Final Year IEEE Project 2013-2014 - Power Electronics Project Title and Abstract


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Final Year IEEE Project 2013-2014 - Power Electronics Project Title and Abstract

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Final Year IEEE Project 2013-2014 - Power Electronics Project Title and Abstract

  1. 1. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, 13 Years of Experience Automated Services 24/7 Help Desk Support Experience & Expertise Developers Advanced Technologies & Tools Legitimate Member of all Journals Having 1,50,000 Successive records in all Languages More than 12 Branches in Tamilnadu, Kerala & Karnataka. Ticketing & Appointment Systems. Individual Care for every Student. Around 250 Developers & 20 Researchers
  2. 2. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, 227-230 Church Road, Anna Nagar, Madurai – 625020. 0452-4390702, 4392702, + 91-9944793398., S.P.Towers, No.81 Valluvar Kottam High Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600034. 044-42072702, +91-9600354638, 15, III Floor, SI Towers, Melapudur main Road, Trichy – 620001. 0431-4002234, + 91-9790464324. 577/4, DB Road, RS Puram, Opp to KFC, Coimbatore – 641002 0422- 4377758, +91-9677751577.
  3. 3. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, Plot No: 4, C Colony, P&T Extension, Perumal puram, Tirunelveli- 627007. 0462-2532104, +919677733255, 1st Floor, A.R.IT Park, Rasi Color Scan Building, Ramanathapuram - 623501. 04567-223225, 74, 2nd floor, K.V.K Complex,Upstairs Krishna Sweets, Mettur Road, Opp. Bus stand, Erode-638 011. 0424-4030055, +91- 9677748477 No: 88, First Floor, S.V.Patel Salai, Pondicherry – 605 001. 0413– 4200640 +91-9677704822 TNHB A-Block,, Opp: Hotel Ganesh Near Busstand. Salem – 636007, 0427-4042220, +91-9894444716.
  4. 4. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, ETPL PE-001 Review of the Impact of Vehicle-to-Grid Technologies on Distribution Systems and Utility Interfaces Abstract: Plug-in vehicles can behave either as loads or as a distributed energy and power resource in a concept known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection. This paper reviews the current status and implementation impact of V2G/grid-to-vehicle (G2V) technologies on distributed systems, requirements, benefits, challenges, and strategies for V2G interfaces of both individual vehicles and fleets. The V2G concept can improve the performance of the electricity grid in areas such as efficiency, stability, and reliability. A V2G-capable vehicle offers reactive power support, active power regulation, tracking of variable renewable energy sources, load balancing, and current harmonic filtering. These technologies can enable ancillary services, such as voltage and frequency control and spinning reserve. Costs of V2G include battery degradation, the need for intensive communication between the vehicles and the grid, effects on grid distribution equipment, infrastructure changes, and social, political, cultural, and technical obstacles. Although V2G operation can reduce the lifetime of vehicle batteries, it is projected to become economical for vehicle owners and grid operators. Components and unidirectional/bidirectional power flow technologies of V2G systems, individual and aggregated structures, and charging/recharging frequency and strategies (uncoordinated/coordinated smart) are addressed. Three elements are required for successful V2G operation: power connection to the grid, control and communication between vehicles and the grid operator, and on-board/off-board intelligent metering. Success of the V2G concept depends on standardization of requirements and infrastructure decisions, battery technology, and efficient and smart scheduling of limited fast-charge infrastructure. A charging/discharging infrastructure must be deployed. Economic benefits of V2G technologies depend on vehicle aggregation and charging/recharging frequency and strategies. The benefits will receive increased a- tention from grid operators and vehicle owners in the future. ETPL PE-002 An LLC Resonant DC–DC Converter for Wide Output Voltage Range Battery Charging Applications Abstract: In this paper, resonant tank design procedure and practical design considerations are presented for a high performance LLC multiresonant dc-dc converter in a two-stage smart battery charger for neighborhood electric vehicle applications. The multiresonant converter has been analyzed and its performance characteristics are presented. It eliminates both low- and high-frequency current ripple on the battery, thus maximizing battery life without penalizing the volume of the charger. Simulation and experimental results are presented for a prototype unit converting 390 V from the input dc link to an output voltage range of 48-72 V dc at 650 W. The prototype achieves a peak efficiency of 96%. ETPL PE-003 An Advanced Power Electronics Interface for Electric Vehicles Applications Abstract: Power electronics interfaces play increasingly important role in the future clean vehicle technologies. This paper proposes a novel integrated power electronics interface (IPEI) for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in order to optimize the performance of the powertrain. The proposed IPEI is responsible
  5. 5. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, for the power-flow management for each operating mode. In this paper, an IPEI is proposed and designed to realize the integration of the dc/dc converter, on-board battery charger, and dc/ac inverter together in the BEV powertrain with high performance. The proposed concept can improve the system efficiency and reliability, can reduce the current and voltage ripples, and can reduce the size of the passive and active components in the BEV drivetrains compared to other topologies. In addition, low electromagnetic interference and low stress in the power switching devices are expected. The proposed topology and its control strategy are designed and analyzed by using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results related to this research are presented and discussed. Finally, the proposed topology is experimentally validated with results obtained from the prototypes that have been built and integrated in our laboratory based on TMS320F2808 DSP. ETPL PE-004 Auxiliary Switch Control of a Bidirectional Soft-Switching DC/DC Converter Abstract: In this paper, the auxiliary switch control using a lookup table is proposed to enhance the efficiency of the bidirectional dc/dc converter used in electric vehicle, which performs soft switching. Continuous current data are difficult to obtain during a resonant operation due to the limit of DSP ADC capacity. The proposed auxiliary switch control has a lookup table reference of the auxiliary switch turn- on time. The control method properly controls the auxiliary switch turn-on time according to the required load current; this auxiliary switch control brings the more efficient control in generative and regenerative mode operation. The proposed approach has been validated by the results of experiments on a bidirectional dc/dc converter, inverter, and interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. ETPL PE-005 A High Step-Up Three-Port DC–DC Converter for Stand-Alone PV/Battery Power Systems Abstract: A three-port dc-dc converter integrating photovoltaic (PV) and battery power for high step-up applications is proposed in this paper. The topology includes five power switches, two coupled inductors, and two active-clamp circuits. The coupled inductors are used to achieve high step-up voltage gain and to reduce the voltage stress of input side switches. Two sets of active-clamp circuits are used to recycle the energy stored in the leakage inductors and to improve the system efficiency. The operation mode does not need to be changed when a transition between charging and discharging occurs. Moreover, tracking maximum power point of the PV source and regulating the output voltage can be operated simultaneously during charging/discharging transitions. As long as the sun irradiation level is not too low, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm will be disabled only when the battery charging voltage is too high. Therefore, the control scheme of the proposed converter provides maximum utilization of PV power most of the time. As a result, the proposed converter has merits of high boosting level, reduced number of devices, and simple control strategy. Experimental results of a 200-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the performance of the proposed three-port converter.
  6. 6. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, ETPL PE-006 A Nonlinear Controller Based on a Discrete Energy Function for an AC/DC Boost PFC Converter Abstract: AC/DC converter systems generally have two stages: an input power factor correction (PFC) boost ac/dc stage that converts input ac voltage to an intermediate dc voltage while reducing the input current harmonics injected to the grid, followed by a dc/dc converter that steps up or down the intermediate dc-bus voltage as required by the output load and provides high-frequency galvanic isolation. Since a low-frequency ripple (second harmonic of the input ac line frequency) exists in the output voltage of the PFC ac/dc boost converter due to the power ripple, the voltage loop in the conventional control system must have a very low bandwidth in order to avoid distortions in the input current waveform. This results in the conventional PFC controller having a slow dynamic response against load variations with adverse overshoots and undershoots. This paper presents a new control approach that is based on a novel discrete energy function minimization control law that allows the front- end ac/dc boost PFC converter to operate with faster dynamic response than the conventional controllers and simultaneously maintain near unity input power factor. Experimental results from a 3-kW ac/dc converter built for charging traction battery of a pure electric vehicle are presented in this paper to validate the proposed control method and its superiority over conventional controllers. ETPL PE-007 Modular Multilevel Inverter with New Modulation Method and Its Application to Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Generator Abstract: This paper proposed an improved phase disposition pulse width modulation (PDPWM) for a modular multilevel inverter which is used for Photovoltaic grid connection. This new modulation method is based on selective virtual loop mapping, to achieve dynamic capacitor voltage balance without the help of an extra compensation signal. The concept of virtual submodule (VSM) is first established, and by changing the loop mapping relationships between the VSMs and the real submodules, the voltages of the upper/lower arm's capacitors can be well balanced. This method does not requiring sorting voltages from highest to lowest, and just identifies the MIN and MAX capacitor voltage's index which makes it suitable for a modular multilevel converter with a large number of submodules in one arm. Compared to carrier phase-shifted PWM (CPSPWM), this method is more easily to be realized in field-programmable gate array and has much stronger dynamic regulation ability, and is conducive to the control of circulating current. Its feasibility and validity have been verified by simulations and experiments. ETPL PE-008 Review of Battery Charger Topologies, Charging Power Levels, and Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Abstract: This paper reviews the current status and implementation of battery chargers, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric vehicles and hybrids. Charger systems are categorized into off-board and on-board types with unidirectional or bidirectional power flow. Unidirectional charging limits hardware requirements and simplifies interconnection issues. Bidirectional charging supports battery energy injection back to the grid. Typical on-board chargers restrict power because of weight, space, and cost constraints. They can be integrated with the electric drive to avoid these problems. The
  7. 7. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, availability of charging infrastructure reduces on-board energy storage requirements and costs. On-board charger systems can be conductive or inductive. An off-board charger can be designed for high charging rates and is less constrained by size and weight. Level 1 (convenience), Level 2 (primary), and Level 3 (fast) power levels are discussed. Future aspects such as roadbed charging are presented. Various power level chargers and infrastructure configurations are presented, compared, and evaluated based on amount of power, charging time and location, cost, equipment, and other factors. ETPL PE-009 A Fully Directional Universal Power Electronic Interface for EV, HEV, and PHEV Applications Abstract: This study focuses on a universal power electronic interface that can be utilized in any type of the electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Basically, the proposed converter interfaces the energy storage device of the vehicle with the motor drive and the external charger, in case of PHEVs. The proposed converter is capable of operating in all directions in buck or boost modes with a noninverted output voltage (positive output voltage with respect to the input) and bidirectional power flow. ETPL PE-010 Comprehensive Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays Abstract: This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. The main objective is to find the parameters of the nonlinear I-V equation by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit. Given these three points, which are provided by all commercial array data sheets, the method finds the best I-V equation for the single-diode photovoltaic (PV) model including the effect of the series and parallel resistances, and warranties that the maximum power of the model matches with the maximum power of the real array. With the parameters of the adjusted I-V equation, one can build a PV circuit model with any circuit simulator by using basic math blocks. The modeling method and the proposed circuit model are useful for power electronics designers who need a simple, fast, accurate, and easy-to-use modeling method for using in simulations of PV systems. In the first pages, the reader will find a tutorial on PV devices and will understand the parameters that compose the single-diode PV model. The modeling method is then introduced and presented in details. The model is validated with experimental data of commercial PV arrays. ETPL PE-011 VSC-Based HVDC Power Transmission Systems: An Overview Abstract: The ever increasing progress of high-voltage high-power fully controlled semiconductor technology continues to have a significant impact on the development of advanced power electronic apparatus used to support optimized operations and efficient management of electrical grids, which, in many cases, are fully or partially deregulated networks. Developments advance both the HVDC power transmission and the flexible ac transmission system technologies. In this paper, an overview of the recent advances in the area of voltage-source converter (VSC) HVdc technology is provided. Selected key
  8. 8. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, multilevel converter topologies are presented. Control and modeling methods are discussed. A list of VSC-based HVdc installations worldwide is included. It is confirmed that the continuous development of power electronics presents cost-effective opportunities for the utilities to exploit, and HVdc remains a key technology. In particular, VSC-HVdc can address not only conventional network issues such as bulk power transmission, asynchronous network interconnections, back-to-back ac system linking, and voltage/stability support to mention a few, but also niche markets such as the integration of large-scale renewable energy sources with the grid and most recently large onshore/offshore wind farms. ETPL PE-012 Mitigation of Lower Order Harmonics in a Grid-Connected Single-Phase PV Inverter Abstract: In this paper, a simple single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter topology consisting of a boost section, a low-voltage single-phase inverter with an inductive filter, and a step-up transformer interfacing the grid is considered. Ideally, this topology will not inject any lower order harmonics into the grid due to high-frequency pulse width modulation operation. However, the nonideal factors in the system such as core saturation-induced distorted magnetizing current of the transformer and the dead time of the inverter, etc., contribute to a significant amount of lower order harmonics in the grid current. A novel design of inverter current control that mitigates lower order harmonics is presented in this paper. An adaptive harmonic compensation technique and its design are proposed for the lower order harmonic compensation. In addition, a proportional-resonant-integral (PRI) controller and its design are also proposed. This controller eliminates the dc component in the control system, which introduces even harmonics in the grid current in the topology considered. The dynamics of the system due to the interaction between the PRI controller and the adaptive compensation scheme is also analyzed. The complete design has been validated with experimental results and good agreement with theoretical analysis of the overall system is observed. ETPL PE-013 Enhanced Modulation Strategy for a Three-Phase Dual Active Bridge—Boosting Efficiency of an Electric Vehicle Converter Abstract: Three-phase dual active bridge (3p-DAB) dc-to-dc converters are typically avoided in low- power applications especially for wide voltage and power ranges. Even so, the 3p-DAB do offer a means to reduce filter costs and volume. The aim of this study is to propose the triangular and trapezoidal modulation for the 3p-DAB to address the problem of poor partial load efficiency. The proposed modulation schemes were compared with two conventional DAB concepts. It was found that the efficiency of the 3p-DAB increased substantially. Moreover, the 3p-DAB showed a considerably lower filter volume than that of the single-phase dual active bridge converter (1p-DAB). In conclusion, a modulation strategy combining the two proposed modulation schemes with the phase-shift modulation is ideal, because they boost efficiency and take most benefit from the inherent low filter volume. Ultimately, the three-phase dual active bridge may offer a promising solution to miniaturize galvanically isolated dc- to-dc converters for electric vehicles.
  9. 9. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, ETPL PE-014 Power Electronic Traction Transformer-Low Voltage Prototype Abstract: Recently, a world's first ever power electronic traction transformer (PETT) for 15 kV, 16 2/3Hz railway grid, has been newly developed, commissioned, and installed on the locomotive, where it is presently in use. This marks an important milestone in the traction world. The design and development of the PETT are described in this paper, where a low-voltage (LV) PETT prototype is presented. It has been designed for the purposes of control hardware and software commissioning, thus serving a role of an analogue simulator. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the overall system requirements, from where control system has been developed, implemented, and successfully commissioned. The development of a 1.2MVA medium-voltage PETT prototype will be reported separately in accompanying paper. ETPL PE-015 DQ-Frame Modeling of an Active Power Filter Integrated With a Grid-Connected, Multifunctional Electric Vehicle Charging Station, Abstract: The paper first proves the existence of a nonlinear, feedback loop due to the effect of an active power filter (APF) on the grid voltage for a multifunctional electric vehicle charging station. A linear, open-loop model is derived based on direct quadrature (DQ)-theory in discrete time (DT). Based on this model, a linear, closed-loop model is further developed with DQ-theory in DT. A triangle-hold equivalent instead of a zero-order-hold equivalent is employed in the model for better representation. The developed linear, closed-loop model is finally generalized to general power systems. Simulations are carried out to verify the developed models under transient conditions. The short-time (1-2 ms), transient stability of the grid with an APF is determined with the developed model. In contrast to existing stability analyses in the phasor domain, using DQ-theory can linearize the loop and simplify the loop model in DT domain. ETPL PE-016 Development of an 85-kW Bidirectional Quasi-Z-Source Inverter With DC-Link Feed- Forward Compensation for Electric Vehicle Applications Abstract: This paper presents a detailed operation analysis, controller design, and realization of a high- power, bidirectional quasi-Z-source inverter (BQ-ZSI) for electric vehicle applications. The circuit analysis shows that with a bidirectional switch in the quasi-Z-source network, the performance of the inverter under small inductance and low power factor can be improved. Based on the circuit analysis, a small signal model of the BQ-ZSI is derived, which indicates that the circuit is prone to oscillate when there is disturbance on the dc input voltage. Therefore, a dedicated voltage controller with feed-forward compensation is designed to reject the disturbance and stabilize the dc-link voltage during a non-shoot- through state. An 85-kW prototype has been built. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the functionality of the circuit and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. ETPL PE-017 Novel Interleaved Bidirectional Snubberless Soft-Switching Current-Fed Full-Bridge Voltage Doubler for Fuel-Cell Vehicles Abstract: This paper presents a novel interleaved soft-switching bidirectional snubberless current-fed full- bridge voltage doubler (dc/dc converter) for an energy storage system in fuel cell electric vehicles. A
  10. 10. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, novel secondary modulation technique is also proposed to clamp the voltage across the primary-side switches naturally with zero-current commutation. It, therefore, eliminates the necessity for an external active-clamped circuit or passive snubbers to absorb the switch turn-off voltage spike, a major challenge in current-fed converters. Zero-current switching of primary-side devices and zero-voltage switching of secondary-side devices are achieved, which significantly reduce switching losses. An interleaved design is adopted over a single cell to increase the power handling capacity obtaining merits of lower input current ripple, reduction of passive components' size, reduced device voltage and current ratings, reduced conduction losses due to current sharing, and better thermal distribution. Primary device voltage is clamped at rather low-reflected output voltage, which enables the use of low-voltage semiconductor devices having low on-state resistance. Considering input current is shared between interleaved cells, conduction loss of the primary side, a considerable part of total loss, is significantly reduced and higher efficiency can be achieved to obtain a compact and higher power density system. Steady-state operation, analysis, and design of the proposed topology have been presented. Simulation is conducted over software package PSIM 9.0.4 to verify the accuracy of the proposed analysis and design. A 500-W prototype has been built and tested in the laboratory to validate the converter performance. ETPL PE-018 An Improved Soft-Switching Buck Converter With Coupled Inductor Abstract: This letter presents a novel topology for a buck dc-dc converter with soft-switching capability, which operates under a zero-current-switching condition at turn on and a zero-voltage-switching condition at turn off. In order to realize soft switching, based on a basic buck converter, the proposed converter added a small inductor, a diode, and an inductor coupled with the main inductor. Because of soft switching, the proposed converter can obtain a high efficiency under heavy load conditions. Moreover, a high efficiency is also achieved under light load conditions, which is significantly different from other soft-switching buck converters. The detailed theoretical analyses of steady-state operation modes are presented, and the detailed design methods and some simulation results are also given. Finally, a 600 W prototype is built to validate the theoretical principles. The switching waveforms and the efficiencies are also measured to validate the proposed topology. ETPL PE-019 Photovoltaic Power-Increment-Aided Incremental-Conductance MPPT With Two- Phased Tracking Abstract: This paper presents a two-phased tracking that forms a photovoltaic (PV) power-increment- aided incremental-conductance (PI-INC) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to improve the tracking behavior of the conventional INC MPPT. The PI-INC MPPT performs, using either variable-frequency constant-duty control (VFCD) or constant-frequency variable-duty control (CFVD), with reference to a collectively called threshold-tracking zone (TTZ), beyond which a power-increment (PI) tracking along the Ppv -Vpv curve executes and within which an INC tracking along the Ipv-Vpv curve toward maximum power point (MPP) does. Delay tracking due to ambiguous conductance-increment detection in the flat portion of the left-hand side of the MPP along the Ipv -Vpv curve will not appear in the PI-INC MPPT by using the PI tracking with clear and correct power-increment detection along the Ppv- Vpv curve. In addition, the merit of INC MPPT to accurately track against the random solar insolation change
  11. 11. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, still retains in the PI-INC MPPT that uses INC tracking toward MPP along the Ipv -Vpv curve when tracking in the TTZ. Modeling and analysis of two typical PV power converters with VFCD and CFVD controls are addressed for implementing the tracking of the PI-INC MPPT in design and experiment. The tracking behavior of PI-INC MPPT and the conventional INC MPPT is assessed and compared through elaborate experimental tests ETPL PE-020 A Zero-Voltage Switching Full-Bridge DC--DC Converter With Capacitive Output Filter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Charging Abstract: In this paper, a novel zero-voltage switching full-bridge converter with trailing edge pulse width modulation and capacitive output filter is presented. The target application for this study is the second stage dc-dc converter in a two stage 1.65 kW on-board charger for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. For this application the design objective is to achieve high efficiency and low cost in order to minimize the charger size, charging time, and the amount and the cost of electricity drawn from the utility. A detailed converter operation analysis is presented along with simulation and experimental results. In comparison to a benchmark full-bridge with an LC output filter, the proposed converter reduces the reverse recovery losses in the secondary rectifier diodes, therefore, enabling a converter switching frequency of 100 kHz. Experimental results are presented for a prototype unit converting 400 V from the input dc link to an output voltage range of 200-450 V dc at 1650 W. The prototype achieves a peak efficiency of 95.7%. ETPL PE-021 Current Minimizing Torque Control of the IPMSM Using Ferrari’s Method Abstract: For the torque control of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), it is necessary to determine a current command set that minimizes the magnitude of the current vector. This is known as the maximum torque per ampere. In the field-weakening region, current minimizing solutions are found at the intersection with the voltage limits. However, the optimal problem yields fourth-order polynomials (quartic equations), and no attempt has been made to solve these quartic equations online for torque control. Instead, premade lookup tables are widely used. These lookup tables tend to be huge because it is necessary to create separate tables on the basis of the dc-link voltage and motor temperature. In this study, we utilize Ferrari's method, which gives the solution to a quartic equation, for the torque control. Further, a recursive method is also considered to incorporate the inductance change from the core saturation. A simulation and some experiments were performed using an electric vehicle motor, which demonstrated the validity of the proposed method. ETPL PE-022 A Novel Single-Reference Six-Pulse-Modulation (SRSPM) Technique-Based Interleaved High-Frequency Three-Phase Inverter for Fuel Cell Vehicles Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid modulation technique consisting of singe-reference six-pulse- modulation (SRSPM) for front-end dc/dc converter and 33% modulation for three-phase inverter. Employing proposed novel SRSPM to control front-end dc/dc converter, high frequency (HF) pulsating dc voltage waveform is produced, which is equivalent to six-pulse output at 6× line frequency (rectified
  12. 12. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, 6-pulse output of balanced three-phase ac waveforms) once averaged. It reduces the control complexity owing to single-reference three-phase modulation as compared to conventional three-reference three- phase SPWM. In addition, it relives the need of dc-link capacitor reducing the cost and volume. Eliminating dc link capacitor helps in retaining the modulated information at the input of the three-phase inverter. It needs only 33% (one third) modulation of the inverter devices to generate balanced three- phase voltage waveforms resulting in significant saving in (at least 66%) switching losses of inverter semiconductor devices. At any instant of line cycle, only two switches are required to switch at HF and remaining switches retain their unique state of either ON or OFF. Besides, inverter devices are not commutated when the current through them is at its peak value. Drop in switching loss accounts to be around 86.6% in comparison with a standard voltage source inverter (VSI) employing standard three- phase sine pulse width modulation. This paper explains operation and analysis of the HF two-stage inverter modulated by the proposed novel modulation scheme. Analysis has been verified by simulation results using PSIM9.0.4. Experimental results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed modulation. ETPL PE-023 The Multilevel Modular DC Converter Abstract: The modular multilevel converter (M2C) has become an increasingly important topology in medium- and high-voltage applications. A limitation is that it relies on positive and negative half-cycles of the ac output voltage waveform to achieve charge balance on the submodule capacitors. To overcome this constraint a secondary power loop is introduced that exchanges power with the primary power loops at the input and output. Power is exchanged between the primary and secondary loops by using the principle of orthogonality of power flow at different frequencies. Two modular multilevel topologies are proposed to step up or step down dc in medium- and high-voltage dc applications: the tuned filter modular multilevel dc converter and the push–pull modular multilevel dc converter. An analytical simulation of the latter converter is presented to explain the operation. ETPL PE-024 Dynamic Stability of a Microgrid With an Active Load Abstract: Rectifiers and voltage regulators acting as constant power loads form an important part of a microgrid's total load. In simplified form, they present a negative incremental resistance and beyond that, they have control loop dynamics in a similar frequency range to the inverters that may supply a microgrid. Either of these features may lead to a degradation of small-signal damping. It is known that droop control constants need to be chosen with regard to damping, even with simple impedance loads. Actively controlled rectifiers have been modeled in nonlinear state-space form, linearized around an operating point, and joined to network and inverter models. Participation analysis of the eigenvalues of the combined system identified that the low-frequency modes are associated with the voltage controller of the active rectifier and the droop controllers of the inverters. The analysis also reveals that when the active load dc voltage controller is designed with large gains, the voltage controller of the inverter becomes unstable. This dependence has been verified by observing the response of an experimental microgrid to step changes in power demand. Achieving a well-damped response with a conservative stability margin
  13. 13. Elysium Technologies Private Limited Singapore | Madurai | Chennai | Trichy | Coimbatore | Cochin | Ramnad | Pondicherry | Trivandrum | Salem | Erode | Tirunelveli, does not compromise normal active rectifier design, but notice should be taken of the inverter-rectifier interaction identified.