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Time is money brown bag seminar


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Time is money brown bag seminar

  1. 1. Time is Money:Putting a Value to Voluntary Action<br />ElricHonoré<br />ESRC/CGAP PhD Management – 1st Year<br />Brown Bag Seminar 1pm-2pm ~17thFebruary 2011<br />University of Edinburgh Business School<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />
  3. 3. Voluntary Action:A definition<br />1<br /> <br />Voluntary action:defined by the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (Salamon and Sokolowski, 2001):<br /><ul><li>Taking place within a formal organisational structure
  4. 4. self-governing
  5. 5. not profit distributing
  6. 6. independent of government, and
  7. 7. (again) voluntary</li></li></ul><li>Two forms:Giving and Volunteering<br />1<br />(NCVO UK Individual Giving, 2009)<br /><ul><li>£9.9 billion UK total, average of £31 per month per person</li></ul>Beneficiaries:<br /><ul><li>medical research (20%)
  8. 8. hospitals and hospices (15%)
  9. 9. children and young people (14%) </li></ul> <br />(CLG 2008-09 Citizenship Survey: Volunteering 2010)<br /><ul><li>26% regularly of UK population volunteer, average 12.6 hours per month</li></ul>Reasons:<br /><ul><li>‘wanting to improve things/ help people’(62%)
  10. 10. ‘supporting a cause’ (40%)
  11. 11. ‘meet new people/make friends’ (33%)
  12. 12. ‘having spare time’ (33%)</li></li></ul><li>Calculating Value<br />1<br /><ul><li>Volunteer Investment and Value Audit (VIVA): places a ‘market value’ on volunteers’ work :</li></ul>Value = total number of hours contributed by volunteers X hourly wage rate <br /><ul><li> Refinements:
  13. 13. use wage rates applicable to paid jobs most closely matching volunteer roles
  14. 14. show the relationship between ‘inputs’ and ‘outputs’ (the VIVA ratio)
  15. 15. Every £1 of public funding spent to support volunteering, volunteers give on average £30 worth of work (United Kingdom Volunteer Forum, 2005)</li></li></ul><li>Volunteering: Scottish Context<br />1<br /><ul><li>1.2 million adults volunteer (Scottish Council of Voluntary Organisations, 2010); 142 million hours for the period 2007-08
  16. 16. Equivalent economic value of £2.2 billion - Volunteer Development Scotland (SCVO, 2010)
  17. 17. 86.5% of unemployed people do not volunteer (Scottish Government, 2008)</li></li></ul><li>The initial aim was to understand the culture of volunteering and motivations<br />Subsequent aims: 'what is voluntary action?' and ‘what constitutes value’<br />Rationale:<br />culturaldimension of volunteering underplayed in relation to instrumental dimensions<br />understanding how volunteering environments operate and how their different social worlds (Becker, 1982) in the participants own terms<br />Research Aims<br />1<br />
  18. 18. Case Selection: Two tales in one city<br />2<br />
  19. 19. Methodology<br />2<br />Cultural dimension:<br />Two local instances – involving 200 members<br />Qualitative Approach (in-depth interviews , focus groups – managers, staff, participants) <br />Policy Analysis<br />Understanding & Uncovering Processes:<br />Grounded Theory Method (GTM)<br />Situational Analysis<br />Overarching Research Questions:<br />‘What’s going on?’<br />‘What is the main problem of the participants and how are they trying to solve it?’<br />
  20. 20. Particularly suited to urban communities – participants agreed there would be little need for it in rural settings<br />Useful as a ‘first step’ towards employability, and of practical (instrumental) advantage for local skills exchange<br />However participants mainly valued it as a service meeting their own needs, which was primarily reducing isolation<br />Findings:Timebank<br />3<br />
  21. 21. Findings: Volunteer Centre<br />3<br />Traditional volunteering getting more and more used as a pathway to employment<br />Competition for volunteering opportunities increases with unemployment<br />Over the past decade, VCs and their staff have mainly facilitated instrumentally-drivenvolunteers<br />‘I have never seen people volunteer completely for philanthropic or altruistic reasons, the motivations change from person to person. It would also be interesting to look at where government funding is at the time. At the moment its Employability, and we see a rise in that; 5 years ago it was Mental Health & Criminal Justice, 10 years ago, it was in Disabilities, it would be interesting to see how it all correlates’<br />Focus Group Interview - VCE#17<br />
  22. 22. Volunteer Motivations(Leete, 2006)<br />3<br />
  23. 23. Extrinsic Values?<br />Volunteer Centre<br /><ul><li>Human Capital
  24. 24. Personal and Social Development</li></ul>3<br />Timebank<br /><ul><li>Social Capital
  25. 25. Social Justice
  26. 26. Community Cohesion</li></li></ul><li>Voluntary Action… Revisited<br />3<br /><ul><li>Voluntary Action independent of government – hence no longer in Volunteer Centres?
  27. 27. Average of 12.6 hours volunteered per month for ‘wanting to improve things/ help people’ or ‘supporting a cause’ not valued per se
  28. 28. What about social change? </li></li></ul><li>Voluntary Action… What value?<br />3<br />Compulsory Voluntary<br />Physical laws… Social laws Norms …Personal whims<br />Voluntary Action?<br />The value of voluntary action is first and foremost intrinsic – inasmuch that it occurs in a social space obtained by the past struggles towards freedom and social justice - bounded on end by the sedimentation of rights, and unbounded at the over end by imaginings of a better community or society. [Or not]<br />
  29. 29. Questions / Suggestions?<br />?<br />Thank You<br /><br />