SESSION 1          International policy             frameworks on      child labour and educationMainstreaming child labou...
Session aims Provide  an overview of international  frameworks on child labour and education Provide a picture of the gl...
Child labour and Education for All  Tackling  child labour and the international effort   to promote Education for All ar...
UN Declaration on Human Rights,           1948 Article    26 Everyone has the right to    education. Education shall be f...
UN Convention on the Rights of the          Child, 1989 Article    28 recognizes the right of the child    to education a...
UN Convention on the Rights of the          Child, 1989 Article      32 recognizes the right of the    child to be protec...
ILO Conventions on child labour (1/2) ILO    Minimum Age Convention, No. 138    (1973) “The Minimum Age…shall be not    l...
ILO Conventions on child labour (2/2) ILO    Worst Forms of Child Labour    Convention, No. 182 (1999): “Each    Member s...
Child labour: Minimum age criteria                                                     For developing                     ...
Millennium Development Goals (MDG)           (2000-2015)  MDG    2 aims to ensure all children complete   primary educati...
Education for All (EFA)  The  World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000:   international commitment to make basic   educatio...
EFA Global Monitoring Report (1/2)  Primary  school aged children not enrolled dropped    from 105 million to 72 million ...
EFA Global Monitoring Report (2/2)  Goal of gender parity in primary and secondary   education by 2005 was missed. Only o...
Child Labour, by economic activity            (5-17 age group)                                          Not defined (7.5%)...
Causes of child labour (1/2)  poverty  and the need for all family members to contribute   economically  limited access ...
Causes of child labour (2/2)  employment    practices where small businesses may    prefer to employ children because the...
Global Task Force on Child Labour           and Education for All (GTF)  An  international partnership in support of Educ...
Question for group work What    are some of the benefits of    eliminating child labour in your country...      ... for ...
SESSION 2a                  The national              child labour contextMainstreaming child labour concerns in education...
Session aims To    have a clear picture of the national    child labour situation Consider  the role of the legislative ...
Estimates of child labour 5-17                 (2008)                         Total       Children in             Child   ...
The legislative framework  National  Government have an obligation to facilitate the   rights of children to education an...
Evidence of child labour Sound   knowledge base of the extent and  causes of child labour are required for  putting child...
National data on child labour           (1/2) (Information    can be added here on the    national child labour context. ...
National data on child labour           (2/2) (Information    can be added here on the    national child labour context. ...
Question for discussion (1/2) 1.What are the main sources of national   information on child labour of which you are   awa...
Question for Discussion 3.Are there databases that already contain child   labour data that have not yet been analysed and...
SESSION 2b                  The national                education contextMainstreaming child labour concerns in education ...
Session aims Get a clear picture of the national  education situation Consider strengths and weaknesses within  the educ...
Education legislation (TO BE COMPLETED BY FACILITATOR  ACCORDING TO NATIONAL CONTEXT) Minimum age for enrolment in prima...
National data on primary          school enrolment and          completion (1/2) (TO  BE COMPLETED BY FACILITATOR    ACCO...
National data on lower school          enrolment and completion (2/2) (TO  BE COMPLETED BY FACILITATOR    ACCORDING TO NA...
SESSION 3                     Exclusion:                   Barriers facing                   child labourersMainstreaming ...
Session aims Consider   the groups of children that are  prone to child labour and exclusion from  education Consider ho...
Children at risk of exclusion  Children  living in rural areas  Children living in urban slums  Minority populations  ...
Barriers to education:           Accessibility  Distance   to school  Social/language barriers  Discrimination (gender,...
Barriers to education:           Affordability Direct costs (e.g. school fees, other  compulsory fees) Indirect costs (e...
Barriers to education: Quality Lack of infrastructure, facilities, materials  and support systems for children Inadequat...
Barriers to education: Relevance Curriculum   detached from local language,  needs, values and aspirations of children  a...
Specific barriers for child           labourers Limited time available for school Too tired, hungry or sick to concentra...
Girls’ education   Majority    of children not enrolled in school are girls    (54%)   Distance to school may pose risk ...
HIV and AIDS  In many countries, AIDS has added a new   dimension to the problem of child labour  UNAIDS estimates 12 mi...
Conflict and crises  35%    of out-of-school children estimated to live in   conflict-affected states  Schools destroyed...
Task for group work Identify the main barriers to education in  our country, and rank them in order of  importance (pleas...
SESSION 4            Tackling the barriers:              Formal educationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education ...
Session aim To   consider strategies for tackling    exclusion from education:       Abolishing school fees       Cash ...
Why abolition of school fees? Leads to major increase in enrolment Addresses needs of marginalised and  excluded childre...
Case study: Kenya Enrolments   up from 5.9 million  (2002) to 7.6 million (2005) Primary completion rose from  63% to 76...
Issues and concerns Ifnot planned and costed, quality will  suffer, with larger class sizes, same  facilities Poor quali...
School Fee Abolition Initiative Launched   in 2005 by UNICEF and the  World Bank Aims to review, analyze and harness  kn...
Cash transfer programmes  Cash   incentives to poorer families, which carry a   condition of child’s enrolment and/or reg...
Cash transfer programmes:           Issues and concerns Few       address child labour explicitly       Exceptions: Braz...
School feeding programmes  WFP    assisting 77 countries (2009)  Helpful in attracting children and providing   nutritio...
Quality of education Relevant  curricula Books and teaching resources Education methods: need to shift to  learner-cent...
Teacher quality Lack  of trained professional teachers in  many countries, especially in rural areas Pre-service and in-...
Education as a monitoring           mechanism for child labour  Education  Management Information Systems   (EMIS) used a...
Question for group work 1.   What costs to the family are associated with schooling in our      country (including unoffic...
SESSION 5           Tackling the barriers:                Non-formal           transitional educationMainstreaming child l...
Session aim To   consider ways in which non-formal    education (NFE) can complement formal    education in overcoming ex...
Definition of Non-formal            education (NFE)? NFE  is difficult to define “Learning activities organised outside ...
International context 1990  World Conference on Education,  Jomtien: “everyone has a right to  education” 2000 Dakar Fra...
Dakar commentary “..For those who drop out of school or   complete school without acquiring the   literacy, numeracy, and ...
So what is transitional NFE? Equivalency            or “second chance”  programmes Remedial education “Bridge schools” ...
Arguments for NFE  Helps to reach the unreached – children not   being served by formal system  Can help children back i...
Case study: Mamidipudi          Venkatarangaiya Foundation,          India  MVF   has mobilized communities to withdraw h...
Issues and concerns  Risks  making a “second class” system  Risks pulling children out of formal system  Cost efficienc...
Moving forward  Strengthening  formal education for all children to the   minimum age of employment  Non-formal initiati...
SCREAM (Supporting Children’s            Rights Through Education, Arts and            the Media)   Education   and socia...
Questions for discussion 1.    What is our country’s non-formal       education strategy and experience? 2.    What is the...
SESSION 6             Review of        national experience:      Strengthening formal and        non-formal initiativesMai...
Questions for group work 1.    How can the provision of (a) formal and       (b) non-formal education be improved in      ...
SESSION 7              The school-to-work                   transitionMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sec...
Session aims Understand   the links between youth  employment and child labour Consider the role of pre-vocational and  ...
Decent work over the lifecycle                                                                       Adolescence       Chi...
Youth employment trends Youth   are three times more likely to be  unemployed than adults Female youth unemployment rate...
Links between child labour and             youth employment  Cruel irony in the co-existence of child labour and jobless ...
Pre-vocational training  Arranged   to acquaint children with materials and   tools for various occupations that could he...
Vocational education and             skills training  Provides   practical skills for older children, which are   marketa...
Main considerations on             vocational and skills trainings   LABOUR MARKET                                COMPETEN...
Competency based trainings             (Knowledge – Skills –             Attitudes)                                  Core ...
Apprenticeship programmes  Can   help link up vocational training with the needs of   local labour markets  Can be forma...
Apprenticeship programmes:             Issues for consideration  Minimum   age laws must be respected  Apprenticeships s...
Youth Employment Network             (YEN)  The   UN Secretary-General established a Youth   Employment Network (YEN) in ...
Questions for discussion  1.   What are the main issues and trends in our country concerning:         youth unemployment ...
SESSION 8                  The education                    sector plan                  and child labourMainstreaming chi...
Session aim To  consider opportunities of    mainstreaming child labour through    Education Sector PlansMainstreaming ch...
Sector programmes A    sector programme encompasses:       an overall strategic framework for a sector       a sectoral...
Education sector plan A  single, country-led education sector plan is   regarded as the main delivery vehicle for the   g...
Guidelines for education             sector plans (ESP)  The  ESP should provide a costed strategy for   accelerated prog...
Child labour in education sector           plans   National  authorities need to recognize that    specific population gr...
Equity and inclusion guidelines   Issues  of gender, disability, and HIV/AIDS can    be sources of exclusion, and often m...
Poverty reduction strategies  Broad    national development plans that propose how   to reduce poverty nationwide  Resul...
Financing of education  Economic   benefits of eliminating child labour are   estimated to outweighs cost by 7 to 1  How...
Tasks for group work 1.    Analyse the national education sector       plan: Is child labour properly       mainstreamed? ...
SESSION 9            Working together        to strengthen education         and tackle child labourMainstreaming child la...
Session aim To    consider the importance of    strengthening dialogue among    stakeholders to eliminate child labour an...
The challenge of coordination   Multi-sectoral approach to child labour is    necessary for a coherent response   Find w...
Strengthening dialogue             between ministries Ministries  involved: Education, Labour,  Finance, Health, Social P...
Questions for group work (1/2) 1. Which line Ministries or Departments in your country deal with    issues of child labour...
Questions for group work (2/2) 3.   What other stakeholders should be involved, and how? 4.   What other recommendations t...
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  • 26/07/10
  • 26/07/10
  • 26/07/10
  • 26/07/10
  • 26/07/10
  • 26/07/10
  • Mainstreaming cl in_education_ppt_en

    1. 1. SESSION 1 International policy frameworks on child labour and educationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    2. 2. Session aims Provide an overview of international frameworks on child labour and education Provide a picture of the global extent of child labourMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    3. 3. Child labour and Education for All  Tackling child labour and the international effort to promote Education for All are closely related objectives  67 million primary aged children and 71 million lower secondary aged children are not in school  153 million child labourers aged 5-14  The international community has a target of achieving basic education for all children by 2015. If to be achieved, child labour must be addressedMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    4. 4. UN Declaration on Human Rights, 1948 Article 26 Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available.Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    5. 5. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 Article 28 recognizes the right of the child to education and requires: primary education compulsory and available free to all; development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, available and accessible to every child; measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of dropout rates.Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    6. 6. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 Article 32 recognizes the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the childs health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    7. 7. ILO Conventions on child labour (1/2) ILO Minimum Age Convention, No. 138 (1973) “The Minimum Age…shall be not less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling ….”Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    8. 8. ILO Conventions on child labour (2/2) ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, No. 182 (1999): “Each Member shall, …ensure access to free basic education, and, wherever possible and appropriate, vocational training, for all children removed from the worst forms of child labour…”Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    9. 9. Child labour: Minimum age criteria For developing General countries General minimum age 15 years or more 14 years Light work 13 years 12 years 18 years 18 years Hazardous work (16 under certain (16 under certain conditions) conditions)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    10. 10. Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (2000-2015)  MDG 2 aims to ensure all children complete primary education  MDG 3 aims for equality of education access between boys and girls  90 of the 152 developing countries are considered off track –will not reach the goal on current trends.  MDG progress report “High rates of poverty in rural areas limit educational opportunities because of demands for children’s labour….”Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    11. 11. Education for All (EFA)  The World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000: international commitment to make basic education a high development priority  Set targets for achievement of basic education standards, including universal primary education (UPE), by 2015  The 2007 EFA Global Monitoring Report stated that EFA requires an inclusive approach and called for policies aimed at “reaching the unreached”, including policies to overcome the need for child labourMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    12. 12. EFA Global Monitoring Report (1/2)  Primary school aged children not enrolled dropped from 105 million to 72 million between 1999 and 2007  Progress also on secondary education: enrolment up from 60% (1999) to 66% (2007)  Rapid progress in some countries shows impact of political will and donor support A major challenge remains to enrol and retain all children, especially the poor and disadvantagedMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    13. 13. EFA Global Monitoring Report (2/2)  Goal of gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005 was missed. Only one third reached the target  Poor education quality is undermining achievement of EFA. Shortage of qualified teachers. 1.9 million additional primary teachers needed  Based on present trends it is likely that more than 100 countries will not achieve UPE by 2015: 56 million children will be out of schoolMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    14. 14. Child Labour, by economic activity (5-17 age group) Not defined (7.5%) Services (25.6%) Agriculture (60.0%) Industry (7.0%)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    15. 15. Causes of child labour (1/2)  poverty and the need for all family members to contribute economically  limited access to education institutions or programmes  direct or indirect costs of education  poor quality of education  discriminatory practices in society and in education  cultural and/or traditional practices in certain geographical locations or among certain peoples, for example, migrant workers, indigenous populations and lower castesMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    16. 16. Causes of child labour (2/2)  employment practices where small businesses may prefer to employ children because they can pay them less than adults  the death of parents or guardians from AIDS, creating a new generation of child-headed households  armed conflict and children being forced to take up arms or give support in other forms of labourMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    17. 17. Global Task Force on Child Labour and Education for All (GTF)  An international partnership in support of Education for All, launched at the EFA High-Level meeting in Beijing in 2005  Members: ILO, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, the World Bank, Education International (EI) and the Global March Against Child Labour. Governments of Brazil and Norway have also been actively involved  Objective is to mobilize political will and momentum to mainstream child labour in national and international policy frameworks contributing to EFA objectives, through: • strengthening the knowledge base • advocacy • developing partnershipsMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    18. 18. Question for group work What are some of the benefits of eliminating child labour in your country... ... for children? ... for society? ... for the economy?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    19. 19. SESSION 2a The national child labour contextMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    20. 20. Session aims To have a clear picture of the national child labour situation Consider the role of the legislative frameworkMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    21. 21. Estimates of child labour 5-17 (2008) Total Children in Child Children in children employment labourers hazardous work (‘000) (‘000) % (‘000) % (‘000) % World 1 586 288 305 669 19.3 215 269 13.6 115 314 7.3 Asia and the Pacific 853 895 174 460 20.4 113 607 13.3 48 164 5.6 Latin America and 141 043 18 851 13.4 14 125 10.0 9 436 6.7 the Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa 257 108 84 229 32.8 65 064 25.3 38 736 15.1 Other regions 334 242 28 129 8.4 22 473 6.7 18 978 5.7Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    22. 22. The legislative framework  National Government have an obligation to facilitate the rights of children to education and freedom from child labour  Review and/or reform of national legislation may be required  Issues for consideration: • Legislation should be in accordance with Conventions Nos. 138 and 182 • Harmonization of legal ages for schooling and employment • Expanding coverage of the law • Types of work that are likely to harm childrenMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    23. 23. Evidence of child labour Sound knowledge base of the extent and causes of child labour are required for putting child labour on the national policy agenda Data necessary to support programming Cost/benefit analyses can be useful, particularly for advocacyMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    24. 24. National data on child labour (1/2) (Information can be added here on the national child labour context. For example if there has been a national child labour survey or rapid assessment, you may want to provide key facts)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    25. 25. National data on child labour (2/2) (Information can be added here on the national child labour context. For example if there has been a national child labour survey or rapid assessment. If necessary add more slides)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    26. 26. Question for discussion (1/2) 1.What are the main sources of national information on child labour of which you are aware? 2.If recent child labour surveys have been conducted, have their conclusions been summarised?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    27. 27. Question for Discussion 3.Are there databases that already contain child labour data that have not yet been analysed and used to help build a picture of child labour? 4.Can the information on the geographical concentration of child labour, or occupational focus, be used to support education programming?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    28. 28. SESSION 2b The national education contextMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    29. 29. Session aims Get a clear picture of the national education situation Consider strengths and weaknesses within the education system, including disadvantaged geographical areasMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    30. 30. Education legislation (TO BE COMPLETED BY FACILITATOR ACCORDING TO NATIONAL CONTEXT) Minimum age for enrolment in primary education Length of the mandatory school cycle Transitions from primary to lower secondary to upper secondary educationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    31. 31. National data on primary school enrolment and completion (1/2) (TO BE COMPLETED BY FACILITATOR ACCORDING TO NATIONAL CONTEXT)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    32. 32. National data on lower school enrolment and completion (2/2) (TO BE COMPLETED BY FACILITATOR ACCORDING TO NATIONAL CONTEXT)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    33. 33. SESSION 3 Exclusion: Barriers facing child labourersMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    34. 34. Session aims Consider the groups of children that are prone to child labour and exclusion from education Consider how child labour increases marginalization from education Identify some of the challenges for education systemsMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    35. 35. Children at risk of exclusion  Children living in rural areas  Children living in urban slums  Minority populations  Girls  Children affected or infected by HIV and AIDS, particularly AIDS orphans  Children of migrant families  Street children  Children who are trafficked for purposes of labour, or commercial sexual exploitation, and child domestic workers  Children affected by crisis or conflictMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    36. 36. Barriers to education: Accessibility  Distance to school  Social/language barriers  Discrimination (gender, ethnicity, disability etc.)  Early marriage  Lack of birth registration  Inflexible scheduling  Fear of violence at, or on the way to, schoolMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    37. 37. Barriers to education: Affordability Direct costs (e.g. school fees, other compulsory fees) Indirect costs (e.g. uniforms, textbooks, transportation, meals) Opportunity cost (i.e. income/wage lost to family from child leaving work to go to school)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    38. 38. Barriers to education: Quality Lack of infrastructure, facilities, materials and support systems for children Inadequate conditions of work for teachers Lack of adequate training, aids and materials for teachersMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    39. 39. Barriers to education: Relevance Curriculum detached from local language, needs, values and aspirations of children at risk of dropping out Curriculum inadequate to prepare older children for the world of workMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    40. 40. Specific barriers for child labourers Limited time available for school Too tired, hungry or sick to concentrate > increased risk of dropping out Discrimination and ridicule by peers and/or teachersMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    41. 41. Girls’ education  Majority of children not enrolled in school are girls (54%)  Distance to school may pose risk  Participation in education may depend on separate facilities or female teachers  Educating girls is one of the best investments a country can make > economic development; high social returns (e.g. lower birth rates, health)  Girls’ work is often hidden (household chores, domestic servitude)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    42. 42. HIV and AIDS  In many countries, AIDS has added a new dimension to the problem of child labour  UNAIDS estimates 12 million children have lost one or both parents as a result of AIDS in Sub- Saharan Africa  Many drop out of school and look for work to survive  Children often have to provide care and assume other household responsibilities when a parent becomes ill or diesMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    43. 43. Conflict and crises  35% of out-of-school children estimated to live in conflict-affected states  Schools destroyed during armed conflict; children withdrawn due to insecurity  Conflict and crises may lead to an increase in some of the unconditional worst forms of child labour (e.g. children in armed conflict, sexual exploitation)  In rural areas, droughts or floods may disrupt livelihoods > children are withdrawn from school and sent to workMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    44. 44. Task for group work Identify the main barriers to education in our country, and rank them in order of importance (please be specific)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    45. 45. SESSION 4 Tackling the barriers: Formal educationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    46. 46. Session aim To consider strategies for tackling exclusion from education:  Abolishing school fees  Cash transfer programmes  School feeding programmes  Improving the quality of education  Making use of the education system to monitor child labourMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    47. 47. Why abolition of school fees? Leads to major increase in enrolment Addresses needs of marginalised and excluded children, including child labourers Can promote focus on education qualityMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    48. 48. Case study: Kenya Enrolments up from 5.9 million (2002) to 7.6 million (2005) Primary completion rose from 63% to 76% (2002-04) Decline in repetition and drop out ratesMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    49. 49. Issues and concerns Ifnot planned and costed, quality will suffer, with larger class sizes, same facilities Poor quality may lead to drop out In some countries fees creeping back through unofficial channels 2005 survey: only 16 out of 93 countries charged no fees at allMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    50. 50. School Fee Abolition Initiative Launched in 2005 by UNICEF and the World Bank Aims to review, analyze and harness knowledge and experience on the impact of school fee abolition Aims to use this knowledge and experience as the basis for providing guidance and countries as they embark on abolishing school feesMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    51. 51. Cash transfer programmes  Cash incentives to poorer families, which carry a condition of child’s enrolment and/or regular school attendance  Mainly used in middle income countries, with significant impact (e.g. Latin America)  Address major causes of child labour (chronic poverty, economic shocks)  Counter demand for child labour by raising its opportunity cost  Very positive impact on girls’ enrolmentMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    52. 52. Cash transfer programmes: Issues and concerns Few address child labour explicitly  Exceptions: Brazil’s PETI; Ghana’s LEAP May not be effective against some forms of child labour (especially “unconditional” worst forms) Test will be effectiveness in Africa and Asia (where child labour is high, but public services and resources are more limited)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    53. 53. School feeding programmes  WFP assisting 77 countries (2009)  Helpful in attracting children and providing nutrition and health support  In poorest regions, may go as far as double enrolment  Improve learning outcomes, and therefore the perceived quality of education  In-school feeding can be combined with take- home meals > important for retaining vulnerable childrenMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    54. 54. Quality of education Relevant curricula Books and teaching resources Education methods: need to shift to learner-centered instruction Instructional time: sufficient but not excessive Teacher absenteeism Language of instructionMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    55. 55. Teacher quality Lack of trained professional teachers in many countries, especially in rural areas Pre-service and in-service training Special incentives may be needed for deployment in rural areas Hiring contract teachers should be an exceptional measureMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    56. 56. Education as a monitoring mechanism for child labour  Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) used at national and provincial levels > should be adjusted to collect information on children not in school  Teachers can help identify children at risk of dropping out  Peer-to-peer monitoring  Teachers can mobilize students against child labour  IPEC resources: Child labour: An information kit for teachers, SCREAM Education PackMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    57. 57. Question for group work 1. What costs to the family are associated with schooling in our country (including unofficial fees)? Which could be eliminated? 2. Is there a programme of conditional cash transfers in our country? If yes, does it respond to the needs of working children? If not, could it be installed and how? 3. Is there any national experience with school feeding? If yes, what are the results? If not, could a school feeding programme be installed? With which partners, in which geographical locations? 4. What are the factors hampering education quality in our country (e.g. school infrastructure, supply of textbooks, teacher training, class size etc.)? How could the situation be improved? 5. How can the education system be used as monitoring mechanism for child labour (e.g. teachers or school counsellors as monitors, or EMIS)?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    58. 58. SESSION 5 Tackling the barriers: Non-formal transitional educationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    59. 59. Session aim To consider ways in which non-formal education (NFE) can complement formal education in overcoming exclusion and reaching children and youth who are unreached by the formal systemMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    60. 60. Definition of Non-formal education (NFE)? NFE is difficult to define “Learning activities organised outside the formal education system”(UNESCO) Clear learning objectives Activities vary in target group, certification, duration, and organisational structure Should complement formal education (FE)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    61. 61. International context 1990 World Conference on Education, Jomtien: “everyone has a right to education” 2000 Dakar Framework of Action set seven goals including “ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes”Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    62. 62. Dakar commentary “..For those who drop out of school or complete school without acquiring the literacy, numeracy, and life skills they need, there must be a range of options for continuing their learning..”Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    63. 63. So what is transitional NFE? Equivalency or “second chance” programmes Remedial education “Bridge schools” Multiple providersMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    64. 64. Arguments for NFE  Helps to reach the unreached – children not being served by formal system  Can help children back into formal school  Can be flexible (language, time & place, content)  May be more relevant to children’s needs  Easier to involve parents, community and civil society  Innovation can benefit the formal systemMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    65. 65. Case study: Mamidipudi Venkatarangaiya Foundation, India  MVF has mobilized communities to withdraw hundreds of thousands of children from work and place them in school  Phase 1: Literate youth carry out surveys to identify children at work and out of school and motivate parents to enrol children in non-formal activities  Phase 2: Three-months summer camps in school premises. Children start learning reading, writing and maths in a creative learning environment. Camp activities.  Phase 3: Transition from camp to hostel and full-time formal education. MVF teachers and volunteers are attached to hostels to guide the children in the transition.Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    66. 66. Issues and concerns  Risks making a “second class” system  Risks pulling children out of formal system  Cost efficiency, sustainability  Quality standards lacking  Few measures of outcomes, no inspection  Responsibility of the State to provide quality education for all children  Certification and accreditation  Equivalency may restrict flexibilityMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    67. 67. Moving forward  Strengthening formal education for all children to the minimum age of employment  Non-formal initiatives that support formal system  Expanding post-primary NFE  Assisting return/entry for out of school children  Transitional education for those unable to return immediately  Need to set quality standards  More focus on teaching standards and curricula  Need to monitor progression and achievement  Looking into public/private partnerships and incentives for NGOs to provide quality NFEMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    68. 68. SCREAM (Supporting Children’s Rights Through Education, Arts and the Media)  Education and social mobilization initiative to help educators raise young people’s awareness of the causes and consequences of child labour (formal and non-formal education settings)  Emphasis on the use of the visual, literary and performing arts  Provides young people with tools of self-expression and intends to support their personal and social development  SCREAM education pack is available in 19 languages  Activities have been carried out in over 65 countriesMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    69. 69. Questions for discussion 1. What is our country’s non-formal education strategy and experience? 2. What is the coverage (geographical and numbers of children reached)? Is the coverage sufficient? 3. How can we improve the quality of non- formal education and the linkage with formal education?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    70. 70. SESSION 6 Review of national experience: Strengthening formal and non-formal initiativesMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    71. 71. Questions for group work 1. How can the provision of (a) formal and (b) non-formal education be improved in order to respond to the needs of children engaged in or at risk of child labour? (Rank your recommendations in order of importance.) 2. Who could be the key actors involved?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    72. 72. SESSION 7 The school-to-work transitionMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    73. 73. Session aims Understand the links between youth employment and child labour Consider the role of pre-vocational and vocational training, and apprenticeship programmes in the response to child labour Consider the role of the Youth Employment Network (YEN)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    74. 74. Decent work over the lifecycle Adolescence Childhood and Youth Education; physical, mental and emotional development Human resource development; transition from school to work Quality employment; Old age equitable, adequate and Productive and secure ageing; secure incomes; social protection balancing paid work, unpaid work and care work; life-long learning AdulthoodMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    75. 75. Youth employment trends Youth are three times more likely to be unemployed than adults Female youth unemployment rates are higher than male youth rates in many countries Significant numbers of young workers are underemployed, unproductive, working poor or discouraged Youth employment challenge is often linked to child labour prevalence, the spread of HIV/AIDs and internal/cross-border migrationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    76. 76. Links between child labour and youth employment  Cruel irony in the co-existence of child labour and jobless youth  Overlap with the worst forms of child labour (15–17 year olds)  Child labour prevents children from acquiring the human capital necessary for gainful employment as young adults  Poor youth employment prospects may be a disincentive for parents to invest in schooling  Workers who are less educated are more likely to be in informal sector work and less likely to be in wage employment  Former child labourers are more likely to depend on their childrens work > perpetuating the poverty-child labour cycleMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    77. 77. Pre-vocational training  Arranged to acquaint children with materials and tools for various occupations that could help them choose a future career path (e.g. basic skills in woodwork, cooking etc.)  Increases the relevance and interest of the curriculum to older children, which in turn might reduce the risk of dropping out  Can be provided through non-formal education  Typically short, providing specific skills  May include job and education counsellingMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    78. 78. Vocational education and skills training  Provides practical skills for older children, which are marketable skills for decent work  Important mechanism in overcoming exclusion faced by marginalized children and withdrawing children at or above minimum age of employment from hazardous labour  Access of girls may need special attention  Labour market analysis may be useful, to ensure that training is linked to market needs  In a context where self-employment is prevalent: provide post-training supportMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    79. 79. Main considerations on vocational and skills trainings LABOUR MARKET COMPETENCY ANALYSIS BASED TRAINING VOCATIONA L/SKILLS TRAINING POST - TRAINING TRAINING ASSESSMENT / SUPPORT CERTIFICATIO NMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    80. 80. Competency based trainings (Knowledge – Skills – Attitudes) Core work skills Technical Occupational Safety & skills Health Competency Gender based trainings Entrepreneurship division of skills labour/skills Inclusive Workers’ Training rights (disabilities)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    81. 81. Apprenticeship programmes  Can help link up vocational training with the needs of local labour markets  Can be formal or non-formal  Recruiting local small businesses as training providers as an innovative way to link children up to the world of work  Learning takes place in a real commercial setting and includes a lot of skills practice for the children involved  Children can observe and learn other entrepreneurial skills, such as negotiating prices, meeting prospective clients, etc.Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    82. 82. Apprenticeship programmes: Issues for consideration  Minimum age laws must be respected  Apprenticeships should be based on a written contract  Avoid hazardous work > Regular monitoring arrangements should be in place, involving local employers and workers organizations  Workshops should be carefully chosen and placement of a large number of trainees in one workshop should be avoided  There should be some simple training for the workshop owners in training skills, occupational safety and health, and terms of the contractMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    83. 83. Youth Employment Network (YEN)  The UN Secretary-General established a Youth Employment Network (YEN) in 2002 with the United Nations, the ILO and the World Bank as core partners  One of the main objectives is to assist countries in developing national action plans on youth employment  The national action plans provide an opportunity for mainstreaming child labour concerns in a relevant policy framework that enjoys significant political supportMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    84. 84. Questions for discussion 1. What are the main issues and trends in our country concerning:  youth unemployment  youth underemployment  youth working in poor working conditions 2. What is the linkage between child labour and the problems facing youth in our country (e.g. in a specific sector or geographic location)? How come child labour and youth unemployment co-exist in these settings? 3. What education and training policies could help to improve the situation; for example, skills training programmes for youth, promoting safe work for youth, etc.? 4. Do you have examples of good practices on skills training and efforts to promote youth employment?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    85. 85. SESSION 8 The education sector plan and child labourMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    86. 86. Session aim To consider opportunities of mainstreaming child labour through Education Sector PlansMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    87. 87. Sector programmes A sector programme encompasses:  an overall strategic framework for a sector  a sectoral medium-term expenditure framework  an annual budget  Sector programmes with action plans should link to the national poverty reduction strategy or the National Development Plan  Underlying causes and consequences of child labour must be included at the sector analysis stageMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    88. 88. Education sector plan A single, country-led education sector plan is regarded as the main delivery vehicle for the global compact on education  Should address key constraints to accelerating education in the areas of policy, data, capacity, and financing  Should align primary education priorities with those for pre-school, secondary, tertiary, and non-formal education  Prerequisite for accession to the Global Partnership for EducationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    89. 89. Guidelines for education sector plans (ESP)  The ESP should provide a costed strategy for accelerated progress towards education for all  … identify policy actions to improve education  … provide a strategy for addressing HIV and AIDS, gender equality and other key issues  … identify capacity constraints and strategies to address them  … review the total domestic and external resources available to implement the sector plan and estimate the additional resource requirements  … indicate how the country intends to carry out monitoring and evaluation and identify annual targets for measuring progressMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    90. 90. Child labour in education sector plans  National authorities need to recognize that specific population groups face particular barriers in accessing education  Sector plans should identify steps to be taken to tackle barriers and to reach the excluded groups  In this way, efforts to provide education for all and to eliminate child labour can mutually reinforce each otherMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    91. 91. Equity and inclusion guidelines  Issues of gender, disability, and HIV/AIDS can be sources of exclusion, and often may be linked with the challenges facing child labourers > a coordinated response to exclusion is often valuable  Global Task Force on Child Labour and Education for All (GTF) proposed that agencies cooperate on the development of a common tool for tackling exclusion and promoting equity > Guidelines were developed through the network of the UN Girls Education Initiative (UN.GEI)Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    92. 92. Poverty reduction strategies  Broad national development plans that propose how to reduce poverty nationwide  Results-oriented, containing targets and indicators  Usually set within a three- to five-year time frame  Focus on economic growth and employment as a requirement for poverty reduction  Leadership of national government, including national consultation and international support  Opportunity to align child labour elimination initiatives and allocate resourcesMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    93. 93. Financing of education  Economic benefits of eliminating child labour are estimated to outweighs cost by 7 to 1  However: Substantial resources are required to eliminate all direct costs of education and reduce indirect costs > increase public sector resources  Other potential sources of financing: budgetary transfers, debt relief, development assistanceMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    94. 94. Tasks for group work 1. Analyse the national education sector plan: Is child labour properly mainstreamed? 2. Develop recommendations on how to improve child labour mainstreaming in the PlanMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    95. 95. SESSION 9 Working together to strengthen education and tackle child labourMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    96. 96. Session aim To consider the importance of strengthening dialogue among stakeholders to eliminate child labour and strengthen educationMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    97. 97. The challenge of coordination  Multi-sectoral approach to child labour is necessary for a coherent response  Find ways to help various Government departments perceive and address the problem as part of their work  Important to share data and information  Incentives may be needed to improve the coordination of different branches of GovernmentMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    98. 98. Strengthening dialogue between ministries Ministries involved: Education, Labour, Finance, Health, Social Protection, Justice National structure to bring together various Ministries concerned: National Steering Committee or National Action Committee Review whether this structure is working effectivelyMainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    99. 99. Questions for group work (1/2) 1. Which line Ministries or Departments in your country deal with issues of child labour, education, exclusion or child protection? Are there mechanisms to exchange information? How could dialogue among Ministries be improved? 2. Which specific structures for dealing with child labour and education issues exist at national, district and local levels? How well are they functioning? What could be done to enhance their impact?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes
    100. 100. Questions for group work (2/2) 3. What other stakeholders should be involved, and how? 4. What other recommendations that may not yet have been captured during the workshop are there for moving forward in strengthening education and tackling child labour?Mainstreaming child labour concerns in education sector plans and programmes

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