Measuring GenderDimensions of Decent Work Asian Group
Outline of Presentation1. Decent Work Agenda: An integrated approach2. Emerging gender issues in the world of work3. Engendering statistics on the world of work: Issues raised
1. Decent Work Agenda: an integrated approach• Decent Work Agenda:Promoting work of women and men inconditions of freedom, equity, security andhuman dignity…. Decent Work agenda putsgender equality and development issues at theheart of the ILO agenda.
Aspects of Decent Work:• – Freedom: free from forced labour, and freedom of association and collective bargaining;• – Equity: equal opportunities to productive employment, income and productive resources for all social groups;
• Security: work stability, safe work, social safety net, and protection against sickness and old age.• – Human dignity: free from child labour and decent working conditions.
• Decent Work seeks “social floor” in socio- economic development:– Link between social progress and economic growth;– Combining efficiency objectives with equity and welfare goals;– Both “quality” and “quantity” of jobs matter;– Gender equality and equity as a crosscuttingpriority.
Decent Work agenda: Four Strategic Objectives• 1. Promote and realize rights and fundamental principles at work;• 2. Create greater opportunities for decent employment and income for women and men;• 3. Enhance social protection for all; and• 4. Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue.
• Decent Work agenda seeks to achieve the “social floor” by respecting the fundamental rights and principles at work = espoused in Declaration on Fundamental Rights and Principles at Work.• Example:• The US funded project on “Women’s Empowerment through Decent• Employment and Health” = an integrated• and rights-based approach for development• (implemented between 2001-2005).
• The principles of Declaration on Fundamental• Rights and Principles at Work were adopted• during the World Social Summit in 1995 in• Copenhagen (UN Conference).• • The Declaration promotes the fundamental• principles and rights at work in the following• areas: freedom of association, collective• bargaining, and elimination of forced labour,• child labour and of discrimination – but NOT to• be used as a basis for trade regulations
Emerging gender issues in the world of work• Gender Gaps in the World of Work• Women less educated than men – higher illiteracy among women (59% compared to men’s 41.5% in BGD) despite progress in narrowing gender gaps.• Girls and women tend to be less trained in vocational skills (12% of total in BGD) and only trained in traditional “female trades”.• Gender gaps in labour force participation rates (22.8% compared to men’s 73.5% in BGD).
• Women are found more in informal• employment (93% compared to men’s• 75% in BGD)• • Women dominate in those occupations• with low pay and least protected –• increase in vulnerable types of work:• home work, domestic work and• migration. A large majority of women• are in unpaid work (73% compared• men’s 10 % in BGD)
• Gender gaps in wages: M/F Wage ratio• – 1.4. in BGD.• • Women are under-represented in• executive positions despite overall• increase of their share in paid• employment.• • As a result of all these: Poverty• remains to be feminized.• • The very young and old are more• vulnerable to poverty: girl child and• old women.
• Factors affecting the world of work:• Persisting/expanding informal economy.• Gender dimensions of the impacts of globalization and advancement of technology on work and welfare.• The impact of work and lack of work on family and personal lives
• Linkage between care economy and paid work.• Women more affected by Decent• Work deficits: the lack of decent employment – work largely unprotected, lack of access to social protection, lack of representation and voice
• Access to employment, quality of employment and poverty – direct linkage to economic well-being of people, particularly women.• Gender division of work, distribution of resources and assets – men and women do not have the same share within the household, community and economy as a whole.
Engendering statistics on the world of work: Issues raised• Aspects to be addressed:• Quantitative aspects of measuring work• Qualitative aspects of measuring work• Gender sensitive data collection method• Gender disaggregation of data• Engendered analyses of data