Savannah Accelerated Development Authority                           SADA(A Sustainable Development Initiative for the Nor...
TABLE OF CONTENTSACRONYMS ...................................................................................................
3.3 Preconditions for modernisation .........................................................................................
5.4.1: Stimulate the set up of rural housing development enterprises ........................................................
CHAPTER EIGHT ...............................................................................................................
CHAPTER TWELVE FINANCING THE NORTHERN SAVANNAH DEVELOPMENTSTRATEGY ..........................................................
ACRONYMSAESL     Architectural and Engineering Services LimitedAPR      Annual Progress Monitoring ReportBRRI     Building...
IFPRI     International Food Policy Research InstituteIRS       Internal Revenue ServiceIPA       Institute for Policy Alt...
TIPCEE   Trade and Investment Programme for a Competitive Export EconomyTVET     Technical and Vocational Education and Tr...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1There is a visible developmental gap between Northern and Southern Ghana, with the Northregistering sign...
institutions, the private sector and the National Development Planning Commission’s       process of preparing the Medium-...
2. A model for the modernization of agriculture that starts from generating a market impetus      as the main catalyst for...
Authority (VRA) will recommend. Indeed, our strategy of tree crops could more easily start            in these areas where...
• Expanding the scope and numbers of private sector firms and entrepreneurs investing in      value-addition in the north....
immediate floodplain management options; and (iv) establishment of a flood early warning      system.4    • Drought Preven...
• Diversification of our primary sources of energy recognizing the drought-like nature of the     North;   • Assuring ener...
Concurrently, a peace initiative which is already underway in the three regions will be          enhanced. Empowering marg...
PART 1STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE                  NORTHERN SAVANNAH                          ...
Moreover, poverty is highest among farmers, especially food crop farmers. Nationally, 46 percentof the poor are from house...
Figure 1.2: Poverty Incidence in Ghanas Ecological Belts, 1991/92 — 2005/06  (a): Poverty Incidence by Ecological Belts in...
1.2 The Situation AnalysisFor purposes of strategic analysis, the current situation in the three northern savannah ecologi...
Table 1.1: Agricultural Structural and Regional Contribution in Ghana                                                     ...
Table 1.3: Crop Area in Upper East Region (2005-2007)*                                                                    ...
Cotton used to be a major cash crop in all regions of Northern Ghana. The cotton industry hassuffered decline since the la...
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Sada strategy january 2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Sada strategy january 2011

1,196 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,196
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
39
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sada strategy january 2011

  1. 1. Savannah Accelerated Development Authority SADA(A Sustainable Development Initiative for the Northern Savannah) Strategy and Work plan (2010 – 2030) MAIN DOCUMENT Revised December 2010 Funding for this effort was generously provided by DfID-Ghana
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................... VIEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................ IXPART 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 1STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THENORTHERN SAVANNAH............................................................................................................... 1CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................................ 1INTRODUCTION AND SITUATION ANALYSIS ....................................................................... 1 1.1 Poverty in Northern Ghana ........................................................................................................ 1 1.2 The Situation Analysis ............................................................................................................... 4 1.2.1 Natural Resource Base ......................................................................................................................................... 4 Agriculture ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1.2.2 Water Resources ................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.2.3 Mineral Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 11 1.2.4 Energy................................................................................................................................................................. 12 1.3 Private Sector Development .................................................................................................... 12 1.3.1 The Investment Climate ...................................................................................................................................... 12 1.3.2 Industrial and Manufacturing Activities ............................................................................................................. 13 1.3.3 Tourism ............................................................................................................................................................... 13 1.4 Human Resource Development ............................................................................................... 14 1.4.1 Education ............................................................................................................................................................ 14 1.4.2 Health ................................................................................................................................................................. 16 1.5 Risks and Vulnerability ........................................................................................................... 17 1.5.2 Trans-Border Health Risks and Vulnerabilities ................................................................................................. 19 1.5.3 Risks associated with inadequate development of housing infrastructure .......................................................... 19 1.5.4 Human-induced Shocks, Cycles and Trends ....................................................................................................... 20 1.5.5 Limited investment in agricultural infrastructure ............................................................................................... 20 1.5.6 Risks associated with inadequate development of housing infrastru .................................................................. 21CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................. 22STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR SUSTAINALBE DEVELOPMENT OF NORTHERNSAVANNAH ..................................................................................................................................... 22 2.1 Overview and Framework ....................................................................................................... 22 2.1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 22 2.1.2 Components ........................................................................................................................................................ 22 2.2 Northern Savannah Development Strategy ............................................................................. 23 2.3 Overall Framework .................................................................................................................. 24 2.3.1 Advantages ......................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.3.2 Disadvantages .................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.4 Rehabilitation and Adaptation ................................................................................................. 28CHAPTER THREE ......................................................................................................................... 30MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE .................................................................................. 30 3.1 Strategic Direction for Modernising Agriculture in Northern Ghana ..................................... 30 3.2 Entry points of the strategy ...................................................................................................... 31 i
  3. 3. 3.3 Preconditions for modernisation .............................................................................................. 32 3.3.1 Paradigm shifts ................................................................................................................................................... 33 3.3.2 Build assets of the poor ...................................................................................................................................... 34 3.3.3 Increase productivity of all stakeholders along the value chain......................................................................... 35 3.3.4 Competitiveness in Access to Markets ................................................................................................................ 37 3.3.5 Promoting Commodities of Competitive Advantages ......................................................................................... 40 Rice ........................................................................................................................................ 40 Other Staple crops ................................................................................................................. 41 Tree Crops (Mango and others) ............................................................................................ 41 Integration of crop and small ruminant livestock.................................................................. 42 Guinea Fowl development ..................................................................................................... 42 3.4 Instruments for Delivering Agriculture Modernisation Strategies .......................................... 43 3.4.1 Relations with Public Sector ............................................................................................................................... 43 3.4.2 Legal and regulatory framework for agriculture modernisation strategy .......................................................... 43CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................................... 44NON-FARM INVESTMENT AND BUSINESS (PRIVATE SECTOR) DEVELOPMENT .... 44 4.0 Strategic Objectives ................................................................................................................. 44 4.1 Repositioning Northern Ghana as Common Economic Zone in Savannah/Sahel ................... 44 4.1.1 Proposed Strategies for Promoting the North as a Competitive Economic Zone ............................................... 46 4.2 Expanding the Scope and Numbers of Private Firms/Investments in the North ..................... 49 4.2.1 Value Added Agriculture .................................................................................................................................... 49 High value fresh produce sub sector...................................................................................... 50 Canned products .................................................................................................................... 50 Rice Milling ........................................................................................................................... 51 Textiles .................................................................................................................................. 51 Oil Seed ................................................................................................................................. 52 4.2.2 Tourism ............................................................................................................................................................... 52 4.2.3 Mineral Exploration and Exploitation ................................................................................................................ 54 4.2.4 Metal Manufacturing and Fabrication ............................................................................................................... 54 4.2.5 Transport and Logistics Management ................................................................................................................ 54 4.2.6 Knowledge Services ............................................................................................................................................ 55 4.2.7 Life Sciences ....................................................................................................................................................... 55 4.3 Empowering the People to participate in the “New” Economy .............................................. 56 4.3.1 Human Resource and Business Skills Development ........................................................................................... 56 4.3.2 Indigenous MSE Development ............................................................................................................................ 57 4.3.3 Financial, Fiscal and Regulatory Incentives ...................................................................................................... 58 4.4 Immediate and Short-Term Implementation Steps .................................................................. 58CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................................. 60BUILDING CAPACITIES FOR RESILIENCE AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN AFORESTED NORTH ...................................................................................................................... 60 5.1: Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 60 5.1.1 The Context of Vulnerability ............................................................................................................................... 60 5.1.2: Implications of the context for the creation of a forested north ........................................................................ 60 5.2: Providing a Framework for Disaster Preparedness and Response ......................................... 61 5.2.1: Improving Early Warning and Disaster Risk Recognition ................................................................................ 61 5.2.2: Institutionalizing More Effective Disaster Relief Response Mechanisms.......................................................... 61 5.2.3: Building of strategic funding mechanism for disaster response ........................................................................ 61 5.3 Improving Disaster Risk Reduction and Response Capacities ................................................ 63 5.3.1: Promote Agricultural Sector Risk Reduction .................................................................................................... 63 5.3.2: Promoting Appropriate Housing and Infrastructure Development ................................................................... 63 5.4 Sustaining Improved Housing and Shelter Development ........................................................ 65 ii
  4. 4. 5.4.1: Stimulate the set up of rural housing development enterprises ......................................................................... 65 5.4.2: Support Access to Business Development Services ........................................................................................... 66 5.4.3: Facilitate Access to Financial Services for Housing Schemes .......................................................................... 66 5.4.4: Upgrade Technical Skills of Artisans ................................................................................................................ 66 5.4.5: Support research on housing development........................................................................................................ 66 5.5 Improving Water Resource Management for Sustainable Development ................................ 66 5.6 Sustainable Livelihoods and Enhanced Disaster Risk Reduction ........................................... 68 5.6.1: Enhancing Food and Livelihood Securities....................................................................................................... 68 5.6.2: Rebuilding Social Safety Nets for the Vulnerable ............................................................................................. 69 5.6.3: Assuring Human Safety and Security ................................................................................................................ 69CHAPTER SIX ................................................................................................................................ 71FOOD, LIVELIHOOD SECURITY AND SOCIAL PROTECTION ........................................ 71 6.1 Protecting Vulnerable Populations .......................................................................................... 71 6.1.1 Upholding the Rights and Entitlement of the poor to basic needs ...................................................................... 71 ii). Quick Launch Community Resilience and Livelihoods Rebuilding Initiatives ................ 72 iii). Increasing the Availability of and Access to Food and Water .......................................... 72 6.2 Building the Foundations for Economic Growth through Food Security for All .................... 73 6.2.1 Increasing access to food.................................................................................................................................... 73 6.2.2 Improving food utilization and healthy lifestyles ................................................................................................ 74 6.3 Transitioning the Poor into mainstream productive economy................................................. 74 6.3.1 Supporting Risk minimization strategies ............................................................................................................ 74 6.3.2 Asset accumulation, diversification and improved management ........................................................................ 75PART II ............................................................................................................................................ 77ENHANCING THE PRE-CONDITIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INNORTHERN GHANA .................................................................................................................... 77CHAPTER SEVEN ......................................................................................................................... 77STRATEGIC INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ............................................................. 77 7.0: Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 77 7.1 Transport Infrastructure ........................................................................................................... 77 7.1.1 Objective 1: Positioning the North as a Competitive Economic Zone ................................................................ 77 7.1.2 Objective 2: Opening Up and Facilitating Economic Activities ......................................................................... 79 7.1.3 Objective 3: Facilitating Trade between the North and South ........................................................................... 81 7.1.4 Special Production Zones ................................................................................................................................... 82 7.2 Human and Environmental Interactions in Northern Ghana ................................................... 82 7.2.1 Development Programme for the Upper West Region........................................................................................ 83 7.2.2 Development Programme for the Upper East Region ........................................................................................ 84 7.2.3 Development Programme for the Northern Region ............................................................................................ 84 7.3 Energy Production and Use in the North ................................................................................. 85 7.3.1 Strategic Objective 1 .......................................................................................................................................... 85 7.3.2 Renewable Energy — Policy Objectives ............................................................................................................. 86 7.3.3 Petroleum — Policy Objectives .......................................................................................................................... 86 7.3.4 Electricity — Policy Objectives .......................................................................................................................... 87 7.3.5 Energy Efficiency and Conservation – Policy Objectives and Strategy ............................................................. 87 7.3.6 Strategic Objective 2 .......................................................................................................................................... 87 iii
  5. 5. CHAPTER EIGHT .......................................................................................................................... 88EDUCATION AND HEALTH FOR HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT .......................... 88 8.1 Education and Health Strategies .............................................................................................. 88 8.1.1 Promoting High Quality Human Resource Development ................................................................................... 88 8.1.2 Changing the Composition of Education ............................................................................................................ 89 8.1.3 Improving Health and Well-being of Northerners .............................................................................................. 89CHAPTER NINE ............................................................................................................................. 92PEACE AND SECURITY .............................................................................................................. 92 9.1 Assuring Human Safety and Security ...................................................................................... 92 9.2 Strategies for Peace-Building and Conflict Mitigation ........................................................... 92 9.2.1 From Security to Peace-building ........................................................................................................................ 93 9.2.2 From Emergency Response to Early Warning.................................................................................................... 93 9.2.3 Strengthening Traditional Leadership ................................................................................................................ 94 9.2.4 From Short-Term to Long-Term — Reaping Peace Dividends .......................................................................... 94CHAPTER TEN............................................................................................................................... 95MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN THE NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE ...... 95 10.1 Introduction and Background ................................................................................................ 95 10.2 Broad Objectives on Gender.................................................................................................. 95 10.2.1 Objective One: Improve Technology and create value-addition in Women’s Activities................................... 95 10.2.2 Objective 2: Increase Women’s participation in and benefits from the process of economic development ..... 96 10.2.3 Objective 3: Identify potential new areas of economic activities for women .................................................... 96 10.2.4 Engendering the Northern Savannah Development Initiative .......................................................................... 96PART III ........................................................................................................................................... 97GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT,STRATEGIC RESULTS, MONITORING & EVALUATION................................................... 97CHAPTER ELEVEN ...................................................................................................................... 97INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSIONS AND GOVERNANCE OF THE DEVELOPMENTSTRATEGY ..................................................................................................................................... 97 11.1 Regional Development Focus within National Development Planning ................................ 97 11.1.1 The Missing Middle in Regional Development Planning and Implementation................................................. 98 11.1.2 Recognizing Regional Inequalities within National Planning .......................................................................... 98 11.2 Case for a Legal Institution to Coordinate Accelerated Development in the North .............. 99 11.3 SADA Governance Arrangements .................................................................................. 100 11.3.1 Board of Directors ....................................................................................................... 100 11.3.2 Stakeholder Coordinating Committee .................................................................................................... 100 11.4 SADA Institutional Arrangements .................................................................................. 101 11.4.1 Secretariat .............................................................................................................................................. 101 11.4.2 Functional Units under the Secretariat .................................................................................................. 101 11.4.3 SADA Organizational Structure (proposed) ........................................................................................... 102 iv
  6. 6. CHAPTER TWELVE FINANCING THE NORTHERN SAVANNAH DEVELOPMENTSTRATEGY ................................................................................................................................... 103 12.1 Areas of Investment Requirements...................................................................................... 103 13.2 Sources of Financial Contributions ..................................................................................... 103 12.2.2 Other Sources ................................................................................................................................................. 104 12.2.3 Participants .................................................................................................................................................... 104 12.2.4 Development Partners .................................................................................................................................... 104 12.2.5 District Assemblies ......................................................................................................................................... 104 12.2.6 Miscellaneous Sources.................................................................................................................................... 105 12.3 Financial Management Arrangements ................................................................................. 105CHAPTER THIRTEEN STRATEGIC RESULTS FRAMEWORK, MONITORING &EVALUATION .............................................................................................................................. 106 13.1 Development Objective and Key Indicators ........................................................................ 106 13.2 Monitoring, Evaluation and Accountability .................................................................... 109 13.3 Indicators for Change ...................................................................................................... 109 13.1.1 Outcome-level Indicators................................................................................................................................ 109 13.2 Accountability to Citizens ................................................................................................... 111 13.3 Accountability to Parliament ............................................................................................... 111REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 112APPENDICES ................................................................................................................................ 114 Appendix I: Appendix Tables...................................................................................................... 114 Appendix Table A1. Choice of commodities and spatial distribution......................................... 114 Appendix Table A2: Summary of Costs...................................................................................... 115 Appendix Table A3. Crop budgets of selected staple crops ..................................................... 116 APPENDIX II: The Design and Operation of the Voucher System ............................................ 120 Appendix III: Model for Operationalizing the Accelerated Food Production Initiatives............ 122 Implementation Plan .................................................................................................................... 124 v
  7. 7. ACRONYMSAESL Architectural and Engineering Services LimitedAPR Annual Progress Monitoring ReportBRRI Building and Road Research InstituteCAPs Community Action PlansCDD Community Driven DevelopmentCEC Community Enterprise Development CentreCEPA Centre for Policy AnalysisCEPS Customs Excise and Preventive ServiceCIDA Canadian International Development AgencyCIFS Community Initiated Food SecurityCHP Community Health PostCRC Citizens Report CardCSC Community Score CardCSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial ResearchCSM Cerebrospinal MeningitisCSOs Civil Society OrganizationsDACF District Assemblies Common FundDANIDA Danish International Development AgencyDFID Department for International Development (United Kingdom)DISCAP District Capacity Building ProjectDISEC District Security CommitteeDPs Development PartnersDWAP District-wide Assistance ProjectECOWAS Economic Community of West African StatesEDIF Export Development and Investment FundEFA Education for AllFAO Food and Agricultural OrganizationFBOs Farm-Based OrganizationsFCUBE Free Compulsory Universal Basic EducationGEDAP Ghana Energy Development and Access ProjectGEF Global Environment FacilityGEPC Ghana Export Promotion CouncilGES Ghana Education ServiceGETFund Ghana Education Trust FundGHS Ghana Health ServiceGIDA Ghana Irrigation Development AuthorityGIPC Ghana Investment Promotion CentreGLSS V Ghana Living Standards Survey (Fifth Round Report)GoG Government of GhanaGPI Gender Parity IndexGPRS I Ghana Poverty Reduction StrategyGPRS II Growth and Poverty Reduction StrategyGRATIS Ghana Regional Appropriate Technology and Industry ServiceGSS Ghana Statistical ServiceGTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Zusammenarbeit (German Technical Cooperation)GWCL Ghana Water Company LimitedHR Human ResourcesICA Investment Climate AssessmentICT Information and Communication TechnologyIFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development vi
  8. 8. IFPRI International Food Policy Research InstituteIRS Internal Revenue ServiceIPA Institute for Policy AlternativeISODEC Integrated Social Development CentreITFC Integrated Tamale Fruit CompanyITTU Industrial Technology Transfer UnitJICA Japanese International Cooperation AgencyKACE Kenyan Agricultural Commodity ExchangeLAP Land Administration ProjectLPG Liquefied Petroleum GasM&E Monitoring and EvaluationMCA Millennium Challenge AccountMDAs Ministries Departments and AgenciesMDGs Millennium Development GoalsMiDA Millennium Development AuthorityMOFA Ministry of Food and AgricultureMOFEP Ministry of Finance and Economic PlanningMMDAs Metropolitan Municipal District AssembliesMMR Maternal Mortality RateMMW4P Making Markets Work for the PoorMSE Micro and Small EnterpriseNADMO National Disaster Management OrganizationNBSSI National Board for Small-Scale IndustriesNDPC National Development Planning CommissionNER Net Enrolment RatioNEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s DevelopmentNES National Electrification SchemeNGO Non-governmental OrganizationNHIS National Health Insurance SchemeNORD Northern Ghana Development FundNORRIP Northern Region Integrated Development ProjectNR Northern RegionNSDI Northern Savannah Development InitiativeNSDFund Northern Savannah Development FundNSDS Northern Savannah Development StrategyNYEP National Youth Employment ProgrammeOPD Out Patients DepartmentQUIPS Quality Improvement in Primary SchoolsR&D Research and DevelopmentRCCs Regional Coordinating CouncilsREGSEC Regional Security CommitteeRGD Registrar Generals’ DepartmentRPCUs Regional Planning and Coordinating UnitsSADA Savannah Accelerated Development AuthoritySARI Savannah Agricultural Research InstituteSHEP Self-Help Electrification ProgrammeSLM Sustainable Land ManagementSPI Sustainable Peace InitiativeSRID Statistics Research and Information Directorate of MOFASSBs Soil Stabilized BlocksTIRP Trade and Investment Reform Programme vii
  9. 9. TIPCEE Trade and Investment Programme for a Competitive Export EconomyTVET Technical and Vocational Education and TrainingUDS University of Development StudiesUER Upper East RegionUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeUNICEF United Nations Children and Education FundUSAID United States Agency for International DevelopmentUWADEP Upper West Agricultural Development ProjectUWR Upper West RegionVCF Venture Capital FundVRA Volta River AuthorityWFP World Food ProgrammeWHO World Health OrganizationWRI Water Research InstituteWSD Whole School Development viii
  10. 10. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1There is a visible developmental gap between Northern and Southern Ghana, with the Northregistering significantly higher levels of poverty than the Southern export economy. Bridging thisdevelopmental gap has been a long-stated goal of most post-independence Governments of Ghana.The approach has nearly always been distributionist to address imbalances in education, health andsocial welfare services. In this strategy, a growth and sustainable development approach is adoptedto both increase incomes among the poorest and transform the northern Ghanaian economy andsociety into a regional nexus of increased productivity of food and a buffer against persistentdroughts and sporadic floods.A Paradigm-shiftUsing the vision of a “Forested North and Green North”, this strategy defines the parameters of amajor paradigm-shift in stimulating economic growth and sustainable development by ensuring thatsmall-holder families and poor farmers develop a long-term stake in agriculture by inter-croppingwith economic trees. The trees, moreover, provide a protective buffer against floods, serve to renewsoils and enhance environmental regeneration. Gravitating around a forested north arecomplementary investments in roads, energy and water resources, education and health. Theseinvestments will enhance the pre-conditions and improve the skills and competencies to manage anintegrated economy oriented towards improving productivity, trade and investments in asustainable manner.PrinciplesA number of principles inspired the preparation of this long-term strategy for Northern Ghana’sdevelopment. These include: • Government commitment, demonstrated by a decisive policy directive from the President of Ghana, contained in the 2008 Budget Statement and Economic Policy. In this document, Government of Ghana mandated the preparation of a long-term strategy to reverse decades of neglect of the north, and to set the path for sustainable development. Correspondingly, the 2008 Budget Statement proposed the establishment of the Northern Ghana Development Fund, with an amount of GHC25 million as seed capital for that fund. Since then there has been a change in government in Ghana. The new government remained so committed to accelerated development in the Northern Savannah, it has extended the coverage to the entire Northern Savannah Ecological Belt. A new law, SADA Act 805, 2010 has been passed; the strategy to target the Northern Savannah as a special development area has been incorporated in Ghana’s Medium-term Development plan prepared by the NDPC; and high- level discussions are underway for sustainable funding of SADA. • Stakeholder Engagement and mandate, reflected in systematic engagement of key stakeholders, including Chiefs, Private sector leaders, Regional Ministers, District Chief Executives, Civil Society Organizations, Members of Parliament, and Development Partners. These stakeholders gave guidance at the beginning of the strategy formulation; reviewed and commented on various versions of the strategy; and participated in key decisions at critical milestones of policy formulation and legislative processes for SADA. • Harmonization with existing plans and programmes demonstrated by several rounds of consultations with Ministries, Departments and Agencies of Government, research1 This report was prepared by a team consisting of Charles D. Jebuni (Team Leader, CEPA); Sulley Gariba (Director, IPA andDevelopment Specialist); Ramatu M. Alhassan (Agricultural Economist); Augustine Adongo (Private Sector Specialist); HippolytPul (Livelihood Security and Social Protection Specialist); James Dassah (regional Economic Planning Officer, UWR); SagidoIssaka (Regional Economic Planning Officer, UER); and Gregory Addah (Regional Economic Planning Officer, NR). ix
  11. 11. institutions, the private sector and the National Development Planning Commission’s process of preparing the Medium-term Development Plan for Ghana.ApproachIn preparing this long-term strategy for development of Northern Savannah, four considerationswere paramount (a) representativeness of the technical team leading the process; (b) technicalconsultations in defining the broad strategy; (c) stakeholder consultations to refine priorities forstrategic investments, roles and responsibilities of key actors; and (d) engaging Government andParliament to establish the legal framework for both the strategy and the associated SavannahAccelerated Development Authority.The technical group of Ghanaian development specialists was established by two leadinginstitutions — the Centre for Policy Analysis (CEPA) and the Institute for Policy Alternatives(IPA). The expertise in the team reflects the professional endowments of the three regions. Thetechnical team also included the three Regional Economic Planning Officers, representing theRegional Coordinating Councils (RCCs) of the three regions. The team worked through a series ofretreats, involving technical working sessions with key Ministries, Departments and Agencies(MDAs) focusing on Northern Ghana development issues.The StrategyVision: The strategy is based on the concept of a “Forested North and Green North” whereagricultural production is modernized and oriented towards a larger market embracing the Saheliancountries, including northern Cote d’Ivoire and Togo. It is premised on the fact that the north hassubstantial growth potential in agriculture, tourism, and mining. The best way to address thechronic poverty and the development gap is through economic growth utilizing the north’s mostabundant resources. Economic growth is also the most efficient means to address poverty andinduce long-term adaptation to climate changes while maintaining the dignity of people in thenorth. The Northern Savannah Development Initiative is therefore aimed at developing adiversified and resilient economic zone in the North.Goal: The goal is to double per capita incomes of northern Ghanaians and reduce the incidence ofpoverty to 20 percent within 20 years in the Northern Savannah Ecological Belt.What is Different in the Northern Development Initiative?This Strategy is a very ambitious coordinated effort towards achieving a Forested North over aperiod of 20 years. There are six unique features of this development initiative that are differentfrom previous efforts. 1. Development of a Comprehensive Regional Strategy that operates within a national development framework. At the national level, a seven-year development plan is underway, creating the incentives and enabling conditions for Ghana to become a middle-income country. At the regional level, Northern Savannah Development Initiative (SADA) is to provide direct opportunities for communities, private sector and civil society to gain needed inputs in order to transform the natural resources into sustained incomes and assets. In this sense, it is our belief that the development of a poverty-prone area must be public sector- led, private sector-based and facilitated by civil society which has a long tradition of development facilitation in the area. In this sense, the state not only provides incentives, but also encourages economic and social transformation through long-term capital and an input delivery system. x
  12. 12. 2. A model for the modernization of agriculture that starts from generating a market impetus as the main catalyst for stimulating farmers to produce, with improved technology and timely inputs. By this strategy, farmers do not wait to find markets after they have produced; rather the market defines their production targets and quality. This strategy is also mindful of food security requirements, especially in the most vulnerable areas. 3. A major effort in development of infrastructure in a strategic manner. We propose a circular road network that connects the three Northern regions of Upper West, Upper East, Northern, Regions, such that the large production plains that lie in-between the regions are opened-up for brisk farming and economic activities. This road network will be accompanied by an appropriate irrigation and water resources infrastructure, especially drip- irrigation which can be owned by small-holder farmers to facilitate cultivation of cereals, fruits and vegetables all year-round. 4. Strong linkage between Northern Ghana consisting of the three northern regions and contiguous districts in the northern parts of the Brong Ahafo and Volta regions, and the Sahelian countries — Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Northern Ivory Coast — to open-up a truly regional market for goods and services, with Northern Ghana serving as the supply and industrial hub. 5. A vigorous private sector initiative that strengthens existing private operators, as well as attract new investments in the manufacturing, processing, transport and tourist services in the North of Ghana. From the nature reserves of Mole and Bui, the Hippo sanctuary of Wechau, the Crocodile ponds of Paga, Northern Ghana captures the nature heart-beat of Ghana. 6. Support for Civil Society Organizations and NGOs that have long sustained livelihoods and provided a base for mobilizing citizens to engage actively in development throughout the three (3) regions and the districts contiguous to them.Elements of the strategy address the three fundamental objectives for commissioning the work (a)reducing poverty, (b) adaptation to climate change, thereby reducing the frequent occurrence offloods and droughts (c) building the human capital, economic infrastructure, investment and privatesector base to manage social, economic and ecological transformation in northern Ghana. • Our pro-poor growth model is based on modernizing agriculture sequentially, using initially Northern Ghana’s most abundant factors — land and sunshine — and less of purchased inputs. The strategy further takes into consideration the fragility of the soils, the short rainy seasons, and the vagaries of the weather associated with climate change. Growth must be gender balanced by recognizing the disadvantaged position of women in the North. • The framework for long-term adaptation to floods and droughts is premised on the belief that economic growth provides the means by which individual households can accumulate the wealth and assets which they rely on during periods of disaster and other contingencies. Creating the economic base through growth for individuals to provide for themselves will enhance their dignity. In terms of displacement and destruction of property, the evidence shows that the poor were the most affected. Poverty implied that the type of building materials used and the foundation laid were weak and therefore vulnerable to floods. At the same time, the type of economic activities near rivers and water bodies has to change to provide some protection. Planting of tree crops along the banks of rivers will provide some protection. This should be done outside the distance that the Volta River xi
  13. 13. Authority (VRA) will recommend. Indeed, our strategy of tree crops could more easily start in these areas where water pumps can be used to provide irrigation, until the needed reversals in climate kick-in over the long-term, as a result of the emergence of a forested North.For rehabilitation, particularly housing construction, to be sustainable one needs to train artisans inthe chosen technologies to provide the relevant services. While creating employment in the areas,this strategy also provides the relevant skills that may be applied in other areas. It also provides abasis for increased non-farm economic activities.Housing types and designs must be consistent with traditional structures so that no changes incultural and social behaviour and adaptation may be required. In other words, the strategy is tomaintain the advantages of the traditional house type and therefore social and cultural relations.Modernized agricultureThe agricultural modernisation strategy provides multiple entry points to allow for inclusive growthand poverty reduction. The six entry points of the strategy are: 1) A marketing-based out-grower system that defines the shape of existing and expanded markets. This will propel the emergence of a growing private sector capable of engaging producers in a manner that responds to client and market demand. 2) Tree crop production as a source of steady flow of incomes to empower the poor to build their assets and enhance their capacity to invest in farm and non-farm production activities. Farmers will have the option of intercropping the tree crops with groundnut, cowpea, or soybean in the first three to five years of tree crop establishment as part of the transitional food and livelihood security strategy and for intensifying the use of land. The output of groundnut and soybean will feed vegetable oil mills. 3) Selected staple crop production systems for productivity improvement to increase northern Ghana’s competitiveness as a supply source for the sub-regional market. This recognises that not all smallholders will have the capacity to go into tree crops and will continue to rely on staple crops for sustenance and means of income. Crops will be selected on the basis of current demand and potential to generate agro-industrial activity. 4) Horticulture production to diversify into export agriculture which has been a source of growth and significant poverty reduction among farmers in southern Ghana. This will be a good avenue for targeting women and the youth. 5) Semi-intensive production of small ruminants, pigs and guinea fowl also to diversify farm income sources and provide income opportunities for land scarce parts of the north. 6) Agro-processing as a reliable source of demand for agricultural raw materials to drive value chains, while targeting women because processing is an activity women are normally engaged in.Private Sector Investment and DevelopmentThere are three strategic objectives to be accomplished in this segment of the SADA. • Repositioning northern Ghana as a competitive economic zone in the Savannah/Sahel region2 of West Africa.2 Defined to include Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, northern Cote D’Ivoire, Northern Togo, Northern Benin, and beyond. xii
  14. 14. • Expanding the scope and numbers of private sector firms and entrepreneurs investing in value-addition in the north. In particular, the promotion of export and marketing of high- value fruits and vegetables will expand the number, scope and diversity of agriculture- related investment initiatives. • Empowering people in the north to participate effectively in the “new economy” through training, entrepreneurship development and the provision of business development services in general. These will include the establishment of a Venture Capital Facility for Northern Ghana, the creation of a Northern Ghana Investment Risk instrument.Livelihood Security, Social Protection and PeaceModicums of special initiatives are required to enable poor households step out of their povertytraps and step up to the challenges of rebuilding their livelihoods. These bridge-over initiatives willinclude: • Pro-poor initiatives that create synergies between growth and social protection to ensure sustainable and inclusive development in the north. These include (a) financial and capacity-building facilities for the poor to build community and private assets; (b) food assistance during periods of food insecurity and emergencies; (c) improved seeds and economic tree seedlings to begin the process of inter-cropping towards a forested north. • Peace initiatives that combine conflict mediation with institutional support for traditional authorities and governmental institutions to work cooperatively towards sustained peace. The Northern Peace Initiative currently coordinated by the three Regional Coordination Councils (RCCs) provides a useful framework and is being implemented progressively. In the SADA, two approaches are adopted to tackle conflict mitigation and peace-building: o The first is build capacities and deepen the collective efforts by organized CSOs and government in increasing awareness and building consensus among key stakeholders. This will include transforming the institutional mix for addressing conflict from a “security” approach to “peace-building” efforts. o The second is a more sustained long-term effort to bring about human security through rapid social and economic development, thereby reducing poverty and minimizing the tensions that are associated with deepening poverty, marginalization and exclusion of the most vulnerable in the major decisions that affect their livelihoods.Post-flood rehabilitationThe types and factors of vulnerability that afflict the people of northern Ghana are largely related toclimate. However, the conditions of widespread poverty in the north exacerbate the impact of thesevulnerabilities, when they occur. A two-prong approach is proposed under the SADA (a) short terminitiatives that enable affected households to rebuild lost assets and livelihoods and (b) long termeconomic growth initiatives that enable disaster prone communities to develop increased resilienceand more robust mechanisms for mitigating the impact of disasters in the future. Programmatically,the SADA proposes two efforts in this regard: • Flood Mitigation, which will address four aspects of flooding in the White and Black Volta River Basins: (i) catchment management; (ii) identification and preparation of mid catchment multipurpose structural flood protection options and their implementation;3 iii)3 The GoG has already called for the mobilization of the Field Engineers Regiment of the Ghana Armed Forces to intervene in theflood areas of northern Ghana to implement any possible dredging of the river basins and install flood protection dykes. xiii
  15. 15. immediate floodplain management options; and (iv) establishment of a flood early warning system.4 • Drought Prevention, which will address major efforts in growing economic tress on farms, as well as the protection of existing tree cover in the North by (a) fire-prevention, through community-level volunteers and the Fire Service; (b) undertaking major tree-pruning and disease-prevention exercises, annually, in a manner similar to cocoa spraying exercises and the creation of diversions and wells along the rivers.Pre-conditions for sustainable developmentInfrastructural inadequacies in road, transportation and communications networks, water resources,as well as energy imply heavy initial investment and reduced profitability in undertaking economicactivities. Limited human capital, especially the level and quality of education and skillsdevelopment and the debilitating effect that poor health facilities have on human capital formation,create problems in terms of attracting economic activities and retaining labour. Poor healthfacilities are a disincentive to investors. Perceptions of instability and conflict reduce the risk-adjusted returns to investment and divert resources to other uses.For the programme of economic and social transformation to succeed, the SADA proposes a seriesof coordinated investment to eliminate infrastructural constraints, improve the human capital base,and create the economic conditions necessary to attract, retain, and increase the profitability ofinvestments. These include: • A focus on strategic infrastructure — roads, improved water resources, energy • Alignment of basic social infrastructure in education and health with the human resource implication of the sustainable development and growth focus • Priority in establishing peace-building and conflict mitigation strategies to create the enabling environment for investmentsWater ResourcesSADA strategy for improving the water resources management reflects both our needs for synergy,at the River Basin level, and the specific needs of the three regions: • Upper West — presence of Black Volta River and its tributaries in the region allows for ample exploration of the options such as pumping from the river and bunding with improved drainage • Existing dams and dugouts created and/or rehabilitated during UWADEP create opportunity for water productivity increase interventions. • Upper East — White Volta River was considered for pumping from the river and bunding with improved drainage options; Road network options for the culverts and bridges with small retention reservoirs are suitable for the region, but these options are yet to be explored and actively carried out. • Northern Region — downstream portions of White Volta River were considered for pumping from the river and bunding with improved drainage optionsEnergyTo enhance the efficient and equitable supply of energy to support and sustain the fragile economyand ecology of the North.Policy may be guided by the following principles: • Least cost principle to provide economic and reliable energy supplies that are dependable;4 Both the World Bank and the UNDP (OCHA) have been working at various levels in supporting GoG to prepare and enhancecapacity for such an Early Warning System and Strategic Plan. xiv
  16. 16. • Diversification of our primary sources of energy recognizing the drought-like nature of the North; • Assuring energy security through the development of local and indigenous resources; • Energy efficiency and conservation awareness creation; • Promotion and development of renewal energy technologies such as biomass, solar and wind.Education and Health StrategiesOur approach in addressing the issues of education and health, so that they play a critical role in thetransformation of the North proposes that: • Increase the role of the private sector and faith-based organizations in the provision of education and health services in the north. • The state and other development partners provide grants to support the development of educational infrastructure managed by NGOs, faith-based organizations as well as the private sector, especially those operating in rural areas. • Provide incentive schemes for health and education workers that accept posting to rural schools.Managing for Development ResultsThe NDI proposes six main results, and these are further defined as components of the strategy: 1. Community-Driven Development actions that will stimulate the modernization of agriculture development and competitiveness of small holders, notably women, through improved technology, promoting efficiency for the domestic and export market. By combining economic trees with cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits, the northern farmer will double their incomes, create more jobs, protect the environment and end prolonged droughts and sudden floods. This CDD effort will further empower men and women to transform their production orientation towards an expanded market demand; to sustain food security and livelihood activities and reduce their vulnerability to drought and flooding 2. Private Sector Development initiatives that would stimulate investment and business development in northern Ghana in a manner that would change the mind-set and stimulate the creation of high value jobs and increased incomes. It will further stimulate the growth of investors and business entrepreneurs capable of providing the impetus for sustained value-added production and services in the northern, savannah sector, oriented towards a Sahelian market. 3. Investments in strategically-targeted economic and social infrastructure that will relieve critical development constraints and create the pre-conditions for accelerated development and open up production zones for increased production and transit into the expanded markets in Sahel states north of northern Ghana. These would also include social infrastructure, such as education, health and social welfare to complement the economic ones. These investments will be targeted initially at a series of inter-connected infrastructure of roads, energy, water resources, health and education in a manner that reinforces alternative production and market access, while reducing the incidence of droughts and floods. 4. Food, Livelihood Security and Peace Initiative focusing on improved access to food, sustainable livelihoods, as well as safety-nets investments, targeted initially at the most vulnerable areas and those severely affected by the floods of 2007 and 2008. xv
  17. 17. Concurrently, a peace initiative which is already underway in the three regions will be enhanced. Empowering marginalized and vulnerable women and men to participate actively in the social and economic recovery process, in peace-building and gaining assets and improved incomes through this process. 5. Flood Mitigation and Environmental Renewal focusing on improved water resources management and disaster preparedness, in order to mitigate the perennial floods and droughts in the north. 6. Institutional Capacity Building to enhance strategic planning, fund mobilization and management and to support a rigorous, independent monitoring and evaluation of the developmental impacts to reduce regional inequalities and show progress towards accelerated development.Monitoring, Evaluation and AccountabilityThe M&E strategy accompanying the SADA proposes: 1. Results-oriented M&E Capacity-building among key stakeholders associated with the SADA. Through their engagement in the determination of the strategic results framework for the SADA and the establishment of a credible baseline prior to the start-up of the initiative, stakeholders will be informed and engaged in demanding accountability. 2. Systematic monitoring of output-level results in a manner that links resources with changing attitudes and practices associated with the notion of a paradigm-shift in the way development is planned and implemented. 3. Stakeholders are empowered and engaged in the processes of monitoring and evaluation, through the use of both formal, rigorous tools for M&E, as well as participatory monitoring and evaluation approaches. 4. Both upward and down accountability systems enhanced to enable citizens of the north and representative leaders (District Assemblies, Traditional Authorities, Parliament and the Government of Ghana) to demand accountability and those managing SADA to render accountability in a transparent and timely manner. xvi
  18. 18. PART 1STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTHERN SAVANNAH CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND SITUATION ANALYSISThe strategy for accelerated development of the Northern Savannah (SADA)5 constitutes a key partof attempts being made by the Government of Ghana and other stakeholders to address thecontinuing high incidence and concentration of poverty in the Savannah Ecological Belt of Ghana.These efforts also reflect the general desire to confront and bridge the development gap between thenorthern and southern parts of the country.1.1 Poverty in Northern GhanaGhana has made considerable progress in poverty reduction. From a level of 51.7 percent of thepopulation being described as poor on the basis of the headcount in 1991/92, poverty declined to39.5 percent in 1998/99 and further to 28.5 percent in 2005/06. In terms of the hardcore poor,poverty in Ghana declined from 36.2 percent in 1991/92 to 26.8 percent in 1998/99 and further to18.2 percent in 2005/06.The decline in poverty has, however, not been equally spread geographically. There continue to behigher incidences of poverty in the rural areas and in particular the rural savannah ecological belt.The contribution of rural savannah has been increasing. From about 33 percent in 1991/92, thecontribution of Rural Savannah increased to 37 percent in 1998/99 and has increased further toabout 50 percent in 2005/06. This is partly because the reduction in poverty occurred largely as aresult of economic growth which in turn has been driven by a number of key factors that NorthernGhana has benefited less from6.The poor in Ghana, therefore, continue to be concentrated in the Northern Savannah EcologicalBelt. Out of 18.2 percent of the total population that live in extreme poverty, 53.7 percent live inNorthern Ghana, which has only about 17.2 percent of the total Ghanaian population. In Panel (a)and (b) of Figure 1.1, the proportion of the population living under poverty is reported. As seen, theNorth has much higher levels of poverty than any other region. In terms of ecological belts,poverty in the rural savannah belt has been higher than any other ecological belt over the period1991/92 to 2005/06. Moreover, as shown in Panel (b) of Figure 1.1, the reduction in poverty ismuch slower over the period in the rural savannah belt than in the rural Southern Ghana.Within Northern Ghana there is a wide and increasing disparity between the rural and urban areas.Extreme poverty in the urban savannah belt stood at 27 percent in 1991/92, declining to 18.3percent in 2005/06. In the rural savannah belt extreme poverty reduced from a level of 57.5 percentin 1991/92 to 45.2 percent in 2005/06.5 Northern Savannah as referred to in this Strategy study consists of the Sudan and Guinea Savannah and excludes the derived(transitional) Coastal Savannah. The political space by the Northern Savannah includes the Upper West, Upper East, Northern,administrative regions, as well as northern parts of the Volta and Brong-Ahafo regions.6 The key factors responsible for the economic growth and poverty reduction include: i) greater openness both through exports and imports; ii) increased public spending financed largely by aid; iii) significant increases in wholesale and retail trade; and iv) increased receipts of remittances from abroad. 1
  19. 19. Moreover, poverty is highest among farmers, especially food crop farmers. Nationally, 46 percentof the poor are from households whose main activity is food crop cultivation. Poverty in the North,especially among food crop farmers, is further compounded by a short unimodal rainy season thatis prone simultaneously to droughts and floods.Figure 1.1: Poverty and Extreme Poverty Trends in Ghana by Region (a): Proportion of Regional Population Living in Poverty in 2006 60 55 47 50 % o f T o ta l P o p u la tio n 40 40 26 26 26 30 23 22 23 22 20 10 0 Bro n g G r a te r U p p er U p p er V o lta C e n tr a l A sh a n ti A h afo A ccra E a ste r n N o r th e r n W e ste r n W e st E a st (b): Poverty Incidence by Region 100 88 88 88 84 80 65 69 67 70 60 63 57 52 60 48 44 48 44 41 38 36 40 27 31 28 30 26 20 18 20 15 20 12 5 0 Bro n g V o lta G rater U p p er U p p er Cen tral A sh an ti A h afo A ccra E astern N o rth ern W estern W est E ast 1991/92 1998/99 2005/06Source: Based on data from Ghana Statistical Service — Patterns and Trends of Poverty in Ghana, 1991-2006 (Tables A1.1, p.36 and A1.5, p.40) 2
  20. 20. Figure 1.2: Poverty Incidence in Ghanas Ecological Belts, 1991/92 — 2005/06 (a): Poverty Incidence by Ecological Belts in Ghana 80 73 70 70 62 60 60 53 52 43 46 50 38 38 40 40 28 31 29 26 28 28 30 23 24 18 20 11 4 6 7 10 0 G h an a U rb an Sav an n ah Sav an n ah A ccra Co astal Fo rest Co astal Ru ral Fo rest U rb an Ru ral U rb an Ru ral 1991/92 1998/99 2005/06 (b) Poverty Profiles in Rural Ecological Zones of Ghana, 1991-2006 70 57.5 60 59.3 % o f T o ta l P o p u la tio n 50 45.9 45.4 40 32.8 30 28.5 14.6 20 21.1 10 11.5 1991/92 1998/99 2005/06 Rural Coastal Rural Forest Rural SavannahSource: Based on data from Ghana Statistical Service — Patterns and Trends of Poverty in Ghana, 1991-2006 (Table A1.5 and A1.6, p. 40-41) 3
  21. 21. 1.2 The Situation AnalysisFor purposes of strategic analysis, the current situation in the three northern savannah ecologicalbelt can be described in terms of resource endowments (agriculture, water, mineral resources andenergy); private sector development including industry and manufacturing; and human resourcedevelopment including education and health. The description of the current situation in the northernregions also covers risks and vulnerability.1.2.1 Natural Resource BaseAgricultureThe state of agriculture in the three northern regions is characterised by a number of factorsincluding the availability of land; comparative advantage in the production of particular crops;untapped potential for livestock production; and a developing trend towards commercialisation.LandThe Northern Savannah of Ghana comprise of about 100,000 square kilometres, which is more than40 percent of national land area and 65 percent of the savannah vegetation. Total agricultural landis 6.1 million hectares of which cultivated land area between 2001 and 2007 was 1.54 millionhectares.A significant proportion of arable land has soils with poor physical properties and low content oforganic matter. Relatively good soils are ground water laterites which tend to be limited in depth byhard pan. Soils are highly susceptible to erosion because of the thin vegetative coverage andtorrential nature of poorly distributed rainfall. There is limited use of soil management practices(e.g. use of fertilisers, water management, mulching). This has resulted, under these poorconditions, in low productivity in both crops and livestock.However, Northern Savannah has a wealth of under-utilised well endowed land to support anintensified agriculture modernisation programme. These include a network of river basins withhighly fertile valleys (e.g. the oncho-freed basins of the Volta and Sissili rivers, the Fumbisi valley,Nasia, Tamne, Katanga, Naboggu, and Soo valleys). These areas can become major agriculturalproduction zones for different crops.Agricultural in the National ContextTable 1.1 presents the contribution of various agro-ecological zones to national output ofagricultural commodities. It reflects the comparative advantage of the north in terms of agricultureproduction. The commodities in which northern Ghana has a comparative advantage in productionare:i. Cereals — rice, sorghum and millet;ii. Roots and tubers — yam and cassavaiii. Legumes — groundnuts, cowpea, and soybean; andiv. Livestock.With adequate water management, horticultural commodities, including tomato, okra, chilli,mango, cashew, water melon and sweet melon can also be produced competitively. The north isthe home of the shea tree, which can be developed into a major oils and fats industry with benefitsto rural women (who are currently at the heart of the shea industry as nut collectors andprocessors), shea-nut merchants and the country at large. 4
  22. 22. Table 1.1: Agricultural Structural and Regional Contribution in Ghana Contribution to National Total Southern Northern Coast Forest Savannah Savannah TotalCereals 13.2 24.5 28.3 34.0 100.0Maize 22.2 32.9 30.6 14.3 100.0Rice 13.4 43.9 5.0 37.7 100.0Sorghum and millet 0.1 1.5 37.7 60.7 100.0Roots 3.8 31.8 32.6 31.8 100.0Cassava 4.1 25.2 45.3 25.4 100.0Yams 2.8 32.3 25.2 39.6 100.0Cocoyam 8.2 60.4 17.2 14.2 100.0Other staples 8.9 29.9 31.6 29.6 100.0Cowpea 0.5 9.9 10.4 79.2 100.0Soybean 10.6 24.8 64.6 100.0Plantains 13.2 54.2 25.1 7.6 100.0Groundnuts 7.7 9.5 7.2 75.6 100.0Fruit (domestic) 8.8 36.5 8.7 46.0 100.0Vegetables (domestic) 8.5 25.7 44.5 21.3 100.0Non-traditional exports 30.4 33.9 25.1 10.6 100.0Cocoa 2.6 68.9 28.5 0.0 100.0Livestock 12.1 35.1 14.2 38.6 100.0Chicken broiler 19.2 40.0 36.4 4.5 100.0Eggs and layers 37.0 39.0 5.0 19.0 100.0Beef 7.1 16.3 6.4 70.2 100.0Sheep and goat meat 12.7 39.5 11.8 36.0 100.0Other meats 3.7 41.5 24.4 30.5 100.0Forestry 1.0 68.6 29.1 1.4 100.0Fishing 61.5 10.7 24.4 3.4 100.0Source: Breisinger et al. (2008).Land allocation to the main staple crops in recent years is presented in Tables 1.2 – 1.4; thedominant crops vary by region. The Northern region has the most diversified production systemwith groundnut, sorghum, yam and maize taking 52 percent of the land cultivated, compared to theUpper East and Upper West where groundnut and sorghum alone account for 62 percent and 53percent of the land cultivated respectively.Table 1.2 Crop Area in Northern Region (2005-2007)*Year Maize Rice Millet Sorghum Cassava Yam Groundnut Cowpea Soybean 79,000 43,900 53,000 89,000 52,600 80,800 136,800 64,000 32,7002005 (13) (7) (8) (14) (8) (13) (22) (10) (5) 85,600 45,800 57,300 93,600 55,400 88,900 145,900 59,400 37,7002006 (13) (7) (9) (14) (8) (13) (22) (9) (6) 72,073 30,209 42,199 66,926 54,940 78,296 84,694 36,236 30,1902007 (0.15) (0.06) (0.09) (0.13) (0.11) (0.16) (0.17) (0.07) (0.06) 77351 43312 53308 74682 57678 98379 110948 53078 344242008 (13) (7) (9) (12) (10) (16) (18) (9) (6)Figures in parentheses are percentage allocation of land to the crop 5
  23. 23. Table 1.3: Crop Area in Upper East Region (2005-2007)* Sweet Year Maize Rice Millet Sorghum Groundnut Cowpea potato Soybean 13,396 15,698 75,032 117,052 162,930 57,050 8,580 1,221 2005 (3.0) (3.5) (16.6) (26.0) (36.1) (12.7) (1.9) (0.3) 14,355 16,396 81,116 122,809 173,792 52,930 8,471 1,411 2006 (3.0) (3.5) (17.2) (26.1) (36.9) (11.2) (1.8) (0.3) 17,382 16,462 60,751 59,280 98,476 45,577 3,423 2007 (0.06) (0.05) (0.20) (0.20) 0 (0.33) (0.15) (0.01) 23763 26934 65342 96602 73150 46907 13517 2008 (7) (8) (19) (28) (21) (14) NA (4)Figures in parentheses are percentage allocation of land to cropTable 1.4: Crop Area in Upper West Region (2005-2008)* Year Maize Rice Millet Sorghum Yam Groundnut Cowpea Soybean 34,300 3,500 56,900 93,700 18,800 109,500 58,900 11,100 2005 (9) (1) (15) (24) (5) (28) (0.5) (3) 36,700 3,700 61,600 98,400 20,600 116,800 54,700 12,900 2006 (9.1) (0.9) (15.2) (24.3) (5.1) (28.8) (13.5) (3.2) 35,716 3,596 59,757 76,995 20,917 114,906 56,990 13,188 2007 (0.09) (0.01) (0.16) (0.20) (0.05) (0.30) (0.15) (0.03) 38438 3745 63581 100253 29432 122996 61285 13883 2008 (9) (1) (15) (24) (5) (29) (14) (3)Figures in parentheses are percentage allocation of land to cropTable 1.5 presents an analysis of the growth performance of commodities in the northern savannahcompared to the average performance of the country. Production of maize, millet and sorghumrecorded negative growth over the period 1992-2005. Area planted to maize and yield of the cropboth suffered declines. For millet and sorghum, the source of decline in output is yield. Althoughyam and cowpea recorded positive growth in production levels, this was due more to expansion incrop area because these crops also suffered from negative yield growths. Therefore the long-termpattern of crop production performance in northern Ghana has been expansion in land area tocompensate for declining yields. The cases of yam and cowpea are particularly illustrative. Yamoutput in the northern savannah grew by nearly 2 percent, but yields declined at 2.3 percent peryear while land expanded at 4.3 percent per year. With the northern savannah contributing thelargest share to yam production, the trends in the yam production parameters in that zone aremagnified at the national level. A growth strategy for crops should therefore focus on attaining asustainable balance between production intensification and limited expansion of land area.Table 1.5: Average annual growth in production, yield and land (1992-2005)Crop Output Yield Land Crop Output Yield LandMaize (national) 3.9 0.8 3.2 Yam (National) 4.8 -4.1 9.3 N. Savannah -0.6 -0.4 -0.3 N. Savannah 1.9 -2.3 4.3Rice (National) 5.9 2.1 3.7 Cassava (National) 5.4 -0.8 6.2 N. Savannah 4.8 1.9 2.9 N. Savannah 13.9 2.8 10.9Millet -1.7 -2.1 0.5 Cowpea (National) 10.6 0.0 10.6 N. Savannah 10.0 -0.4 10.5Sorghum (National) -0.7 -1.3 0.6 Groundnuts (National) 11.8 0.9 10.9 N. Savannah -0.8 -1.3 0.5 N. Savannah 11.8 0.9 10.9Source: Breisinger et al. (2008) 6
  24. 24. Cotton used to be a major cash crop in all regions of Northern Ghana. The cotton industry hassuffered decline since the late 1990s because of managerial problems, undeveloped seed sector, lowyields, and declining world prices. The Savannah Agriculture Research Institute (SARI) has takenthe lead in addressing the seed problem with the introduction of a new cotton variety.The other major cash crop is shea. The shea value chain, like all the other crops produced, is drivenby a production entry-point, and not a marketing one. Rural women who engage in the collectionand primary processing of nuts, and processing of crude shea butter persist in the use of traditional,labour-intensive technology for butter extraction, and consequently produce low yields. Under thisstrategy, a market-driven impetus is needed to propel a transformation of product-mix, quality,improved technology and marketing. Interventions are required to improve the productivity of ruralwomen in the value chain and facilitate their participation in remunerative markets for crude sheabutter.LivestockNorthern Ghana contributes 39 percent to national livestock numbers, 70 percent of beef cattle, and36 percent of sheep and goats. Although generally higher than the rest of the country, livestocknumbers per household are modest (Table 1.6). The numbers are for only households that raiselivestock. The data does not indicate the proportion of households that own livestock. Results of asurvey in the Upper West Region in 2007 (Table 1.7) show that the percentage of the samplehouseholds owning livestock ranges from a low of 43 percent for pigs, to over 80 percent for goatsand domestic fowls. This means that the benefits of interventions for the improvement of smallruminants will be broad based or inclusive.Table 1.6: Estimated Livestock Numbers per Household by Ecological Zones Sudan Guinea Derived Savannah Coastal Livestock type Savannah Savannah (Transitional) Forest Savannah Cattle 12 10 9 Negligible 6 Sheep 11 12 4 6 6 Goats 15 9 11 6 7 Pigs 9 8 9 9 7 Guinea Fowl 16 12 10 Negligible 12 Domestic Fowl 20 22 18 12 15Source: Computations from MOFA Livestock Growth Study Field Survey (2007/2008) and several other studies in the various ecological zones Table 1.7: Percentage of Households Owning Livestock in the Upper West Region Sissala Sissala Jirapa- Livestock type Wa West Wa East Nadowli East West Lambussie Lawra Total N = 80 N = 50 N = 74 N = 53 N = 27 N = 92 N = 79 N = 455 Cattle 33.8 58.0 71.6 45.3 96.3 83.7 49.4 60.4 Sheep 58.8 36.0 60.8 49.1 77.8 70.7 55.7 58.5 Goat 80.0 64.0 97.3 56.6 100.0 100.0 96.2 86.4 Pig 31.3 10.0 60.8 3.8 7.4 67.4 68.4 42.9 Donkey 1.3 0.0 0.0 26.4 44.4 14.1 1.3 9.0 Chicken 77.5 50.0 94.6 50.9 100.0 94.6 93.7 81.8 Guinea-fowl 38.8 8.0 77.0 32.1 70.4 76.1 68.4 55.4 Turkey 5.0 2.0 1.4 0.0 7.4 7.6 5.1 4.2 Duck 3.8 2.0 4.1 7.5 7.4 3.3 7.6 4.8Source: Veterinary Services Directorate, MOFA (2008). PATTEC Socioeconomic Baseline Survey, Project Coordination Unit, Pong Tamale. 7

×