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PM Notebook - Chapter 10: Communication Management

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This notebook summarizes project management concepts and terms in PMP context. This chapter

focuses on communication management knowledge area.

Contents of this chapter are as follow:

* Key Terms
* * Communication Methods/Styles
* * Communication Model
* * Communication Direction
* * Distribution Methods
* * Communication Types
* * Communication Technology
* * Communication Flow
* Processes
* * 1 – Plan Communication Management
* * 2 – Manage Communications (Executing)
* * 3 – Monitor Communications (Monitoring & Controlling)
* Aspects of Effective Communication
* * Listening
* * Message Impact
* * 5 Cs of Effective Communication
* Formulas
* Additional Terms

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PM Notebook - Chapter 10: Communication Management

  1. 1. PM Notebook Summarizing Project Management Concepts for the PMP Exam Mohammad Elsheimy Road to PMP
  2. 2. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 1 DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA/INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA/INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. NONE IS INTENDED TO MAKE A PROFIT IN ANY WAY. THIS IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY.
  3. 3. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 2 No great man ever complains of want of opportunity. Ralph Waldo Emerson
  4. 4. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 3 Table of Contents Chapter 10 – Communication Management.................................................................................................... 4 Key Terms ............................................................................................................................................................... 4 Communication Methods/Styles................................................................................................................... 4 Communication Model................................................................................................................................... 4 Communication Direction .............................................................................................................................. 5 Distribution Methods ........................................................................................................................................ 5 Communication Types .................................................................................................................................... 5 Communication Technology ......................................................................................................................... 5 Communication Flow ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Processes................................................................................................................................................................ 6 1 – Plan Communication Management...................................................................................................... 6 2 – Manage Communications (Executing) ................................................................................................. 7 3 – Monitor Communications (Monitoring & Controlling)......................................................................... 7 Aspects of Effective Communication .............................................................................................................. 8 Listening.............................................................................................................................................................. 8 Message Impact............................................................................................................................................... 9 5 Cs of Effective Communication ................................................................................................................. 9 Formulas ................................................................................................................................................................. 9 Additional Terms ................................................................................................................................................. 10
  5. 5. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 4 Key Terms  Stakeholders should be included in project reviews and meetings.  90% of project manager’s job is communication.  Main target of communication is to prevent overloading stakeholders with minor details. Communication Methods/Styles Formal Written – Complex problems, legal documents, contracts, blueprints, specs, formal documentation, etc. Informal Written – Emails, memos, sticky notes, IMs, etc. Formal Verbal – Presentations, speeches, talks, etc. Informal Verbal – Calls, voicemails, meetings, etc. Communication Model Describe how the information flow between parties. Sender Encode – Adding emoticons to a chat message is an example of encoding. Medium – The thing that is used to transfer the message. Decode – The receiver receives message and decodes it based on culture, semantics, language, and knowledge. Receiver Noise – The interference that can alter your message. E.g. receiver’s environment, experience, language, and culture. Barriers / Blockers – Things that block the message, idiomatic phrases are an example. Acknowledgement – An acknowledgment shows receipt of the message. Feedback – The message returned.
  6. 6. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | KEY TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 5 Communication Direction Vertical – Up and down the levels of the organization. Horizontal – Among peers. Essential for success. Distribution Methods Interactive – Where everyone exchanges information with one another. E.g. meetings, conversations, instant messaging, and conference calls. Push – Sending information to your stakeholders. E.g. Emails, blogs, company memos, and other one-way communication.  Does not ensure reception or understanding. Pull – Where stakeholders get data themselves from internet, websites, etc. Used to distribute large documents or to send information to many people. Communication Types  Interpersonal – Individuals, typically face-to-face.  Small Group  Public – Single speaker to a group.  Mass –  Networks and Social Computing Communication Technology The factors that influence the technology include –  Whether the team is colocated.  The confidentiality of any information that needs to be shared.  Resources available to team members.  How the organization's culture influence the way in which meetings and discussions are normally conducted. Communication Flow Vertical Communications – Follow the organizational flowchart (from top to bottom.) Horizontal Communications – Director-to-director.
  7. 7. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 6 Processes 1 – Plan Communication Management  Define who, what, and when.  Defines stakeholder communication requirements.  Define how communication is secured, archived, and accessed.  Defines escalation processes, including time frames and the management chains.  Analyze communication influences like time zone, culture, and working hours.  Requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information.  Communication requirements are determined based on – o Organizational charts and logistics o Project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships o Internal and external information needs. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Resource Management Plan  Stakeholder Management Plan 2. Project Documents  Stakeholder Register  Requirements Documentation – For communication requirements.  Organizational Charts 3. EEFs  Organizational Structure 4. OPAs Tools 1. Communication Requirements Analysis – Analyzing the kind of communication your stakeholders need from the project so that they can make good decisions. 2. Communication Models – Demonstrate how various people associated with your project send and receive their information. 3. Communication Technology 4. Communication Methods 5. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills 6. Data Representation Tools  Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix – Part of stakeholder management plan. 7. Meetings 8. Expert Judgment Outputs 1. Communication Management Plan 2. Project Management Plan Updates 3. Project Document Updates
  8. 8. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | PROCESSES DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 7  Stakeholder Register 2 – Manage Communications (Executing)  Gathering and distributing project information. Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Resource Management Plan  Communication Management Plan  Stakeholder Engagement Plan 2. Project Documents  Quality Report  Risk Report  Stakeholder Register 3. Work Performance Reports – should be comprehensive, accurate, and available in a timely way. 4. EEFs 5. OPAs Tools 1. Communication Models 2. Communication Methods 3. Communication Technology 4. Performance Reporting – Emphasis is to ensure providing the needed information for each audience level. 5. Project Information Management System Outputs 1. Project Communications 2. Project Management Plan Updates 3. Project Document Updates 4. OPA Updates 3 – Monitor Communications (Monitoring & Controlling)  Ensuring quality and effectiveness of communication.  Ensuring that you follow quality management plan.  Customer satisfaction surveys.  Collecting lessons learned.  Reviewing data from the issue log.  PM cannot control all communications.
  9. 9. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | ASPECTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 8 Inputs 1. Project Management Plan  Communication Management Plan  Stakeholder Engagement Plan 2. Project Documents  Project Communications  Issue Log 3. Work Performance Data 4. EEFs 5. OPAs Tools 1. Project Management Information System (PMIS) 2. Data Analysis Techniques  Stakeholder Engagement Analysis 3. Interpersonal/Team/Soft Skills 4. Expert Judgment 5. Meetings Outputs 1. Work Performance Information 2. Change Requests 3. Project Management Plan Updates 4. Project Document Updates  Forecasts  Performance Reports  Issue Log 5. OPA Updates Aspects of Effective Communication Nonverbal Communication / Body Language – Any kind of communication that does not use words. Like gestures, facial expressions, and physical appearance. Paralingual Communication – Tone and pitch of your voice when you are talking to people. Feedback – Responding to communication. Listening Empathic Listening – Seeing the world the way the other person sees it, with the goal of understanding that person’s views and feelings. I.e. rephrasing the content and putting yourself in the shoes of another.
  10. 10. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | FORMULAS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 9 Sympathic Listening - feeling compassion, sorrow, or pity for the hardships that another person encounters. Effective Listening – attempting to understand the perspective of the speaker and empathize, not sympathize, with him or her. It is when you take everything the speaker says and does into consideration and ask questions when you do not understand. Implies active listening. Active Listening – when the listener attempts to understand as clearly as possible what the speaker says and gives a lot of feedback to someone who is speaking. It implies asking questions and giving feedbacks. Message Impact Albert Maharabian, a researcher, discovered that –  Words – account for 7% of message impact.  Vocal Tones – account for 38% of message impact.  Facial Expressions – account for 55% of message impact. 5 Cs of Effective Communication 1. Correct grammar and spelling 2. Concise expression and elimination of excessive words 3. Clear purpose and expression directed to the needs of the reader 4. Coherent logical flow of ideas 5. Controlling flow of words and ideas Formulas Lines/Channels of Communication # Lines for n People = n ∗ (n − 1) 2
  11. 11. PM NOTEBOOK CHAPTER 10 – COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT | ADDITIONAL TERMS DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIAL INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS BASED ON DATA / INFORMATION GATHERED FROM VARIOUS RELIABLE SOURCES. NONE OF THIS DATA / INFORMATION IS A PROPERTY OF THE AUTHOR. 10 Additional Terms Communication Artifact – The physical thing that you create as a result of communication. E.g. notice boards, newsletters, emails, presentations, focus groups, phone conversations, etc. Communication Style Assessment – Doing as assessment of the best communication style (written, verbal, etc.), the best format, and what is expected. Gripe Session – conference or other meeting at which sales people primarily offer complaints about company products, personnel policy or environment. Usually taken to be a symptom of poor motivation but may also reflect lack of positive planning by the management Passive Communication – a style in which individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding expressing their opinions or feelings, protecting their rights, and identifying and meeting their needs. As a result, passive individuals do not respond overtly to hurtful or anger-inducing situations.

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