Textbook page 272: You are THERE:• It is 1916. One of the bloodiest battles in history has just ended at Verdun in France. A young American, Samuel Benson, is there to help wounded French soldiers. Benson is a volunteer in the American Ambulance Service. For months he has been transporting wounded soldiers to medical aid stations. Now he sits down to write himself a letter:
“My dear sir, self: . . . You may sometimesthink you have it pretty hard staying out herein France away from home and loved ones . .. laboring without pay, and often getting littlerest or sleep. But listen . . . you are at thishour in the midst of the biggest crisis ofhistory. The world has never seen such amoment . . . and [you are] living for others.”That “moment” is World War I. It is beingfought mainly in Europe, but also in Africaand Asia. Soon, the United States will enterthe war.
TEXTBOOK page 273A Gathering StormWhat brought on this war, which would one day becalled World War I ? Fierce rivalries had developedamong European nations. Countries competed formilitary power and ownership of European lands.Strong feelings of nationalism existed. Nationalism isa love of one’s country and the desire to have thatcountry free from the control of others. Tensionsgrew because many lands were under the control ofother nations. European nations also competed fornew land in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Newland meant new trading opportunities, greater wealth,and more power.
Fearing attack from their rivals, severalEuropean nations formed alliances. Analliance is an agreement among nations todefend one another. If one ally, or member ofan alliance, is attacked, the other memberspromise to come to its aid. The two majoralliances were the Allied Powers and theCentral Powers. The Allied Powers includedGreat Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, andBelgium. The Central Powers includedGermany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, andTurkey.
In 1914 Austria-Hungary, a country insouth central Europe, was in control ofland that another country, Serbia,believed it owned. On June 28, 1914, aSerbian nationalist assassinatedArchduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to theAustria-Hungarian throne. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
Why did it start? Comprehension CheckPage 273 –People in Europe loved their countries. This is called__________? Do you have those same feelings about the U.S.? How would you like it if someone were ruling over us?They became very _ _ _ _ _ because other countries were ruling over their country!
SERBIA WAS ANGRY AT AUSTRIA-HUNGRY BECAUSE THEY HAD LAND SERBIATHOUGHT SHOULD BE THEIRS. WHEN SERBIA KILLED AUSTRIA-HUNGARY’SPRINCE, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY DELCARED WAR ON SERBIA. EACH HAD ‘ALLIES’ ORFRIENDS THAT JOINED THE FIGHT TO HELP THEM.
One country- Russia- worried thefighting so close would affect it’strade roads so they jumped in to help Serbia!
Another country-Germany was helping their friend-Austria Hungary. They got mad at Russiafor helping Serbia and declared waron them! Russia declared war right back! See a trend here?You pick on my friend and I’ll beat you up! No! I’ll beat you up! Ever been involved in something like that? LOL
Another country-France-wasfriends with Russia. So guess what Germany did to France?Say it with me…they declared….WAR on them!
For Germany to attack France, they had to gothrough Belgium. But the King of Belgium said ‘No, you cannot march through my country you dirtyGermans!’ (paraphrased) Guess what Germany did to Belgium?
They attacked Belgium. And then Belgium’s pal-GREAT BRITAINjumped in to protect their pal anddeclared war on GERMANY. And don’t forget what country GreatBritain gave birth to…(hint below)
Americans had sympathy for the mother country-Great Britain and the Allies, BUT most Americans said it wasn’t our fight and we wanted to remain neutral. This policy was called ***ISOLATIONISM***!• What is the ‘root’ word of ISOLATIONISM? WHY do you think the U.S. did not want to get involved in this war to begin with?
TEXTBOOK page 274• The fighting was fierce. Soldiers on each side dug a system of trenches that faced each other and could extend hundreds of miles. Barbed-wire fences protected the front of each trench. A “no-man’s land”—the land between trenches that neither side controlled —spread out between the opposing armies. Soldiers ate and slept in the trenches, which were often flooded or filled with rats.• Each side shot at the other’s trenches or sent poison gases into them. Occasionally, troops on one side would go “over the top.” They climbed out, crawled through the barbed wire, and raced across no-man’s land to attack the enemy. As casualties climbed month after month, it seemed that the killing would never end.
Soldiers in Europe dug great trenches like this one here to live and fight in during World War 1
Soldiers ate and slept and did their business in trenches. Many times they were in them for months at a time. Phew wee! Stink-o!
Soldiers fought from down in the trenches. They raised up to fire their guns and put themselves at risk.
These German soldiers wait in the snow to fire during WW1.
Going ‘over the top’ of a trench into no man’s land was dangerous!
This soldier falls in no man’s land as he is exposed to poison gaswithout a mask. Notice the hot masks being worn to protect the face from gas. 3 out of 10 men that died during World War one did so because of poison gas.
These soldiers wear gas masks to protect from a new ‘war weapon’ – poison gas- as they hike through miles of dug out trenches.
Notice the trees in no man’s land here.Everything has been totally destroyed!