Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

PM Notebook - Chapter 5 - Scope Management

16 views

Published on

This notebook summarizes project management concepts and terms in PMP context. This chapter focuses on scope management knowledge area. Contents of this chapter are as follow:
* Key Terms
* * Scope
* * * Product Scope
* * * Project Scope
* * Requirements
* * * Business Requirements
* * * Product / Solution Requirements
* * * Functional / Nonfunctional Requirements
* * * Project Requirements
* * * Quality Requirements
* * * Stakeholder Requirements
* * * Technical Requirements
* * * Transition Requirements
* Processes
* * 1 – Plan Scope Management (Planning)
* * 2 – Collect Requirements (Planning)
* * 3 – Define Scope Statement (Planning)
* * 4 – Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (Planning)
* * 5 – Validate Project Scope (Monitoring & Controlling)
* * 6 – Control Project Scope (Monitoring & Controlling)
* WBS Quality
* * Quality Principle 1
* * Quality Principle 2
* Scope Creep vs. Gold Plating
* Additional Terms

Additional terms covered include Business Analysis, Functional Analysis, Business Analysis, System Analysis, Control Account Manager (CAM), Observations, System Engineering and Project Boundaries.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

PM Notebook - Chapter 5 - Scope Management

  1. 1. PM Notebook Summarizing Project Management Concepts for the PMP Exam Mohammad Elsheimy Road to PMP
  2. 2. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 1 DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA/INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA/INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. NONE IS INTENDED TO MAKE A PROFIT IN ANY WAY. THIS IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY.
  3. 3. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 2 No great man ever complains of want of opportunity. Ralph Waldo Emerson
  4. 4. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 3 Table of Contents Chapter 5 – Scope Management........................................................................................................................ 4 Key Terms ............................................................................................................................................................... 4 Scope.................................................................................................................................................................. 4 Requirements .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Processes................................................................................................................................................................ 5 1 – Plan Scope Management (Planning) .................................................................................................... 5 2 – Collect Requirements (Planning) ............................................................................................................ 5 3 – Define Scope Statement (Planning)....................................................................................................... 7 4 – Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (Planning).......................................................................... 7 5 – Validate Project Scope (Monitoring & Controlling)............................................................................. 9 6 – Control Project Scope (Monitoring & Controlling)............................................................................. 10 WBS Quality.......................................................................................................................................................... 11 Quality Principle 1........................................................................................................................................... 11 Quality Principle 2........................................................................................................................................... 11 Scope Creep vs. Gold Plating ......................................................................................................................... 11 Additional Terms ................................................................................................................................................. 12
  5. 5. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 4 Key Terms Scope Scope – The sum of products, services, and results to be provided as a project. Product Scope – Features and functions (i.e. deliverables) of the product or service that you are building.  It is the product backlog in adaptive environments.  It is derived from collect requirements.  Validate scope is product scope confirmation.  Measured against project requirements.  Changes can be managed through requirements traceability matrix (RTM). Project Scope – Work performed to deliver the product. I.e. Every single thing made by you and the team (i.e. contents), and that includes the project plan and other project management documents which people who use the product cannot see like plans, schedules, documents, blueprints and specifications.  Measured against project plan. Requirements Requirement – Condition or capability that is required to be present in product or service to satisfy contract or specifications. Business Requirements – high-level needs of the organization. Product / Solution Requirements – features, functions, and characteristics of the product.  Functional Requirements – behaviors and capabilities of the product. E.g. performance requirements.  Nonfunctional Requirements – environmental conditions or qualities. E.g. security requirements and level-of-service requirements. Project Requirements – actions, processes, and other conditions. Examples are acceptance requirements, levels of service performance, safety, and compliance. Quality Requirements – validate the successful completion of project requirement. Stakeholder Requirements – needs of stakeholders.
  6. 6. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 5 Technical Requirements – How will the product be build? What are product specifications? Transition Requirements – from the current state to the future state. Processes Please note that there is no specific order for Control and Validate Scope processes. 1 – Plan Scope Management (Planning)  How scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and validated.  How scope baseline will be approved and maintained.  How formal acceptance of the deliverables happens.  Each project’s scope management plan is unique.  Can be developed in stages, or iterated, during project planning.  The level of uncertainty in scope increases based on the scale of efforts required to identify all the scope. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Project Charter 3. OPAs  Historical Information 4. EEFs Tools 1. Expert Judgment 2. Data Analysis Techniques 3. Meetings Outputs 1. Scope Management Plan – Defines how scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and validated. 2. Requirements Management Plan –  How requirements will be gathered, analyzed, documented, tacked, prioritized, and managed. Contains –  Contains Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM)  Metrics that will be used 2 – Collect Requirements (Planning)  Can be performed once or at predefined points.  Balancing stakeholder requirements, prioritizing them, and resolving and conflicts.  Any suggested changes to the project charter need to be brought to the sponsor’s attention for approval.
  7. 7. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 6 Inputs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Business Documents 3. Agreements 4. Stakeholder Register 5. Project Charter 6. EEFs Tools 1. Expert Judgment 2. Data Gathering Techniques  Context Diagrams / Level-0 Data Flow Diagram  Prototypes 3. Data Analysis Techniques 4. Decision-Making Techniques Outputs 1. Requirements Document  Functional Requirements – Product behavior like features and bug-fixes.  Non-functional Requirements (Quality Attributes) – Implicit expectations like performance, reliability, error handling, and ease of use. 2. Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) / Trace Matrix (TM) – Parts of requirements management plan. A table that maps and traces user requirements with modules and test cases.  Lists requirement names, links to business and project objectives, project scope and WBS entries, relevant data, testing activities, status and comments.  Helps to ensure that each requirement adds value as it links to the business and project objectives.  Provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
  8. 8. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 7 3 – Define Scope Statement (Planning)  A detailed description of the project and product scope  Establishes boundaries and acceptance criteria.  Unrealistic schedules are the PM’s fault because they have not done planning in an iterative way.  Early scope definition is critical because it is the easiest time to influence project scope.  The most misinterpretation of the scope statement is a result of imprecise language. Inputs 1. Project Charter 2. Requirements Document 3. Project Management Plan 4. EEFs 5. OPAs Tools 1. Expert Judgment 2. Data Analysis Techniques  Alternatives Generation 3. Decision-Making Techniques 4. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills 5. Product Analysis Techniques Outputs 1. Scope Statement –  Product and project scope  Deliverables  Exclusions – What is not part of the project?  Acceptance criteria  Project Management Methodology (PMM)  Assumptions and constraints – Like whether estimates will include indirect costs or not.  Progressive Elaboration of the characteristics of the product, service, or result in the project charter and requirements documentation. 2. Project Document Updates  Stakeholder Register  Requirements Documentation  Requirements Traceability Matrix 4 – Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (Planning)  Organizes all project’s work into work packages by phase or by deliverable.  Decomposition of project scope. o Top-down approach – starting with the high-level pieces. o Bottom-up approach – starting at the work package level.  Smallest item is work package; one person can do the unit under 80 hours (recommended).
  9. 9. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 8  Required.  Not the activities list.  Does not show dependencies.  Work Breakdown Template (WBT) – Part of OPAs. Involves taking similar project WBS and adapting it to the project in hand.  The most valuable result of WBS is team buy-in.  An affinity diagram can be used to enhance the creation of WBS.  Scope baseline is the responsibility of project team.  100% Rule – states that the WBS includes 100% of the work defined by the project scope and captures all deliverables.  8/80 Rule – A planning heuristic for creating the WBS. This rule states that the work package in a WBS must take no more than 80 hours of labor to create and no fewer than 8 hours of labor to create.  When decomposing project work beware of excessive decomposition which can lead to – o Non-productive management effort. o Inefficient use of resources. o Decreased efficiency in performing the work. o Difficulty aggregating data over different levels of the WBS. Inputs 1. Project Documents  Requirements Document  Scope Statement 2. Project Management Plan 3. OPAs 4. EEFs Tools 1. Decomposition – Taking deliverables and coming up with work packages that will create them. 2. Expert Judgment Outputs 1. Product Document Updates 2. Scope Baseline –  Scope Statement 1) Product and project scope 2) Deliverables 3) Acceptance criteria 4) Assumptions and constraints 5) What is not part of the project  WBS  WBS Dictionary – Contains details and control accounts of each work package. E.g. Package ID, name, SOW, responsible organizations, milestones, account identifier, required resources, acceptance criteria, technical references, and cost estimates.
  10. 10. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 9 Finalization 1. Embedding Control Accounts / Chart of Accounts –  A tool that your company uses to aggregate and track individual work packages and cost estimates.  Represents the basic level at which project performance is measures and reported. 2. Embedding Code of Accounts / WBS Numbering – Unique identifiers. A numbering system for each item in WBS. E.g. 5.3.1. 5 – Validate Project Scope (Monitoring & Controlling)  To obtain a formal, written acceptance of the work products.  Customer inspects the project work.  Done at the completion of each phase, the whole project or at other points during project monitoring and controlling.  Happens multiple times in the project.  Periodic walkthroughs, reviews, and audits help in gauging stakeholder satisfaction early and planning for changes. Sign-offs avoid leaving room for future disputes.  As the scope is completed, the project is complete. Additional work should be done as part of a new project.  Validation lifecycle – 1. Direct and Management Work -> Completed Deliverables 2. Control Quality -> Validated Deliverables 3. Validate Scope -> Verified/Accepted Deliverables Inputs 1. Project Charter 2. Project Management Plan 3. EEFs 4. OPAs 5. Project Documents  Requirements Document  Requirements Traceability Matrix 6. Validated Deliverables – output of Control Quality. Tools 1. Expert Judgment 2. Data Analysis Techniques 3. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills 4. Decision-Making Techniques 5. Product Analysis 6. Inspection Outputs 1. Verified/Accepted Deliverables 2. Change Requests
  11. 11. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 10 3. Project Document Updates 6 – Control Project Scope (Monitoring & Controlling)  Monitoring the status of the project and product scope.  Maintaining scope baseline integrity.  Measuring and assessing work performance data against the scope baseline.  Keep the project in scope.  Manage and incorporate change.  Scope changes should not be approved if they relate to work that does not fit within the project charter.  Scope changes can happen due to – o Missing requirements o Failed audits o New law o Change requests Inputs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Requirements Document  Requirements Documentation  Requirements Traceability Matrix 3. Work Performance Data 4. OPAs Tools 1. Data Analysis Techniques  Variance Analysis  Trend Analysis 2. Project Performance Measurements – To assess the magnitude of variance, to determine the cause of the variance, and to decide whether corrective or preventive action is required. 3. Configuration Management System Outputs 1. Change Requests 2. Project Management Plan Updates 3. Project Document Updates 4. Work Performance Information 5. OPA Updates  Lessons Learned 1) Causes of variation 2) Reasons certain corrective actions were chosen
  12. 12. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | WBS QUALITY DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 11 WBS Quality WBS quality refers to the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements. Quality Principle 1 Core Characteristics – A set of core characteristics must present in each WBS. Examples of core characteristics are –  Defines 100% of the work defined by the scope.  Provides graphical, tabular, or textual breakdown of the project scope.  Arranges all major and minor deliverables in a hierarchical structure.  The WBS is created by those who will be performing the work.  The WBS can be expressed as a chart or outline  Elements are defined using nouns and adjectives – not verbs. Use-Related Characteristics – Additional set of characteristics that may vary from WBS to another. Examples are –  Achieves a sufficient level of decomposition.  Has a succinct, clear, and logically organized structure to meet project management and oversight requirements.  Is appropriate for control activities.  Enables assignment of accountability at the appropriate level. Quality Principle 2  States that WBS quality characteristics apply at all levels of scope definition.  There is no conceptual difference in a WBS for a project, program, or portfolio  Differ only in breadth of content and scope. Scope Creep vs. Gold Plating Scope/Requirement/Function Creep / Kitchen Sink Syndrome – Continuous or uncontrolled growth in the scope that occurs at any point after the project begins. Gold Plating – Intentionally adding extra features or functions to the products which were not included in the scope statement. It is usually done with no additional cost to the client. Strongly not recommended.
  13. 13. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 5 – SCOPE MANAGEMENT | ADDITIONAL TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 12 Additional Terms Business Analysis – Gathering and defining requirements, and ensuring that requirements satisfy business needs. It begins with a needs assessment.  BA has requirements responsibilities.  PM has project delivery responsibilities. Control Account Manager (CAM) – responsible for the planning, coordination and achievement of all work within a control account and provides a single authority for all scope, technical and cost issues for the CA. CAM can be assigned multiple control accounts. Functional Analysis – Studies the goals of the product, how the product will be used, and the expectations the customer has of the product once it leaves the project and moves into operations. Observations –  Active – The observer interacts with the worker to ask questions and understand each step of the work being completed.  Passive – The observer records information about the work being completed without interrupting the process; sometimes called the invisible observer. Planning Package – A WBS entry located below a control account and above the work packages. A planning package signifies that there is more planning that needs to be completed for this specific deliverable. Project Boundaries – What is included in project and what is not included. System Analysis – Analyzing components and their relationships within the system. System Engineering – Studies how the system should work, designs and creates a system model, and then enacts the working system based on the project’s goals.

×