. To address this issue Council has partnered with BikeSA to deliver the Adelaideby Bike campaign and BikeStart program (an online tool to assist new cyclists). As part of the BikeStartinitiative free practical courses are on offer for city residents and workers funded by Council. Continuing thisinitiative would further facilitate increased levels of cycling in the city.Other courses that Council could further promote include CycleSafe, Way2Go Bike Ed, Bike Maintenance,and Commuter Cycling Support.Potential option 5.3.3: Develop creative ways to engage the public in the ongoing discussion ofAdelaide’s transport future.Implications & what other cities are doingIt is important that Council continue to engage the public in the discussion of Adelaide’s transport futurebeyond the development of the Integrated Movement Strategy.Opportunities include permanent public art, performance artists, publication of data, public discussions andlectures. Examples of creative engagement techniques that have been successfulinclude: A number of Central and South American cities are using Marcel Marceau-like ‘traffic mimes’ to encourage more civil behaviour by people using all modes of traffic, to address alarming road safety problems, congestion and a lack of civility in the city. A number of bicycle friendly cities around the world (mainly Europe and the US) have installed ‘Bicycle Barometers’ to help promote bike riding (see Figure 7). Council has a number of off-road cycle paths where these barometers could be installed. These could be used to promote the Park Lands Trail and greenways, as well as remind cyclists that they are appreciated and that every cyclists counts. Figure 7: Bicycle Barometer in Malmo, SwedenStrategy Idea 5.4 Better information provision for sustainable transport optionsThe travel behaviour of individuals is influenced by their – often imperfect – knowledge of the transport systemand the services provided. Travel choices are largely based on past habits and perceptions which act asdeterrents to change. Providing better information on public transport services, safe cycle and walking routes,car pool websites and car share schemes is an important means of encouraging a change in travel behaviour.Potential option 5.4.1: Provide simple and legible on-street wayfinding and static information forcycling and walking.ImplicationsThe provision of improved on-road way finding signage and static information on city streets including distanceand time would assist cyclists and pedestrians to better navigate the city. Signs could identify key citydestinations, major transit nodes, key pedestrian routes and off-road cycle paths. 10
  11. 11. Potential option 5.4.2: Work with State Government to improve the legibility of the city’s existing busnetwork to improve connectivity and accessibility between city precincts.ImplicationsThe current bus network services about 30% of city streets and most city main streets (Hutt Street, O’ConnellStreet, Melbourne Street). Currently the information provided at bus stops and timetables, makes it difficult forusers to navigate the city by bus. Making the irnformation at stops more simple and legible may encourageincreased public transport ridership for internal city trips, as well as better connect city precincts.This inititative could be combined with Council advocating State Government to allow free city bus services,similar to that implemented in Perth, whereby within the Perth city centre a free transit zone has beenestablished where all public transport services are free.Potential option 5.4.3: Advocate and support State Government on the delivery of Real TimePassenger Information system (RTPIS) for the bus network.ImplicationsDPTI delivered a RTPIS trial project in 2004. The system involveda series of Smart Stops being installed at major stops along theeast-west bus service route (Henley Beach Road and NorwoodParade). The system has not been maintained to ensure accuracyof bus arrival times displayed or rolled out to other Adelaide Metrobus routes, hence is somewhat limited for patrons. An upgradedRTPIS including real time information at bus stops (example shownin Figure 8); real time mobile updates; touch screen kiosks at keycity locations (such as City Cross and the Central Railway Station)and real-time information on Internet would offer new opportunities Figure 8: RTPIS at bus stop inand encouragement for existing and new public transport travellers. PortlandStrategy Idea 5.5 Expansion of the city car share schemePotential option.5.5.1: Encourage expansion of the city’s Car Share Scheme for resident and businessuse.Implications & what other cities are doingCar sharing is a proven catalyst for moving people from a lifestyle of regular car use to one of mostly usingpublic transport, walking and cycling, with occasional use of shared cars for specific trips for which the other 5modes of transport are poorly suited . The experience in Adelaide so far is that one car share vehicle canreplace up to ten private vehicles that would otherwise compete for local parking space.Currently the Adelaide city car share fleet is small (seven vehicles) compared to other cities such as,Melbourne (130 vehicles) and Sydney (180 vehicles). What should Adelaide’s car share target be?Council will need to work more closely with GoGet, as well as approach other car share operators (such as,Flexicar, Green Share car etc) to identify further opportunities to expand the scheme including allocation ofon-street or off-street parking spaces and communications activity in support of car sharing growth.In addition, Council could explore the costs and benefits of establishing its own car share scheme for cityresidents and businesses to facilitate growth in Adelaide.5 Bringing Car Sharing to your Community, city car share, source: 11
  12. 12. Potential option 5.5.2: Investigate new developments to car share schemes that may promote greateruseImplications & what other cities are doingNew car share schemes in Europe and the US are more advanced such as DriveNow (Germany) and Car2Go(Vancouver, Germany & Texas). These schemes do not require the car to be parked at a ‘home pod’ and canbe used for one-way journeys. More flexible schemes offer new mobility choices and further encouragesustainable transport choices.These schemes are not available in Australia, but Council can encourage and support car share operators toexplore new technologies and systems.Potential option 5.5.3: Develop a policy that supports growth in car share in the cityImplications & what other cities are doingCurrently Council has no policy for car sharing in the city. Developing a policy for car sharing will assistCouncil in achieving growth in car share and its targets. The policy could address a process for allocatingparking spaces, communications strategy, revenue implications of allocating on-street / off-street space to carsharing and rules for operation.The City of Sydney has developed a draft car sharing policy to support their car share target of increasing theuptake of car sharing to 10% of all households by 2016.Strategy Idea 5.6 Better support for taxis in the cityPotential option 5.6.1: Ensure secure taxi ranks are provided at (or in close proximity to) all key cityattractorsTaxis form a critical part of the public transport network, providing flexible responsive 24 hour service atrelatively little cost. Taxis enable people to easily get around without the need to bring a car into the city. Inaddition, they provide an essential service for those with a disbaility or mobility problems. It is important thatCouncil continue to support taxis in the city, by ensuring adequate kerbside space is provided at ranks; taxiranks are incorporated into all major developments that will attract high levels of pedestrian activity and securewaiting facilities are provided for waiting patrons, particularly at night time. Discussion Paper No. 4 (NightTime Transport) specifically discusses the issues around managing taxi ranks at night and identifies a numberof potential options to address the issue.Strategy Idea 5.7 Expansion of the Free City Bike schemePotential option 5.7.1: Further develop the Free City Bike scheme, including through cooperation withother councils and private organisationsImplications & what other cities are doingThe existing Free City Bike scheme has provento be somewhat successful. Whilst the overallnumber of users is low (average of 1,350 bikehires a month) a 30% annual increase in usehas been observed from 2006 to 2010. About70% of users of the scheme are visitors to thecity. Figure 9: Melbourne Bike Share Scheme 12
  13. 13. Council has received interest from community and neighbouring councils (City of Prospect, City of Unley, Cityof Holdfast Bay) to investigate opportunities to expand the scheme within and beyond the City. The questionfor Council, however, is prior to expanding the system, does the current scheme need to be improved?Melbourne (see Figure 9) and Brisbane have attempted to replicate the more advanced and flexible bikeshare schemes, similar to those employed in Europe (such as London Barclays Cycle Hire and BarcelonaBicing Share Scheme). However, despite the more flexible schemes, where users can access a bike 24hours 7 days a week; bikes can be returned to any bike node; and smart phone applications are available toadvise of bike availability, both the Melbourne and Brisbane schemes have had disappointing levels of usegiven the resources expended. The main reason for the low use appears to be a result of the mandatoryhelmet laws in Australia. The Free City Bike scheme deals with the issue of needing a helmet, as the bikescan only be rented from a manned outlet between 9am and 4.30pm, where a helmet is provided with the bike.Until Australia’s helmet laws are reassessed, Council need to be mindful of how it expands the currentscheme. A study would be required to better understand the needs of current and potential users, and thepersonal and intrinsic motivators that would promote increased use by the community. Opportunities thathave been recognised for additional bike nodes include: Major transit nodes (e.g railway station) Future park ‘n’ ride locations located less than 5-7km from city Major shopping centres Key destinations internal to city (new Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide Oval, redeveloped Victoria Square, Convention Centre, redeveloped Riverbank) Key destinations external to the city (Glenelg, Norwood Parade etc)Whilst Council recognise that further expansion / upgrade of the Free City Bike scheme would have benefits, asurvey from the Heart Foundation found that more than 60% of Australians have access to a bike. This infersthat maybe Council’s focus should be more on how to get people to use their own bikes.Strategy Idea 5.8 Development of an Adelaide City car pool websitePotential option 5.8.1: Work in partnership with State Government to develop a car pooling website forAdelaide residents, workers and university students.Implications & what other cities are doingWith so many cars on the road every morning and night, there’s a good chance that someone living close toyou travels an almost identical route to and from work, school or university. Carpooling websites provides theopportunity for people to register their details and be matched with others who travel a similar route. There isa number of existing national car pool websites in Australia including Ozcarpool, The Car Pool, CarpoolAustralia. However, these are not believed to be used widely by Adelaidians.Tasmania has developed a state-based carpooling website named Cool Pool Tas. Currently the site has 736car-poolers registered. The site encourages carpooling for work trips, school trips, major events and airporttrips. Developing a similar site for city workers, residents and university students could contribute to reducingthe number of single occupant vehicles in the city.The success of such a site will be dependent on a number of internal and external factors. Internal factorsinclude: marketing and promotion of the scheme; reduced parking fees for car-poolers; provision of priorityparking for car-poolers and efficient management of the carpooling scheme through a dedicated coordinator.External factors include: - lack of commuter parking availability; absence of convenient alternative modes;increase in petrol price and having the carpooling scheme as part of a wider package of initiatives. 13
  14. 14. Strategy Idea 5.9 Reduce parking levels in the cityCar parking is a key component of the transport system and has a major influence on transport behaviour. Byinternational and national comparisons, the city has a significant amount of off-street parking (commercial andancillary). There are more than 35,000 spaces located within the square mile. It is clear that the largenumber of off-street parking bays, many of which are provided for all-day commuter parking through cheapearly bird deals, attracts a large number of people to travel to the city by car. Discussion Paper No. 6(Parking) specifically discusses parking and lists a number of strategies to address this strategy idea. 14
  15. 15. Changing Travel Behaviour Discussion Paper Feedback FormName Optional Contact telephone Optional numberE-mail address Please write below your comments relating to the potential strategies hereImplementation of Travel Behaviour ProgramsDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoCommentBetter promotion of sustainable transport options through eventsDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoCommentBetter promotion of sustainable transport options through education and awareness campaignsDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoCommentBetter information for sustainable transport optionsDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoCommentExpansion of the City Car Share schemeDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoComment 15
  16. 16. Better support for taxis in the cityDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoCommentExpansion of the Free City Bike schemeDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoCommentDevelopment of a City of Adelaide car pool websiteDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoCommentReduce parking levels in the cityDo you generally support this strategy? Yes / NoComment 16