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PM Notebook - Chapter 9: Resources Management

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This notebook summarizes project management concepts and terms in PMP context. This chapter focuses on resources management knowledge area.

Contents of this chapter are as follow:

* Key Terms
* Processes
* * 1 – Plan Resource Management (Planning)
* * 2 – Estimate Activity Resources (Planning)
* * 3 – Acquire Resources (Executing)
* * 4 – Develop Project Team (Executing)
* * 5 – Manage Project Team (Executing)
* * 6 – Control Resources (Monitoring & Controlling)
* Roles and Responsibilities
* * Responsibility Matrices
* * * RAM Matrix - Responsibility Assignment Matrix
* * * RACI Matric - Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed
* * * RACI-VS Matrix - Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed, Verifier, and Signatory
* * * LRC Chart - Linear Responsibility Chart
* * * Roles and Responsibility Chart
* * Organizational Charts
* * Roles of Project Sponsor/Initiator
* * Roles of Project Team
* * Roles of Stakeholders
* * Roles of Financial Manager
* * Roles of Project Manager
* * Roles of Program Manager
* * Roles of Portfolio Manager
* Competency Model
* Basic Social Power
* Human Resource Theories
* Leadership Theories
* * Management Systems
* * Motivation Theories
* * Tuckman’s Group Development Stages
* * Other Theories
* Delegation of Authority
* * Delegation Steps
* * What to Delegate
* * What not to Delegate
* * Guidelines for Effective Delegation
* * Obstacles to Delegation
* Types of Teams
* * Virtual/Distributed Teams
* Team Building Activities
* Rewards and Recognition
* Team Performance Review
* * Personnel Assessment Tools / Team Performance Assessment
* * Project Performance Appraisals
* Conflict Management
* * Sources of Conflicts
* * Conflict Resolving
* * Stress Factors
* * Influence Factors
* Additional Terms

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PM Notebook - Chapter 9: Resources Management

  1. 1. PM Notebook Summarizing Project Management Concepts for the PMP Exam Mohammad Elsheimy Road to PMP
  2. 2. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 1 DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA/INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA/INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. NONE IS INTENDED TO MAKE A PROFIT IN ANY WAY. THIS IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY.
  3. 3. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 2 No great man ever complains of want of opportunity. Ralph Waldo Emerson
  4. 4. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 3 Table of Contents Chapter 9 – Resources Management ................................................................................................................. 5 Key Terms ............................................................................................................................................................... 5 Processes................................................................................................................................................................ 5 1 – Plan Resource Management (Planning) ............................................................................................... 5 2 – Estimate Activity Resources (Planning) .................................................................................................. 7 3 – Acquire Resources (Executing)................................................................................................................ 8 4 – Develop Project Team (Executing)......................................................................................................... 9 5 – Manage Project Team (Executing) ...................................................................................................... 10 6 – Control Resources (Monitoring & Controlling).................................................................................... 10 Roles and Responsibilities.................................................................................................................................. 11 Responsibility Matrices................................................................................................................................... 11 Organizational Charts.................................................................................................................................... 12 Roles of Project Sponsor/Initiator................................................................................................................. 13 Roles of Project Team .................................................................................................................................... 13 Roles of Stakeholders..................................................................................................................................... 14 Roles of Financial Manager.......................................................................................................................... 14 Roles of Project Manager ............................................................................................................................. 14 Roles of Program Manager .......................................................................................................................... 15 Roles of Portfolio Manager ........................................................................................................................... 15 Competency Model.......................................................................................................................................... 15 Basic Social Power ............................................................................................................................................. 16 Human Resource Theories ................................................................................................................................ 17 Leadership Theories........................................................................................................................................ 17 Management Systems................................................................................................................................... 20 Motivation Theories ........................................................................................................................................ 21 Tuckman’s Group Development Stages ................................................................................................... 24 Other Theories ................................................................................................................................................. 24 Delegation of Authority..................................................................................................................................... 25 Delegation Steps ............................................................................................................................................ 25 What to Delegate .......................................................................................................................................... 25 What not to Delegate ................................................................................................................................... 26 Guidelines for Effective Delegation............................................................................................................ 26 Obstacles to Delegation............................................................................................................................... 26
  5. 5. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 4 Types of Teams.................................................................................................................................................... 27 Virtual/Distributed Teams .............................................................................................................................. 27 Team Building Activities..................................................................................................................................... 27 Rewards and Recognition................................................................................................................................ 28 Team Performance Review.............................................................................................................................. 28 Personnel Assessment Tools / Team Performance Assessment ............................................................. 28 Project Performance Appraisals.................................................................................................................. 28 Conflict Management ...................................................................................................................................... 29 Sources of Conflicts........................................................................................................................................ 29 Conflict Resolving........................................................................................................................................... 29 Stress Factors ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Influence Factors............................................................................................................................................ 30 Additional Terms ................................................................................................................................................. 30
  6. 6. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 5 Key Terms Authority – The level of decision-making ability. Competency – Defines what talents, skills, and capabilities are needed to complete the project work. It is the role’s depth of skills, knowledge, and experience. Responsibility – Actions and expectations to complete the work. Subordinate – Lower class, rank, or position than an employee. Processes 1 – Plan Resource Management (Planning)  Identify project team needs.  Identify how you would acquire physical and human resources.  Identify how resources will be released.  Provide resource calendars.  Define training needs.  Define roles and responsibilities.  Project reward and recognition system.  Continually confirm resource availability.  Compliance with government regulations, union contracts, and policies.  Define procurement details of physical/human resources, lead time, and vendor fulfillment.  Early in project, the resource pool might include people at different levels of expertise in large numbers, but as the project progresses, the resource pool then can be limited to those people who are knowledgeable about the project.  Staff requirements can be represented as s-curve, low at the beginning, at a maximum during execution, and then they may decrease. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Project Charter 3. Project Documents  Project Schedule  Requirements Documentation 4. Activity Resource Requirements 5. EEFs  Organizational structure  Organization’s culture  Geographic dispersion of team members  Personnel administration functions
  7. 7. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 6  Marketplace conditions 6. OPAs Tools 1. Data Representation Tools  Hierarchy Charts  Responsibility Matrices 2. Organizational Charts and Position Descriptions 3. Organizational Theories – Approaches to organizational analysis. 4. Expert Judgment 5. Meetings Outputs 1. Resource Management Plan  Staffing Management Plan – Who, when, for how long, and the reward system. 1) Acquisition plan – Whether the human resources will come from within the organization or from external, contract sources. 2) Resource histogram – The number of resources used per time period and where there is a spike in the need for resources. 3) Training Needs 4) Recognition and Awards 5) Resource Calendar – Availability, capabilities and skills of each HR or the quantity and availability of equipment and other resources. 6) Release plan 7) Compliance to company rules 8) Safety policies to protect the resources  Roles and Responsibilities (RAR)  Project Organizational Chart 2. Team Charter – Should be developed by the whole team.  Team values  Communication guidelines  Decision-making processes  Conflict resolution process  Meeting guidelines  Team agreements  Ground rules 3. Project Document Update
  8. 8. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 7 2 – Estimate Activity Resources (Planning) Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Resource Management Plan  Schedule Management Plan  Scope Baseline  Activity List  Assumptions Log  Resource Calendars  Risk Register 2. EEFs 3. OPAs Tools 1. Expert Judgment 2. Data Analysis Techniques  Alternative Analysis – Considering several different options. 3. Estimating Techniques  Bottom-up Estimates  Analogous Estimates  Parametric Estimates  Published Estimating Data – 1) Includes labor trades, material, and equipment costs. 2) Used when activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence. 4. Project Management Information System (PMIS) 5. Meetings Outputs 1. Activity Resource Requirement 2. Basis of Estimates 3. Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) –  A variation of Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS).  A hierarchical list of resources related by function and resource type.  Expose resource constraints and identify resource needs.  Helpful in tracking project costs.  Can be aligned with organization’s accounting system. 4. Project Document Updates
  9. 9. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 8 3 – Acquire Resources (Executing)  Handling pre-assigned resources.  Negotiating for the best possible resources.  Hiring new employees.  Outsourcing – very useful when o The company does not have excessive capacity for work. o Company does not possess the sills needed for the work. o Company is not concerned about protecting the information associated with the work. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Resource Management Plan  Procurement Management Plan  Cost Baseline 2. Project Documents 3. Project Schedule  Resource Calendars  Resource Requirements  Stakeholder Register 4. EEFs  Recruitments practices 5. OPAs Tools 1. Pre-assignments – Resources that are guaranteed to you when you start the project. It is part of project charter or planning processes. 2. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills  Negotiation – The most important tool. You negotiate for availability, costs, and ability. You negotiate with functional manager in matrix organizations. 3. Acquisition – Going outside of the company to staff your time. 4. Decision-Making Techniques 5. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) – Weighing factors like cost, skills, knowledge and availability. Most applicable to solving problems that are characterized as a choice among alternatives. 6. Virtual Teams Outputs 1. Physical Resource Assignments 2. Project Staff Assignments 3. Team Directory - a documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information. 4. Resource Calendars 5. Change Requests 6. Project Management Plan Updates
  10. 10. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 9 7. Project Document Updates  Risk Register Updates 8. EEF Updates 9. OPA Updates 4 – Develop Project Team (Executing)  Keeping your team motivated and well managed.  Improving the competencies and teamwork to enhance project performance.  Reduce turnover rate. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Resource Management Plan 2. Project Documents  Project Staff Assignments  Resource Calendars  Team Charter 3. EEFs 4. OPAs Tools 1. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills  Conflict Management  Influencing  Motivation  Negotiation  Team Building Activities 2. Training  Planned Training – Examples are online, classroom, and on-the-job.  Unplanned Training – Examples are conversations, observation and project performance appraisals. 3. Colocation / War Room / Tight Matrix / Distributed Teams – 4. Virtual Teams 5. Communication Technology 6. Recognition and Rewards 7. Personnel Assessment Tools 8. Meetings Outputs 1. Team Performance Assessment 2. Change Requests 3. Project Document Updates 4. EEF Updates – team members skills, competencies, and specialized knowledge. 5. OPA Updates
  11. 11. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 10 5 – Manage Project Team (Executing)  Tracking team member performance.  Offering feedback to team members.  Managing team changes.  Resolving conflicts. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Resource Management Plan 2. Project Documents  Project Staff Assignments  Team Charter 3. Team Performance Assessment 4. Work Performance Reports 5. OPAs 6. EEFs Tools 1. Observation and conversation – Observing work and communicating with team. 2. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills  Conflict Management  Decision-Making  Leadership 3. Project Performance Appraisals – Looking at each person’s work and assessing his or her performance. 4. Project Management Information System (PMIS) Outputs 1. Change Requests 2. Project Management Plan Updates 3. Project Document Updates  Issue Log  Roles Description  Project Staff Assignments 4. EEF Updates 6 – Control Resources (Monitoring & Controlling)  Manage defective resources.  Controlling resource allocation.  Monitoring resource expenditures.  Identifying and dealing with resource shortages or surpluses (leftovers).  Informing appropriate stakeholders.  Influencing the factors that can create resource utilization change.
  12. 12. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 11 Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Resource Management Plan 2. Project Documents  Physical Resource Assignments  Staff Assignments  Project Schedule  Resource Breakdown Structure 3. Work Performance Data 4. OPAs Tools 1. Data Analysis Techniques  Team Performance Reviews  Trend Analysis 2. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills 3. Project Management Information System (PMIS) Outputs 1. Work Performance Information 2. Change Requests 3. Project Management Plan Updates 4. Project Document Updates Roles and Responsibilities Responsibility Matrices Participation by various roles in completing tasks or deliverables for a project or business process. RAM Matrix – Responsibility Assignment Matrix Identifies each person and his/her role in project. Uses symbol letters/codes. E.g. I for Implement. RACI Matrix – Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed.  Responsible – The individual(s) who actually complete the task.  Accountable – The individual who is ultimately answerable for the activity or decision. Only one accountable person can be assigned to an action.
  13. 13. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 12 RACI-VS Matrix – Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed, Verifier, Signatory  Verifier – Who checks whether the product meets acceptance criteria.  Signatory – Who approves the decision and authorizes the product hand-off. LRC Chart – Linear Responsibility Chart Same as RACI but uses symbol codes/numbers. Roles and Responsibility Chart Same as RACI but uses a role instead of team member name. Organizational Charts Organizational Chart / Org Chart / Organigram / Organogram – is a diagram that shows the structure of an organization and the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and positions/jobs. Hierarchical –  Better defines levels of authority and responsibility.  Motivates employees with clear career paths and chances for promotion.  Can slow down innovation or important changes due to increased bureaucracy.  Can make employees toward the bottom of the chart feel undervalued. Horizontal / Flat –  Fosters more open communication.  Improves coordination and speed of implementing new ideas.  Can create confusion since employees do not have a clear supervisor to report to.  Can be difficult to maintain once the company grows beyond start-up status.
  14. 14. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 13 Matrix –  Allows supervisors to easily choose individuals by the needs of a project.  Encourages employees to use their skills in various capacities aside from their original roles.  Presents a conflict between department managers and project managers.  Can change more frequently than other organizational chart types. Roles of Project Sponsor/Initiator  Financial resources.  Has requirements to be done.  Is a stakeholder.  Serves as a voice of the project to those who do not know about the project, including upper management.  Provide project statement of work (if not done by the customer.)  Determines priorities.  Develops project charter.  Determines reports needed by management.  Supplies list of risks.  May be included in change control board.  Enforces quality policies.  Protects the project from outside influences and changes.  Provide formal acceptance of the deliverables. Roles of Project Team  Create WBS.  Time-estimate their activities.  Execute project management plan.  Recommend changes to the project.  Team member has control over his/her activities as long as the team member meets the time, quality, cost, and scope objectives set up with the PM.  Team member must keep the PM informed of the changes he/she makes in the way he/she completes the activity so that PM can integrate them into the rest of the project and look for any impact.
  15. 15. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 14 Roles of Stakeholders  Create project charter and scope statement.  May be included in change control board.  Identify constraints.  Identify requirements.  May become risk owners. Roles of Financial Manager  Assign specific individuals to the team.  Negotiate with PM regarding resources.  Provide SMEs.  Let PM know about other projects that may impact the project.  Approve final schedule.  Approve final project management plan.  Recommend changes to the project.  Manage activities within their functional areas.  Assist with problems related to the team members’ performance. Roles of Project Manager  Assigned to the project no later than project initiating.  Helps write project charter.  Does not have to be technical expert.  Approves or rejects changes as authorized.  Manages change control board.  Develops time and cost reserves.  Accountable for project success or failure.  Performs project closing at the end of each phase and for the project as a whole.  Determines resources, negotiate for them, confirm their availability, and acquire them.  Creates project job descriptions for the team members.  Inserts reports of team members’ performance info their official company employment record.  Create recognition and reward systems.  Lead the team to achieve objects.  Balance the competing objectives (e.g. time, cost, and scope). E.g. integration. PM is an integrator.  Communicate with stakeholders.  Contribute to business value.  Negotiations.  Roles before the project – o Gathering and documenting requirements. o Writing project charter.  Roles after the project – o Support the project. o Server as a semi for similar projects.
  16. 16. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | COMPETENCY MODEL DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 15 Sphere of Influence  Stakeholder influences o Project team o Organizational managers o PMO o Steering committee  Project o Communication skills o Positive attitude  Organization o Policies o Modes of operations o Underlying culture o Political alliances  Cultural and industry influences o Current trends and practices o Project management communities o Project management education o Application areas  Leadership skills Roles of Program Manager  Manages related projects to achieve results not obtainable by managing each project separately.  Ensuring projects selected support the strategic goals of the organization. Roles of Portfolio Manager  Manages various projects or programs that may be largely unrelated to each other.  Ensuring selected projects provide value to the organization. Competency Model Unconsciously Incompetent – Unaware of a skill that you do not have. Consciously Incompetent – Aware that you do not have a skill. Consciously Competent – Learn and practice the skill. Unconsciously Competent – Do the skill without asking. Chosen Conscious Competence – Practice and maintain the skill.
  17. 17. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | BASIC SOCIAL POWER DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 16 Basic Social Power Authentic Power – Authentic project leaders are people with extraordinary integrity who are willing to live by their core values. They have a strong sense of purpose and understand the motives that drive them. This is an insight they have developed through introspection, observation, feedback and years of experience. Authentic personality accepting others for what and who they are. Authority Power – team members may have authority over other project team members, may have the ability to make decisions, and perhaps even sign approvals for project work and purchases. Avoiding Power – When leader refuses to act, get involved, or make decisions. Expert Power – The team respects you for your expertise in a specific area. Guilt-Based Power – The project manager can make the team and stakeholders feel guilty to gain compliance in the project. Informational Power – To have power and control of data gathering and distribution of information. Ingratiating Power – To gain favor with team and stakeholders through flattery. False power. Legitimate/Formal/Authoritative/Positional Power – What you use when you assign work to someone who reports to you. In matrix organizations, PM does not have this power, because the team does not report to directly to the PM. Legitimate power has three forms – formal, reward, and penalty. Personal/Charismatic Power – When the leader has warm personality that others like or has a friendly demeanor. Persuasive Power – Persuade people toward a specific outcome or decision. Like laissez-faire leadership style. Pressure-Based Power – The project manager can restrict choices to get the project team to perform and do the project work. Punishment/Punitive/Coercive/Penalty Power – Comes from the ability to penalize the team. It is also when the team members are afraid of the project manager. Referent Power – It has three meanings –  PM power is based on a high level of identification with, admiration of, or respect for the power holder / leader.
  18. 18. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 17  PM is respected because of her past experiences with the teams. I.e. PM’s credibility in the organization.  When PM refers to a name of authority or power holder when he tells the order. E.g. We are going this way because this is the way Jane, the CEO, wants it done. Reward/Inventive Power – Setting up rewards and recognition for the team. Most effective. Situational Power – Project manager has power because of certain situations in the organizations. E.g. change in leadership or project team. Human Resource Theories Leadership Theories Kurt Lewin’s Leadership Styles Autocratic / Top-Down / Authoritative –  PM makes the decisions with little or no input from the people who will be doing the actual work.  This style lead to the most discontent and produces the least creative solutions.  Autocratic leadership usually done in abusive manner.  Useful when the leader is the only one with the technical skills and ability to make a particular decision. Democratic / Participative –  The leader consults with the group in order to make decisions.  Subordinates have input and are given choices.  The leader is still heavily involved in guiding the decision and usually retains the right to override team made choices as necessary. Laissez-Faire / Delegative Leadership –  Leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions, take initiative in the actions, and creates goals.  It sometimes feels like the leader is absent or does not make decisions.  May be appropriate with a highly-skilled team, however, it is a kind of dangerous leadership. Daniel Goleman’s Leadership Styles Affiliative –  Leader focuses on group dynamics. Their goal is to create strong teams that work well together.
  19. 19. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 18  Focuses on lowering stress levels and creating good relationships between members.  New leaders coming in to an organization after a catastrophe will find this style of leadership especially effective. It provides a strong foundation of trust and helps meet people’s need to be understood and valued. Coaching –  Leader will do best working one-on-one with employees and helping them improve their skills.  Can be very effective with employees who are looking to improve their skills and develop their careers.  Leader need to be very careful not to slip into becoming too hands-on and micromanaging. Commanding / Coercive –  Typically associated with the military.  It differs from the Visionary/Authoritative style in that instructions tend to be much more detailed instead of just focused on the end result.  It differs from the Pacesetting style in that in that pacesetters are generally asking others to follow their lead and keep up, while command/coercive leaders are usually sending people out.  Generally this is a negative style of leadership, but there are some situations where it can be effective. The military is one good example. Situations that require quick decisions to deal with a crisis are places where this style might be an effective choice. Democratic –  Involves allowing the group to collaboratively decide on the direction and goal.  This style focuses on getting input from everyone and a high degree of involvement.  In situations where a leadership role doesn’t come with any formal authority, democratic leadership can be the only viable approach. Pacesetting –  Leaders focus on performance and typically set extremely high goals.  Leads to an environment that is intensely focused on improvements or at least improvements as defined by the leader.  Can get fast results from a competent skilled team, but over time the results of exclusively using this form of leadership is negative.  Pacesetting leaders leave very little room for input from the rest of the team. Visionary / Authoritative –  Focuses on the vision or where the organization needs to go while leaving the actual details up to the team. If an organization needs to go from point A to point B a visionary leader will be best at defining what point B actually is. However, they may be less adept at
  20. 20. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 19 creating a good map showing how to navigate from A to B or in defining the necessary processes to support such a transition.  Still is very effective because it holds people accountable for their results toward a goal. Other Key Leadership Styles Charismatic Leadership –  The leader is motivating, has high energy, and inspires his team. It is a kind of do as I do now. Interactional Leadership –  A hybrid of transactional, transformational, and charismatic leadership.  The interactional leader wants the team to take action, is excited and inspired about the project work, yet still holds the team accountable for their results. Servant Leadership / Consultative / Bottom-up –  The leader puts others first and focuses on the needs of the project team and people served. It is most associated with adaptive, agile, or scrum.  It has the theme that the leader carries food and water for the team. It means it makes certain that team members have the things they need in order to make things done.  Robert Greenleaf was the founder of servant leadership movement. Situational Leadership (by Hershey and Blanchard) –  Refers to a manager using different leadership styles based on the people and project work who or she is dealing with. Transactional Leadership / Management by Exception –  Focuses on supervision, organization, and performance.  It is all about rewards for top performers and punishments for bottom performers.  It is called by exception because you are rewarded or punished; you are an exception to the remainder of the group. Transformational Leadership –  Where a leader inspires and motivates his team. He works with subordinates to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change with committed members of a group. Additional Leadership Styles Analytical – Depends on PM’s own technical knowledge and ability. Analytical manager often make the technical decision for the project.
  21. 21. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 20 Assertive - Confronts issues and displays confidence; establishes authority with respect. Bureaucratic – Focuses on following procedures exactly. May be appropriate for work in which details are critical or in which specific safety or other regulations must be strictly adhered to. Consensus – Involves problem solving in a group. Directing – telling others what to do. Discussing – two way communications with the team. Driver – PM constantly giving direction. His competitive attitude drives the team to win. Facilitating – PM coordinates the input of the others. Influencing – Emphasizes teamwork, team building, and team decision making. PM works with the team to influence project implementation. Participatory – Involve others; same as Democratic style. Supporting – PM provides assistance along the way. Task-oriented – Enforces task completion by deadline. Team-Based - Emphasizes teamwork and working well together. Management Systems Renis Likert’s Management Systems Renis Likert outlined four systems of management to show how managers and subordinates interact. Benevolent –  Same as exploitative, however, the negative factors are replaced with positive rewards as the primary motivating factor.  This system will typically have more communication and more teamwork than the exploitative system, but still ranks relatively low on both factors.  The problem with information not traveling back up the chain still exists and leadership still lacks the data necessary to make the best decisions. Consultative-Autocratic –  PM solicits input from team members, but retains decision-making authority for him.
  22. 22. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 21  This style enjoys significantly more trust with subordinates and creates a great deal more communication—even if some of it is filtered. Exploitative –  Falls under the autocratic/authoritative style.  It is where subordinates follow the decisions of their leaders with little or no input.  Exploitative systems typically have very poor communication and very little teamwork.  It is interesting to note that there is also very little horizontal communication in this system.  The environment created does not lend itself well to communication among peers which leads to very little teamwork even within groups that work together. Participative –  There is much more interaction between leaders and subordinates and communication flows freely.  Motivation is based on rewards as well as the desire to perform well at mutually agreed upon tasks toward mutually agreed upon goals.  The degree of trust of subordinates for upper management is higher than consultative.  The optimal system. Motivation Theories BF Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory –  Proposes that you can change someone's behavior by using reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.  Rewards are used to reinforce the behavior you want and punishments are used to prevent the behavior you do not want.  Extinction is a means to stop someone from performing a learned behavior. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory / Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation / Two Factor Theory – States that there are certain factors in the workplace that causes job satisfaction.  Hygiene factors – Fixing poor factors will help motivate the team and prevent dissatisfaction, however, making good ones better will not improve motivation. Hygiene factors are like working conditions, salary, and security.  Promoting Agents / Motivators – Things that motivate employees. Like responsibility, recognition, and self-actualizations. John Stacey Adams’ Equity Theory – is based in the idea that individuals are motivated by fairness, and if they identify inequities in the input or output ratios of themselves and their referent group, they will seek to adjust their input to reach their perceived equity. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – People have needs, and until the lower ones are satisfied they won’t even begin to think about the higher ones. Those needs drive our reason for work.
  23. 23. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 22 1. Physiological Needs (Lowest) – Like air, food and warmth. 2. Safety and Security Needs – Personal, financial, health, stability, etc. 3. Social Needs – Love, affection, approval, friends, association, etc. 4. Esteem Needs – Accomplishment, acceptance, attention, appreciation, etc. 5. Self-Actualization (Highest) – Full realization of true self and potential, growth, and learning. McClelland’s Achievement Theory / Acquired Needs Theory / Three Needs Theory – States that over time our needs change and they are acquired by our life experiences. It also states the people are most motivated by the following –  Power – He/she has a lot of control or influence in the company.  Achievement – Recognition of well-performance. Those people should be given projects that are challenging but are reachable.  Affiliation – Being part of a working team and having good relationships with coworkers. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – A projective measure intended to evaluate a person's patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to ambiguous test materials. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y –  Theory X – o Assumes that employees are lazy, unmotivated, will do anything to avoid working, and they have to be micromanaged. o Micromanagement – PM is watching everything and does not trust his employees.  Theory Y – Assumes that employees are happy to work and will take on additional duties without being forced to. Peter Drucker’s SMART Objectives / Management by Objective –  Specific – simple, sensible, significant.  Measurable – meaningful, motivating.  Achievable – agreed, attainable.  Relevant – reasonable, realistic and resourced, results-based.  Time-bound – time-based, time limited, time/cost limited, timely, time-sensitive. Robert S. Robin’s SMARTER Objectives – An updated version of SMART, originated by Robert S. Robin.  Evaluated  Reviewed Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory –  Proposes an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.
  24. 24. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 23  The theory asserts that people think seriously about how much effort they should put into a task before doing it.  Motivation is linked to an expectation of a favorable outcome.  I.e. people only respond to reward that are tied to achievable goals. William Ouchi’s Theory Z – A Japanese theory states that workers are motivated by a sense of commitment, opportunity, and advancement. It also implies lifelong employment. Merrill and Reid's Personal Styles  Outlines how each employee possesses a different motivational style.  Each style should be handled differently in order to facilitate the optimal motivation as well as job satisfaction.  Recognizing the different styles of your employees can enable you to tailor your supervisory style to each individual on your team. Style What motivates them Most effective way to motivate Least effective way to motivate Driver These people are action oriented; they focus on achieving the goals and look more towards short term rather than long-term achievement. Ask for their input on ideas and allow them to critique. Set a clear and quick time-table for completing projects. Being directive. Spending a lot of time planning and reflecting on ways to accomplish a task. Expressive These people are intuition oriented; they like to involve others and reject routine. Try to make work personally fulfilling and enjoyable. Find ways to involve them. Assigning long tedious tasks, where working alone is necessary Amiable These individuals are relationship oriented. They focus on building supportive relationships with co-workers. Require group collaboration and input on procedures and goals. They want everyone to be involved. Applying deadlines or threats for not accomplishing something. Analytical These individuals are thinking oriented. Adept at thinking about solutions to problems. Give them ample time to plan before a task is due to be completed. Assign them complex Asking them to come up with a quick solution. Using conflict with others as a way to get results.
  25. 25. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | HUMAN RESOURCE THEORIES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 24 Try to make a perfect plan before taking action. tasks where attention to detail is important. Tuckman’s Group Development Stages Bruce Tuckman states that teams move through a process of 5 stages – 1. Forming – The team finding their roles. 2. Storming –  The team forming opinions. Where clashes and conflicts happen.  Hostility towards the project leader.  PM must follow high directive and supportive approach.  Riskiest. 3. Norming –  Resolving differences and accommodating to each other.  Confronting issues rather than people.  PM must follow high supportive and low directive approach. 4. Performing –  Working perfectly with each other.  PM must follow low directive low directive and supportive approach. 5. Adjourning –  When the work is close to completion.  Most difficult for members where future looks uncertain.  Management skills involve evaluating, reviewing, and improving.  Leadership qualities are celebrating and bringing closure. Please note that various circumstances can slip the team back to an earlier stage. For example, replacing the project manager can get a performing team back to the storming stage. Other Theories Brooks’ Law – an observation about software project management according to which adding human resources to a late software project makes it later. Brooks' law may be applied for two key reasons –  Ramp up time which is required by new project members for productivity because of the complex nature of software projects are complex. This takes existing resources (personnel) away from active development and places them in training roles.  An increase in staff drives communication overhead, including the number and variety of communication channels. Halo Effect – The tendency for an impression created in one area to influence opinion in another area. I.e. to rate team members high or low on all factors due to the impression of a high or low rating in some specific factor.
  26. 26. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 25  Peter Principle – A variation of halo effect in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his/her level of incompetence. Journey to Abiline / The Abiline Paradox / Management of Agreement – Originated by Jerry B. Harvey. States that –  Organizations frequently take actions in contradiction to what they really want to do and therefore defeat the very purposes they are trying to achieve.  The inability to manage agreement is a major source of organization dysfunction.  I.e. it means that most people agree to do certain things as a group, or an organization, which they personally do not agree or believe in… just to be a team player, to save face, and/or to avoid conflict.  I.e. Group decisions can have the paradox outcome, that a decision is jointly made or approved that is not desired by any of the group members. Law of Diminishing Returns – Refers to a point at which the level of profits or benefits gained is less than the amount of money or energy invested (ROI). At this point, adding more input will not produce a proportional increase in productivity. Morse and Lorsch’s Contingency Theory – is an organizational theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation. Parkinson’s Law – A theory that states – Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion. Student Syndrome – leaving a lot of work until the last moment. Delegation of Authority According to F.C. Moore, Delegation means assigning work to others and giving them authority to do so. Delegation Steps 1. Assignment of duties to subordinates. 2. Transfer of authority. 3. Acceptance of assignment. 4. Creation of responsibility. What to Delegate  Routines.  Tasks that require technical expertise.  Some enjoyable things to others.  Activities that will allow people to cross-train.
  27. 27. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 26 What not to Delegate  Selection of key team players.  Responsibility for monitoring team’s performance.  Opportunity to reward/punish team members.  Touch, personal matters, or crises. Guidelines for Effective Delegation  Establish mutually agreed upon results and performance standards related to tasks. Delegate in terms of objectives rather than procedures to encourage creativity.  Give team members authority necessary to accomplish the tasks.  Ensure acceptance from the member. Build team members’ confidence in the use of the delegated authority.  Provide continuous support, training, and guidance.  Demonstrate your confidence and trust in the abilities of project team members. Obstacles to Delegation Superiors or Delegators  Wanting to do things personally.  Insecurity.  Retention of power.  Lack of confidence in subordinates.  Unwillingness to set standards of control.  Personal factors. Subordinates  Lack of confidence.  Fear of making mistakes.  Lack of incentives.  Absence of access to resources.  Convenience. Organizations  Size of the organization.  No precedent of delegation.  Degree of centralization/decentralization.
  28. 28. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | TYPES OF TEAMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 27 Types of Teams Dedicated / Full-time – The easiest team to work with. Most common in projectized organizations. Part-Time – Most often seen in functional and matrix organizations. Partnership – Consists of people from each of the participating organizations plus the PM from the organization taking the lead on the project. Offer cost savings but difficult to manage. Virtual – When there is geographic distance between organizations or offices involved on a project. Virtual/Distributed Teams Virtual Teams / Non-colocation – Team members that are not located in the same location. Challenges –  Communication is paramount  Feeling of isolation  Gaps in sharing knowledge  Difficulties in tracking progress and productivity  Possible time zone difference Advantages –  People with mobility handicaps.  Deletion or reduction of travel expenses.  Ability to add experts who may not be in the same geographical area. Colocation / War Room / Tight Matrix / Distributed Teams – Where team is located in the same place.  Studies show that such approach facilitates concurrent engineering by having designers working next to manufacturing engineers.  Cost-effective. Team Building Activities Ongoing activity and should start early in the life of the project. Help form the project team into a cohesive group and lower down the turn over. Examples are –  WBS creation.  Taking classes together.  Milestone parties.  Holiday and birthday celebration.  Outside-of-work trips.
  29. 29. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | REWARDS AND RECOGNITION DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 28 Rewards and Recognition  Must be achievable (i.e. tangible.)  Must satisfy a need valued by the individual.  Rewards for good work and behavior. No rewards if work is not acceptable because of quality issues.  Recognition is throughout the project, not only at the end.  Intangible rewards could be equally or even more effective. Fringe Benefits – The standard benefits formally given to all employees, such as profit sharing, insurance, and education benefits. Perquisites / Perks – Special rewards for employees, such as assigned parking spaces, corner offices, and executive dining. Zero-Sum Reward / Win-lose Rewards – Where only one person can win. Strongly not recommended. Team Performance Review Personnel Assessment Tools / Team Performance Assessment Technique of Develop Project Team. Focuses on team performance, not individuals. Determines your team’s style of working and interacting.  Attitudinal Surveys – attitudinal surveys can be defined as measuring the feelings of your employees towards their work, colleagues, and company.  Structured Interviews Project Performance Appraisals  Technique of Manage Project Team.  Focuses on individuals.  Evaluates employees’ performance by those who supervise them.  Could be done as a 360-degree review.  360-degree Feedback Approach – provides each employee the opportunity to receive performance feedback from his or her supervisor, peers, reporting staff members, coworkers, and customers.  Re-clarify roles and responsibilities.  Focuses on – o Quality Level – technical success according to agreed-upon project objectives. o Schedule Performance – finishing on time. o Budget Performance – finishing within the financial constraints.
  30. 30. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | CONFLICT MANAGEMENT DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 29 Conflict Management  Conflicts should generally be resolved by PM unless the issue requires functional expertise. In this case it is resolved by functional manager.  Steps to resolving conflicts – o Acknowledge that conflict exists. o Establish common ground or shared goals. o Separate people from the problem. o Solve the problem. Sources of Conflicts Higher intensity to lower - 1. Schedules – Top 2. Priorities – One project/person/target is more important than another, and gets more budget, resource, time, prestige, or other perks. 3. Manpower / Resources – Scarce! Have to negotiate for them. 4. Technical opinions 5. Administrative procedures 6. Personalities 7. Costs Conflict Resolving Confronting / Win-win / Collaborating / Problem-Solving –  Come face to face.  Uses communication.  Most effective.  Not effective when there are too many people involved.  Not effective when the parties involved have mutually exclusive views. Compromising / Lose-lose / Middle-Ground / Reconciling – Finding solution that brings some degree of satisfaction to both parties. Smoothing / Accommodating –  Minimizing the problem.  Emphasizes agreement rather than differences of opinion.  Conflict usually reappear again in another form. Open Subordination – When negotiators are more concerned about positive relationships than about substantive outcomes. Forcing / Directing / Win-lose –  One person wins, one person loses. End.
  31. 31. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | ADDITIONAL TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 30  Effective when – o Time is of the essence. o Quick decision is required. o An issue is vital to the project’s well-being. o Parties involved have mutually exclusive views.  Puts project managers at risk. Withdrawal / Avoidance Stress Factors  Roles and relationships o Role ambiguity  Job Environment  Personal Factors  Project Environment / Climate o Corporate politics o Career development o Selection of team members Influence Factors  Position taken by persons involved.  Relative importance and intensity of the conflict.  Time pressure for resolving the conflict. Additional Terms Ambiguous Jurisdictions – that’s when two or more parties have related responsibilities, but their work boundaries and role definitions are unclear.  This situation is found frequently in weak and strong matrix organizations because of the “two-boss” concepts. Bill of Materials (BOM) / Product Structure / Associated list – a list of the raw materials, sub- assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, parts, and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end product. Cross Training – Teaching your employees the skills and responsibilities of another position at your company to increase their effectiveness. Ground Rules – Basic principles and conditions.
  32. 32. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 9 – RESOURCES MANAGEMENT | ADDITIONAL TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 31 Herding Cats – a futile attempt to control or organize a class of entities which are inherently uncontrollable - as in the difficulty of attempting to command a large number of cats into a group (herd). Micromanagement – A management style where the manager closely observes and/or controls the work of his subordinates/employees.

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