RETHINKING ACCESSIBILITY IN E-LEARNING: TOWARD DIDACTIC GUIDELINESTO DESIGN INCLUSIVE ACTIVITIES Eleonora Guglielman ATEE Winter Conference Genoa, 07 march 2013
The emerging issues of the research✲ 2 million 600 thousand persons with disabilities in Italy, 12,403 of whom enrolled at the University (2007-08, ISTAT and Ministry of Education)✲ Dramatically increase of the universities offering e- learning/blended courses, with use of collaborative activities (forum, chat, wiki, etc.).✲ Access to technologies by people with disabilities is a priority at European and national level ("Law Stanca", January 9, 2004, n. 4)✲ All students must have ensured "full access" to all study activities, including online activities (Law 104/1992 on disability, Law 17/99, specialized tutoring, Law 170/2010, learning disabilities).
The meaning of accessibility Definition: “the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible”From the technological point of view the concept is declined mainly in threeareas: Assistive Web and Learning technologies software standards Management Systems
A bidimensional accessibilityTechnological accessibility: access to HW andSW – accessibility of websites, LMS, digitalcontents.It is defined by standards and parametersPedagogical accessibility:✲ Access to contents and resources✲ Access to interaction and collaboration tools (chat, forum, wiki)✲ Access to activities: workshops, debates, collaborative works, simulations not still realized
A 3 levels modelAccess to VLE Access to contents Access to activitiesLogin Read text CommunicateVisit the home page Convert files InteractSurfing Download contents CollaborateRead information Sharing knowledge Building new meanings Using web 2.0 toolsThere are different levels of accessibility, each of which is a prerequisitefor subsequent Time to rethink accessibility!
How to address the challenge?The solution: guidelines for the design of e-learningcourses that are accessible both at a technologicaland a methodological-didactic levelThe target: Students with special educational needs(deaf, blind, motor disabilities, learning disabilities)The paradigm: Universal Design - Services andenvironments must be designed so that they areaccessible and usable for all (in educational field:Universal Instructional Design and Universal Designfor Learning)
The research phase Survey with the Survey with experts Desk study students Case studies (5) Web survey (112) Online data (Istat, Miur, Interview (9) University) Tools: Tools: Quantitative dataGrids for observation, Questionnaire with closed interview ended questions Questionnaire with open ended questions
The GuidelinesAre formulated taking as a reference model the existing guidelines forthe technological accessibility; are structured according to the macro-phases of the design of an e-learning course in the followingframework A. Pre-design B. Methodological design A1. Course Organization B1. Didactic methods and strategies A2. Users profile and identification of B2. Course planning prerequisites B3. Design and structuring of contents B4. Activities and tools B5. Didactic support
Articulation of the guidelines35 generic guidelines and 9 methodological guidelines for students withlearning disabilitiesEach guideline including:✲ Phase and macroarea✲ Types of disability N O &✲ Indicator✲ Methodological-didactic descriptors✲ WACG 2.0 standard(s)✲ References
Future trends ✲ Decline guidelines for specific disabilities ✲ Test, validate, redesign guidelines in online courses to their full adoption ✲ Make the course staff acquire accessibility skills ✲ Contribute to the dissemination of the culture of Universal Design ✲ A new professional role: the e-tutor expert in accessibility
Thank you for your attention www.guglielman.com