1<br />Undergraduate Studies  e-Portfolio<br />Ebony Lopez<br />Psychology, 2009<br />
Personal Statement<br />Each chance I get to volunteer reaffirms my passion of making a difference in others lives. <br />...
Personal Statement<br />My professional development has been influenced by a multitude of factors that are not specificall...
Resume<br />Ebony J. Lopez<br />7205 Five Point Circle Apt 103<br />Tampa, Florida 33634<br />386-837-1953<br />E-mail:  E...
Resume<br />Employment History<br /> * Server/Bartender	<br />Cheapa Pizza <br />Orange City, FL <br />February 2003 – Mar...
Reflection on Education<br />Argosy is unique university that adds a lot of benefits to its students. By unique I am imply...
Table of Contents<br /><ul><li>  Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking & Information     Literacy : What are the characte...
Research Skills: Prevention Strategies Towards Breaking the Cycle of Domestic Violence
Communication Skills: Oral & Written:Reality Therapy’s Beliefs  to a Successful Therapeutic Process for the Client
Ethics & Diversity Awareness:Dress for Success Tampa Florida: Who They are, What They Need, and How to Reach Out
Foundations of Psychology:History and Development of MMPI
Applied Psychology:Is there a possible Association between One’s Astrological Birth-date and their Individual Personality ...
Interpersonal Effectiveness: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:ENFP</li></li></ul><li>Critical Thinking<br />What are the charac...
Critical Thinking<br />What are the characteristics that counselors should have to be effective in their field?<br />		The...
Research Skills<br />Prevention Strategies Towards Breaking the Cycle of Domestic Violence Argosy University <br />
Research Skills<br />Abstract For centuries societies deemed it acceptable for men to exhibit violence against their wives...
Research Skills<br />Throughout the centuries, American societies deemed it acceptable for men to exhibit violence against...
Research Skills<br />	    Social Service Training	In order for social workers to promote change silence must be broken.Res...
Research Skills<br />The authors offer several recommendations for further social work education and research. Although Go...
Research Skills<br />	It is believed that batterers choose their personal beliefs and attitudes that lead to accepting and...
Research Skills<br />			     Education Awareness	Research suggests that interpersonal violence is not limited to adults. R...
Research Skills<br />		                        Conclusion 	Breaking the cycle of domestic violence is a challenge; however...
Research Skills<br />			       ReferencesBecky, D., & Farren, P. M. (1997). Teaching student how to understand and avoid a...
Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />Reality Therapy’s Beliefs to a Successful Therapeutic Process for the ClientArgo...
Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />	In life one comes to the realization that one ultimately has a choice about eve...
Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />	Reality therapy intends to take out all the mystery and uncertainty of most oth...
Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />Glasser declared that change is a direct result from motivation because of certa...
Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />In this process the therapist will hold up a mirror and ask, “what do you see fo...
Foundations of Psychology<br />	Throughout the final step of the process it the client is to make plans and take action. T...
Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />Dress for Success Tampa Florida: Who They are, What They Need, and How to Reach Out Argo...
Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />	Throughout history the business world was accessible for men only. It was considered a ...
Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />Background on Dress for Success Tampa Bay<br />    In 1998 Pat Ellington, discovered Dre...
Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />			   Problem Area/Challenges	DFSTB is a young organization that has much to improve for...
Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />			Potential Benefit for Growth    	Community outreach is an effort to connect an organi...
Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />	The location of the DFSTB is in a low income area. The neighborhood is very run down an...
Foundations of Psychology<br />History and Development of MMPIArgosy University<br />
Foundations of Psychology<br />	What is the best way to measure one’s personality? For many years, scientists have been de...
Foundations of Psychology<br />				    MMPIDevelopmentThroughout the late 1930’s, The Minnesota State Legislature provided...
Foundations of Psychology<br />Limitations	The original MMPI began with a pool item of 1000 questions drawn from case hist...
Foundations of Psychology<br />MMPI-2Current	The first major revision of the MMPI was the MMPI-2, which was standardized o...
Foundations of Psychology<br />	Individuals from ethnic or racial groups that were not included in the development or norm...
Foundations of Psychology<br />			          ReferencesBen-Porath, Y. S., Butcher J., & Graham, J. R. (1995). Methodologica...
Applied Psychology<br />Is there a possible Association between One’s Astrological Birth-date and their Individual Persona...
Applied Psychology<br />AbstractDomestic abuse is a critical and persistent problem in our society with no established sol...
Applied Psychology<br />	Throughout the centuries domestic abuse has been a persistent problem that has yet to find an abs...
Applied Psychology<br />	 Astrology does not limit individuals to being a certain way, and it does not predict everything ...
Applied Psychology<br />				    MethodParticipants	Female undergraduate students at Argosy University (N = 5) with a discl...
Applied Psychology<br />ProcedurePersonal comfort was of high-interest for each participant. Each participant chose the lo...
Applied Psychology<br />	The abuser ethnicities were the same of mixed race (Caucasian and African American). Each abuser ...
Applied Psychology<br />	 Many variables probably had a confounding effect on this study. The four participants whose rela...
Applied Psychology<br />				References Beattie, A (2005). Birthday Dictionary. Singapore: Thunder Bay Press.Barnes J., Cla...
Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:ENFPArgosy University <br />
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  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies e-Portfolio<br />Ebony Lopez<br />Psychology, 2009<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Personal Statement<br />Each chance I get to volunteer reaffirms my passion of making a difference in others lives. <br />Volunteeringhas enabled me to give back in ways I could not imagine. All throughout high<br />school, I took advantage of a variety of occasions to volunteer. I have continued to participate<br />in a variety of charities throughout my college education. My most rewarding experience was <br />participating in a t-ball buddy league. The children were either physically or mentally in-paired <br />which was the reason for each child receiving a buddy to help them take part in the t-ball <br />game. As a buddy I was required to help the child hit the ball, run around the bases, and most <br />of all have fun. The best part of each game was watching the children’s face light up as<br />they hit the ball or caught it. It was a wonderful experience to be able to participate in an <br />organization that allowed children with limitations feel free.<br /> Indoor Autism walk was another rewarding experience. Families from all over with children <br />with autism came to participate. Each child was given a buddy or friend to help them walk <br />around a simulate track. I was paired u with a little boy aged 7. I stayed very patient has he <br />warmed up to me and finally he held my had as we walked the track. All along the track were <br />different activities for the children to participate in like Clown balloon animals, a DJ to play <br />music and dance, firemen, and a moon bounce. He was so excited as we ventured to a new <br />activity. Looking back I always smile remembering his face and the experience we had <br />together. Nothing compare to being able to give back a little bit of yourself to others. I have <br />also been fortunate enough to participate I paint your heart out and food drives. It is the little<br />things that matter when I volunteer. <br />
  4. 4. Personal Statement<br />My professional development has been influenced by a multitude of factors that are not specifically related to psychology. Working in a range of different jobs has allowed me to work with a variety of people, learn leadership skills, and responsibility. Most of my jobs have revolved around customer service. I learned how to balance knowing what the customer may want or need in order to enhance customer satisfaction, yet retain myself worth and composure. I currently work at Fred Astair Dance Studio as an office manager and BCBG as an associate. Being an office manager is added time and responsibility that I have benefited from. The added pressure makes me realize I am ready for a career that is engaging and giving me a sense of rewards for what I can contribute. I have applied for behavior tech position to gain experience and do more than put clothes away or complete reports. I want to finally experience all that I have learned. In completing my bachelors, more opportunities will become available in order to work in my field of interest.<br />After completing my BA in psychology I want to attend graduate school. I always thought I would become a marriage and family counselor. Families have such a fascinating dynamic and have such an impact on who a person is. However, I believe with Marriage and Family the focus is too narrow and limits accessibility. This is why I want to go for a Master’s degree in Mental Health Counseling. This broad area of knowledge will enable me to develop a different techniques and methods to help an individual in additional to their family history and dynamics. I have the drive and enthusiasm for this field, but I must gain the knowledge to facilitate my ability to be able to make a difference in other lives. <br /> <br />
  5. 5. Resume<br />Ebony J. Lopez<br />7205 Five Point Circle Apt 103<br />Tampa, Florida 33634<br />386-837-1953<br />E-mail: Elopez9@tam.stu.argosy.edu<br />OBJECTIVE<br />To obtain a challenging and rewarding position whereas I may utilize my experience and <br />education to further my personal growth. <br />EDUCATION<br />2008-present<br />Argosy University<br /> - BA Psychology <br />SPECIAL SKILLS<br /> - Bilingual (English and Some Spanish)<br /> - Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, most excel<br /> - Proficient with typing<br /> <br />COMMUNITY AFFILIATIONS<br /> - Worked and participated in programs dealing with handicapped children<br /> - Presently part of a Diversity & Community Engagement Program at Argosy <br /> University- Presently interning at Community Tampa Bay<br />
  6. 6. Resume<br />Employment History<br /> * Server/Bartender <br />Cheapa Pizza <br />Orange City, FL <br />February 2003 – March 2008<br />386-774-9200<br /> Customer service<br /> Served food and beer <br /> Provide orientation for new employees<br /> Answered phone<br /> <br />* Black Jack and Roulette Dealer <br />Casino Party Orlando <br />Orlando, FL<br />March 2004 - Present<br />877-862-6052<br /> Dealer<br /> Entertain customers<br /> Provide orientation for new employees<br /> Development and implementation of new employee<br />programs<br /> <br />* Orlando Predators Dancer (Prowler)<br />Orlando Predators<br />Orlando, Florida<br />July 2005 – February 2007<br />407-447-3312<br /> Professional dancer<br /> Helped implement new choreography and training<br />programs for dancers<br /> Community and Charity events<br /> Helped create business relationships between other<br />companies and the Predators <br />* Receptionist<br />Fred Astaire Dance Studio<br />April 2008- Present <br />727-447-9885<br /> Office ManagerCustomer ServiceHandled Payments (cash box)<br />Filled out weekly report of Sales and Lead & Track system<br /> <br />* Retail Associate<br />BCBG Max Azria<br />March 2009 – Present<br />813-926-6382<br /> Shift ManagerHandle cash registerCustomer ServiceFill out weekly reports<br /> <br />
  7. 7. Reflection on Education<br />Argosy is unique university that adds a lot of benefits to its students. By unique I am implying not traditional. When I started at Argosy it was a two year completion school and emphasized it program for the working adult. Thus I have met individuals from all different kinds of walk in life. There is no cohesiveness in age or race, so the school is very divers in its population of students and teachers. Each class has been engaging with discussion on a range of topics. The teachers are been filled with professional experience and share. Their stories give me glimpse into a world I want to have and experience for myself. Engaging with individual s so passionate and enthusiastic about the field of psychology reaffirms my desire to pursue hire education towards develop my personal growth in this field. Here are Argosy I had the opportunity to help develop a Diversity & Community Engagement Program for the undergraduate program. I love to volunteer and get involve, thus this group was created to help the social interact and get involved in the community. It has been a wonderful experience that has help build my personal and professional development. <br />Argosy teachers and advisors are always testing and pushing their student for more. Discussions during class have allowed me to analyze complex issues in order to present and illustrate my perspective on a given issue. Written assignments are given for each class and have developed my writing skill extensively. Ethics and diversity understanding has exposed me to the knowledge that such principles and awareness goes beyond the field of psychology alone. Being in this program has expanded my knowledge of the world of psychology, but I know realize how large and dynamic it truly is. I can analyze and apply major concepts, yet I look forward to being able to fully comprehend a vast area of psychology rather than just the tip. Argosy is a practicum based school, so I have plenty of opportunity to engage and applied psychology. This program has given me several tools in order to prepare me for a world full of wonder. <br />
  8. 8. Table of Contents<br /><ul><li> Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking & Information Literacy : What are the characteristics that counselors should have to be effective in their field?
  9. 9. Research Skills: Prevention Strategies Towards Breaking the Cycle of Domestic Violence
  10. 10. Communication Skills: Oral & Written:Reality Therapy’s Beliefs to a Successful Therapeutic Process for the Client
  11. 11. Ethics & Diversity Awareness:Dress for Success Tampa Florida: Who They are, What They Need, and How to Reach Out
  12. 12. Foundations of Psychology:History and Development of MMPI
  13. 13. Applied Psychology:Is there a possible Association between One’s Astrological Birth-date and their Individual Personality traits that may Predispose them to certain Behaviors?
  14. 14. Interpersonal Effectiveness: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:ENFP</li></li></ul><li>Critical Thinking<br />What are the characteristics that counselors should have to be effective in their field?<br />Argosy University<br />
  15. 15. Critical Thinking<br />What are the characteristics that counselors should have to be effective in their field?<br /> The primary characteristic needed to be effective is to be people orientated. Each counselor is different and develops their own personality to incorporate into their session. A counselor needs to be familiar with their “self”. They need to understand their strengths and weakness. All humans are cursed with the burden of flaws; however, the drive for improvement gives meaning to life. A counselor’s unique background and experience in life will help them in accepting and interpreting the journey of life. Counselors are looked up to for understanding human behaviors and are expected to model society’s norms. Counselors are likely to have the basic principles needed like kindness, respect, understanding, and patience. They obviously are to be knowledgeable in their field of study and counseling. A well-rounded individual is needed to become an effective counselor. <br />
  16. 16. Research Skills<br />Prevention Strategies Towards Breaking the Cycle of Domestic Violence Argosy University <br />
  17. 17. Research Skills<br />Abstract For centuries societies deemed it acceptable for men to exhibit violence against their wives. These behaviors were acceptable because of the beliefs expressed through religion, philosophy, and law throughout the northern hemisphere. However, American society has evolved since those beliefs, yet breaking the pattern of domestic violence is extremely difficult. There are numerous supports that are developing a path of change which demonstrates how social service training, counseling, and education awareness are potential prevention strategies towards breaking the cycle of violence. Further research needs to continue within each of these areas in order to diminish the long lasting effect our society carries from domestic abuse.  <br />
  18. 18. Research Skills<br />Throughout the centuries, American societies deemed it acceptable for men to exhibit violence against their wives. This physical violence against wives was considered necessary for her &quot;well-being&quot;. It was in terms of a corrective discipline and chastisement of erring wives (Davis, 1972). A medieval Christian scholar publicized Rules of Marriage in the late 15th Century that specified: When you see your wife commit an offense, don&apos;t rush at her with insults and violent blows....Scold her sharply, bully and terrify her. And if this doesn&apos;t work...take up a stick and beat her soundly, for it is better to punish the body and correct the soul than to damage the soul and spare the body.... Then readily beat her, not in rage but out of charity and concern for her soul, so that the beating will redound to your merit and her good. (Davidson, 1978, p. 99)British common law later embraced, yet limited, the husband&apos;s authority to assault his wife by adopting a &quot;rule of thumb&quot; which allowed a man to beat his wife with a rod no thicker than his thumb. In contrast, in 1882, Maryland was the first state to pass a law that made wife-beating a crime, punishable by 40 lashes or a year in jail (Davidson, 1977). The phenomenon is widespread throughout the United States, and its effects can be long-lasting and life-threatening. Views of domestic violence have come a long way; however, it is still a frequent and prevalent problem in society. The appearance of Batterer Intervention Programs (BIPs) began in the late 1970’s and corresponded with the increase of services for victims of domestic abuse. The development of BIPs acknowledged that men should and could change their abusive behavior in a relationship. Nevertheless, breaking the pattern of domestic violence is extremely difficult. There are numerous supports that are developing a path of change which demonstrates how social service training, counseling, and education awareness are potential prevention strategies towards breaking the cycle of violence. <br />
  19. 19. Research Skills<br /> Social Service Training In order for social workers to promote change silence must be broken.Researchers indicate that domestic violence is a cross cultural issue. Consequently, social-workers and other helping professionals need to know about cultural values in order to assist victims of domestic abuse. Preventing intimate partner abuse is an important societal goal that requires accurate information about the types of violence women experience throughout their lives (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). Therefore, effective intervention and prevention strategies need to be incorporated on a number of factors to be successful. When intervening with domestic violence it requires workers to be aware of their attitudes and emotions about the topic and their various reactions when engaging with perpetrators or victims of partner violence. Goldbaltt and Buchbinder (2003) conducted a phenomenological study involving 20 Israeli female undergraduate social work practicum students. The 20 little females all participated in a year-long curriculum study about partner violence intervention. Their findings suggest that social work students become professionals in partner violence intervention. Also the students underwent significant positive transformations within their personal narratives. The students as well challenged gender roles and enhanced their understating of safety, control, and power issues inherent in domestic violence. The curriculum allowed the students to understand and set a standard towards recognizing and diminishing the cycle of the victimization.<br />
  20. 20. Research Skills<br />The authors offer several recommendations for further social work education and research. Although Goldbaltt and Buchbinder research was conducted on a small sample, the findings are important. Social Workers have constant interactions with domestic violence and by establishing a standard awareness can spread from the knowledge of the professional to the individual and future generations. Therapists are also professionals that interact with domestic violence, therefore are also a pivotal influence that can create change. Counseling Recently, there has been more attention given to the therapeutic issues and processes relevant to women survivors’ of spouse abuse. NiCarthy (1987) stressed that it is time to ask what intervention help women cope with an abusive relationship rather than what it is about her that got her there or that keeps her from leaving. Many women who seek supportive counseling to achieve changes in their lives have suffered a prolonged period of chronic abuse. The prolonged abuse can develop into physical and mental illnesses. These illnesses need to be treated properly and with correct interventions. Bonnie Russell and Max R. Uhlemann (1994) literature review examines a connection between grief and its relations towards the process of change. Grief research and theory view depression, guilt, and difficult decision-making as understandable and natural parts of the process of therapeutic change through grief. Counselors working with women who have lived with the trauma of spousal abuse have an opportunity to use intervention strategies to enrich understanding of loss and provide therapeutic change strategies for life transitions. In addition to the survivors of abuse intervention a new area that is beginning to be highlighted is treatment for the abuser. <br />
  21. 21. Research Skills<br /> It is believed that batterers choose their personal beliefs and attitudes that lead to accepting and committing violence. Tilley and Brackley (2005) performed a study through The Domestic Abuse Education Project that is based on domestic abuse interventions programs that incorporate pro-feminist and cognitive-behavioral approach for prevention. The participants were all males who where completing a mandatory Batterers’ Intervention and Prevention Program. After completing the twenty-seven session program, they were required to do a pre and post-test instrument which was developed and implemented to determine attitude change of the participants and isolate motivating factors to change behavior. Tilley and Brackley findings indicate a positive change in attitudes and motivational factors, among the male participants. Hence, this model in changing underlying batterer attitudes that provides rationale for abusive behavior. The authors indicate that the abusers understood, “…the effects of their abuse on their partner and children, that abuse is not right, and to improve the quality of their relationship with their partner” (Tilley & Brackley, 2005, p. 291).The intent of this study helps support a process of change that will enhance the safety of women and children. Children are very vulnerable and must be protected, thus potentially creating an environment (i.e. school) that all information would be available to them early could possibly help towards a better tomorrow for all.  <br />
  22. 22. Research Skills<br /> Education Awareness Research suggests that interpersonal violence is not limited to adults. Recognizing the need for early intervention is crucial for prevention strategies. Education is most effective in changing abusive behavior when it emphasizes that violence is not a normal and necessary part of interpersonal relationships (Becky & Farren, 1997). Several studies address only half of the problem by merely raising awareness of violence among young women. It is reported that men commit most of the assaults. A focus of education should teach young men nonviolent methods of handling anger, as well as how to behave respectfully within relationships.Partenheimer (2003) understood the necessity to involve adolescent boys and girls within his study. A study of 543 randomly children were selected and observed in a 20-year prospective research. Follow-up interviews were then conducted each year. Results indicated that the child’s behavior problems are important predictors of adult partner violence as well as exposure to violence between parents was also a risk factor for the children. An important point Partenheimer states is, “preventions programs should not just target boys since no sex differences were found in predictors of partner violence” (Partenheimer, 2003, p. 2). Awareness of this issue can possibly help prevent future consequences of partner violence. The findings have significant implications for preventative programs that begin before adolescence. For a change in the American society, it must start with those who are influencing tomorrow, the next generation. <br />
  23. 23. Research Skills<br /> Conclusion  Breaking the cycle of domestic violence is a challenge; however, if time and energy is focused on promoting awareness of domestic violence it could possibly intervene and minimize future abuse. Knowledge and education are key ingredients that can begin with one person and spread. Throughout history, domestic violence was accepted and believed to be a necessity. Today, societal beliefs have change and shifted the need for further research of domestic violence. Additional research must continue to possibly imagine life with respect and love for one another. A healthier way to live is possible for all, but education and knowledge to get there is needed first.  <br />
  24. 24. Research Skills<br /> ReferencesBecky, D., & Farren, P. M. (1997). Teaching student how to understand and avoid abusive relationships. School counselor, 44 (4), 303-308.Davidson, T. (1977). Battered women: A Psychological study of domestic violence. New York.Davidson, T. (1978). Conjugal Crime. New York: Hawthorn Books.  Davis, E. G. (1972). The first sex. Baltimore: Penguin Books.Nicarthy, G. (1987). Getting free. A handbook for women in abuse relationships, 2. Partenheimer, D. (2003). Findings suggest partner violence prevention programs should begin before adolescence. APA press release, 1-2.Russell, B. and Uhlemann, M. R. (1994). Women surviving an abusive relationship: Grief and the process of change. Journal of counseling and development, 72. 362-367.Tilley, D. S. and Brackley, M.(2005). Men who batter intimate partner: A grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner. Issues in mental health, 26, 281-297. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Health people 2010: Understanding and improving health (2).  <br />
  25. 25. Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />Reality Therapy’s Beliefs to a Successful Therapeutic Process for the ClientArgosy University<br />
  26. 26. Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br /> In life one comes to the realization that one ultimately has a choice about everything. In America, we truly have the luxury to choose just about any and everything from how we present ourselves, who we vote for president, freedom of speech and the list goes on. However, with such luxury comes a great extent of responsibility. A popular saying states that, “we are the master’s of our own ship”. We are the captain and the ship represents our body, the vessel that allows us to live life while the ocean signifies life with all the crests and waves. At times, our “ocean” looks beautiful and smooth, allowing us to see for miles on end.  However, in the blink of an eye, this beautiful scene can turn ugly, surrounding our lives with clouds and “choppy waters.”  As the captain we control and steer the ship, so we have the choice to go right or left. Although this is a metaphor these are the basic ideas for what was once known as Control Theory. William Glasser was a practicing psychiatrist in the 1960’s. He rejected the founding theories of psychology like Freudian model, because he noticed, “we are all responsible for what we choose to do” (Corey, 2005 p. 315). In this reflection and 20 years later he changed the theories name to Choice theory, which is now known as Reality Theory. Reality therapy aims to create an environment beneficial towards developing a satisfactory relationship between the therapist and client, and in this environment the client will learn and understand the “WEDP” system in order to obtain a satisfying life.              Reality therapy states we are born with five genetically encoded needs and these needs drive us our entire lives. The five needs are survival, love and belonging, power or achievement, freedom or independence, and fun. In order to have a fulfilling life all these needs to be satisfied. Love and belonging is our primary need because we are social creatures that need both to receive and give love (Corey, 2005). Based on this known understanding of our needs it is crucial for the therapist to establish a satisfying relationship with the client. In order to develop a satisfying relationship a proper counseling environment must be created. The environment must be supportive in order to encourage the client to begin and make life changes. This creates a safe place for the client to feel free to try new behaviors. Just like a satisfactory relationship the environment gives the client a fair, firm, friendly and trusting therapeutic process. Creating this security and honesty in the environment will allow the client to embrace therapeutic style and learn the necessary qualities towards developing a satisfying relationship.<br />
  27. 27. Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br /> Reality therapy intends to take out all the mystery and uncertainty of most other therapeutic relationships. In the therapeutic practice the emphasis of the relationship is understanding and supportiveness from the therapist. The therapist will also need to bring personal qualities unique and genuine to them, thus encouraging the client to become involved in the process. Throughout this therapy the therapist is considered the teacher and the client the student. In this relationship the client is constantly learning thus when they begin to realize, “they can control only their own behavior, therapy is under way” (Corey, 2005 p. 324). In Reality Therapy there is no labeling with diagnosis unless for insurance purposes. According to Glasser all diagnoses are descriptions of behaviors hence people choose these behaviors to deal with unsatisfied needs (Corey, 2005).  At times it may become difficult for the client to accept this idea and growth may become halted. This then becomes the duty of the therapist to challenge the client as well as instill the sense of hope. In this hope the client learns to value of their actions and need for change. Together the cycle of counseling occurs through creating the needed environment that helps implementing specific procedures to change the client’s behavior.             Once this connection is made between the therapist and the client they are able to reach set goals. The main goal is always to learn to fulfill his or her needs properly. In developing this connection with the client they learn to become connected or reconnect with those who they choose to have in their life. Satisfying this need covers one primary need of love and belonging. Each individual is different therefore need satisfaction level varies. It is important to establish early in session what their needs are. This will assist the client become aware of what behaviors are preventing them from gaining what they want. Change is a process and it is important to remember that it is also a choice. Through this process, clients learn that things do not just happen (Corey, 2005). In order to obtain these goals there are certain procedures to help the client understand and accept their choice’s to gain the needs they want. <br />
  28. 28. Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />Glasser declared that change is a direct result from motivation because of certain behavior we are not gaining what we want thus realize doing a different behavior we can become closer to what we want. This seems like a quite simple realization; however, implementing this understanding is a process. The “WDEP” system is a set of procedures that help promote change. Each letter refers to a set of techniques: “W = wants and needs; D = direction and doing; E = self-evaluation; and P = planning” (Corey, 2005 p. 325). Each set of technique help the client become more aware of their choice and responsibilities to promote change.               We all have wants and need; however, it is how we choose to meet those needs that create the problem. Throughout this step the therapist will frequently ask the client, “what do you want?”  This process encourages the patient to recognize, define, and refine how they meet their wants and needs. Understanding their perception of the external world is crucial towards progress. This step in the process allows the client to question their present behavior. Timing of question is important on the therapist part (Corey, 2005). As their teacher the therapist has an obligation to be aware of the client’s behaviors. Once the client becomes aware of their wants and needs, they are able to start creating a direction and start doing. .<br />
  29. 29. Communication Skills: Oral & Written<br />In this process the therapist will hold up a mirror and ask, “what do you see for yourself now and in the future?”  This allows the client to evaluate what they are doing and develop new directions for change. There is a strong focus on the behavior rather than feelings. It is believed that, “it is easier to change what we are doing and thinking than to change our feelings” (Corey, 2005 p. 326). Feelings are subjective and can not produce tangible results thus the focus is on behavior. One may be upset because their car broke down and staying at home is a constant reminder of the fact. If they choose they could call a friend to go out thus change their behavior from sitting at home to going out. Although they are still upset about their car, they have created new feelings that coincided with the new behavior. This is the reasoning that the Reality therapist will focus on what the client is doing and their feelings if it is linked to what they are doing. Therapy can be a short process because as finding are made in therapy; new directions are immediately implemented outside of therapy. This creates instant result to find what does and does not work to satisfy the client’s needs.  The therapist is constantly asking the client questions to help engage them in the process of evaluation. Self-evaluation is not an easy task therefore the therapist is there to help guide with their present behavior and the direction it is taking them by evaluating each component of the client’s entire behavior (Corey, 2005). Becoming aware of the value of their actions will help to make effective choices. Some clients may need more direction because they are unable to notice when their behaviors are ineffective. If and when the client is capable to notice the differences and decide on new directions, it is necessary for the therapist to check if it is realistic. Self-evaluation is a constant process throughout therapy and an essential tool for the client to gain and use outside of therapy. <br />
  30. 30. Foundations of Psychology<br /> Throughout the final step of the process it the client is to make plans and take action. This step is similar to direction and doing but there is less talking about what to do and rather making choices. This is an exploration of different behavior to fulfill their wants and needs (Corey, 2005). Making a plan is the starting point and the end is fulfillment. The therapist needs to keep the client aware that falling for the plan or having a behavior not work is essential to progress and finding what will be the necessary changed behavior. This is the point where it is important for the therapist to keep hope going for the client. It is believed that client gain an effective control over their lives when a plan has certain characteristics. Some of the characteristics are to ensure the plan is within limits of the clients motivations and capabilities, simple and understandable, have a positive course of action, are carried out as soon as possible and always, always the therapist should check if the plan is realistic. Even with a effective plan it is only effective if the client is commitment toward carrying out the plan outside of therapy. However, it should be understood that, “commitment is not an all-or-nothing matter; it exists in degrees” (Corey, 2005 p. 328). Reality Therapy creates the environment to gain love and belonging. It also allows one learn how to choose effectively through the “WDEP” system. Thus, one becomes aware of what they are able and willing to do in order to change and gain their desired needs and wants. Reality therapy does not solve all of the different possibly psychological problems, but it is grounded in good concepts. As my own captain I realize, no one said steering the ship would be easy. There are oblivious limitations to such responsibility, but I guess that is all in how one chooses to see it. ReferenceCorey, G. (2005). Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. Belmont: Thomson Learning<br />
  31. 31. Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />Dress for Success Tampa Florida: Who They are, What They Need, and How to Reach Out Argosy University<br />
  32. 32. Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br /> Throughout history the business world was accessible for men only. It was considered a man’s world. Certain men of high status would wear a suit as a symbol of that so-called &quot;man&apos;s world.&quot; For years, women were discriminated upon as lesser to the male force and only within recent years women have been allowed the opportunity to enter into the business world as equals to their male counterparts. However, suits are still utilized as symbols of success, but it has yet to be determined what exactly it is that makes these suits more powerful than a pair of jeans or khakis. Is it the cut, maybe the fabric, or is it the name brand of the designer? Although there are many embellishments that add to a suit presentation, it is what the suit represents that gives it it&apos;s power.  While style and fashion has become a large part of the business world, its the representation of empowerment and success that truly defines a suit.  A suit is an obvious and crucial part to an adult&apos;s professional development and career. However, a good suit is not affordable to those whom are less fortunate. A non-profit organization called Dress for Success Tampa Bay (DFSTB) realized the value and empowerment of a good suit. They understand that women have this need for a nice suit and realize that some women do not have the means to purchase these suits, so they target the demographic of disadvantaged women. This organization supplies more than just a suit for these women, they also give them tools to develop their career and improve their lives as a whole. Like any other company, Dress for Success Tampa Bay has several challenges in which they need to overcome, but with their goals and astonishing organization that offers a variety of amenities to financially-challenged women, they look to overcome these hurdles.<br />
  33. 33. Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br />Background on Dress for Success Tampa Bay<br />    In 1998 Pat Ellington, discovered Dress for Success in a People Magazine article. Learning about all the benefits this organization offered, she realized the potential advantages of such an organization like this in the Tampa Bay area. Shortly after, the Tampa Bay location was established as the first in Florida. Katie McGill is the current executive director and is very passionate and enthusiastic about the organization. She  truly believes in all the amenities they offer for disadvantaged women and hopes with time, they can continue to grow and even better serves for these deserving women. Each of the services offered are free to all clients.  However, in order to become a client a woman must be referred by one of the many community agencies associated with DFSTB. Once they become a client is when the journey of personal development begins from the outside in. <br /> Developing their professional attire is the first step of many in their development. Each client is given a personal shopper to help determine the best and appropriate attire for her. The attire is to ensure a proper first impression to obtain or maintain a career they desire. If a woman does not have employment DFSTB helps to develop necessary tools towards obtaining a career. These tools are confidence and self esteem training, resume building, and an invitation to the Professional Women’s Group. The Professional Women’s Group is meant to empower the women towards continuing their professional and personal development. Although this organization has many advantages offered, there are many challenges they are working to overcome. <br />
  34. 34. Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br /> Problem Area/Challenges DFSTB is a young organization that has much to improve for future growth. Ms. McGill had a list of needs for the organization which varied from technology to business cards for the women in the Professional Women’s Group. They want to be able to help everyone that comes into their facility. However, often when demands are high supplies are therefore limited. As with most organizations, a crucial need is funding and donations. Two areas that they would benefit most from is more drop off locations and a larger variety of sizes in their clothes.   Addressing these areas of need would expand their opportunity to help the women. Currently, donation drop-offs are primarily set by appointments only at their location in Tampa. By having set locations speared through out the Tampa and into the St. Petersburg/Clearwater area would allow for more clothes to circulate into their establishment. In increasing the availability of more clothes the potential for larger sizes would also become possible. Size 18-20 is not an easy size to obtain through donations and with more donations available, these sizes might possibly be better addressed. Besides more drop off locations, they could target plus size stores for apparel drives. By addressing one area of need they could potentially increase other areas for growth.  Ultimately, DFSTB would benefit the most from community outreach. <br />
  35. 35. Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br /> Potential Benefit for Growth    Community outreach is an effort to connect an organization’s ideas and amenities to the general public. Outreach is about education framed around engagement. This focused framing can help develop awareness for the organizations&apos; mission, set goals and benefits. Before the personal tour of DFSTB, I had never heard of their establishment. Public involvement is integral towards decreasing and eventually eliminating all of their needs. Community outreach could improve volunteer numbers, more donation opportunities for funds like scholarships, clothes and technology amenities. Pat Ellington was an example of how one woman has made a difference and thus lends to the idea of what could happen if many women got involved.       A potential community outreach project would be to revamp the outside of the facility. People have an internal yearn to give back to their community. By allowing the society to get involved in sprucing up a charity that contributes so much would increase the awareness for DFSTB. Volunteers could be recruited from all over and once a date was established, supplies could be donated by sponsors or the volunteers. At the event each volunteer would be given a shirt for participating. This shirt could be worn again and could potentially become a conversation starter about their experiences. Word of mouth is very powerful.     <br />
  36. 36. Ethics & Diversity Awareness<br /> The location of the DFSTB is in a low income area. The neighborhood is very run down and unappealing. Based on the appearance of the location it can be interpreted as unsafe. All of these issues could possibly deter anyone for going to or working with this establishment. The outside and inside of the building need to be revamped. There is a park for recreation right next to it. It is very run down and this too could be enhanced. By adding color and cleaning up the park, may draw much needed attention their way. A sign stating the establishment name is needed and could be created by the volunteers. By doing these improvements with the communities help would help develop interest with the people involved, as well as those driving by during and after the revamp. Non-profit organizations run on 95% volunteers, thus necessitating community outreach. Conclusion DFSTB is commendable establishment working hard to satisfy and improve the lives of disadvantaged women in this area. All of their amenities should not go unrecognized. By promoting their name and mission, they can improve and overcome the several challenges they face today. It is quite impressive how clothes can change a person and their life to a new world filled with possibilities.  <br />
  37. 37. Foundations of Psychology<br />History and Development of MMPIArgosy University<br />
  38. 38. Foundations of Psychology<br /> What is the best way to measure one’s personality? For many years, scientists have been debating this and have yet to come to a conclusion. Before the development of The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), various personality assessment techniques were devised. The introduction of projective tests, like the Rorschach Inkblot, test was often used by psychologists to assess personality and mental illness. These assessments were created on a rational basis, with item statements resulting on a basis of reflecting obvious psychiatric symptoms/disease or significant psychological trait. Expanding the influence of the psychoanalytic approach during and after World War II would greatly consolidate wide-spread popularity of projective testing (Grab, Lilienfeld, & Wood, 2001). Criticism began to arise when a need for standardize procedures became an importance throughout the field of psychology. New tests, like the MMPI, were established to measure the complex dynamic of personality, thus helping to promote psychology as a scientific discipline. The MMPI is known as, “the most researched personality test in the world” (Graham, 2000). The MMPI and the revised MMPI-2 are highly recognized tests that measure personality that have advance psychology and the benefit of personality testing. <br />
  39. 39. Foundations of Psychology<br /> MMPIDevelopmentThroughout the late 1930’s, The Minnesota State Legislature provided funds to establish a psychiatric unit at the University of Minnesota Hospital. A rationale for a new diagnostic instrument was created by Starke R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinley (Buchanan, 1994). Retracing the institutional background of the MMPI’s development reveals its construct as a medically- oriented classification technology. The need for such a test was generated by the intersecting benefit of psychiatry and clinical psychology. Establishing a practical baseline for evaluating treatment efficiency provided a strong incentive for development of the MMPI. McKinley and Hathaway focused on the test’s potential to standardize psychiatric diagnosis. MMPI was then designed to measure a number of the major patterns of personality and emotional disorders while using an empirical keying approach (Buchanan, 1994). This approach used clinical scales defined by selecting items that were observed by patients known to have been diagnosed with certain pathologies. A norming group helped define the clinical scales, as well as hindered the MMPI.<br />
  40. 40. Foundations of Psychology<br />Limitations The original MMPI began with a pool item of 1000 questions drawn from case histories, psychological reports, textbooks, and existing tests of medical and neuropsychologist. Eventually, the item pool was narrowed to 504 that were thought to be relatively independent. The norming group was composed of about 400 patients at the University of Minnesota Hospital who had been diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. The control group was comprised of around 700 individuals who were relatives or visitors of patients at the hospital (Karp & Karp, 2008). A large source of criticism for the MMPI was the choice of its control group because such a small number has the possibility of limiting the ability to generalize. Established by the norming group the MMPI was intended for the adult population, yet enhanced to include teenagers (ages 15-16). A sixth-grade reading level was necessary to take the test. This standard also restricted the test’s ability to be generalized. Age is an important factor because children below the age of 13 or those mentally delayed are unable to take the test (Karp & Karp, 2008). Although the MMPI was a revolutionary test, its shortcomings led to a revision in 1982.<br />
  41. 41. Foundations of Psychology<br />MMPI-2Current The first major revision of the MMPI was the MMPI-2, which was standardized on a new national sample of adults in the United States and released in 1989. The purpose of the MMPI-2 was to expand and update the norms; revise items that were out of date, sexist, or problematic; and broaden the item pool to extend the range of constructs one could evaluate. In turn, this helped provide more useful, better descriptive diagnostic information relevant to current test-takers today (Karp & Karp, 2008). It is commonly used by mental health professionals to assess and diagnose mental illness while also being utilized in other fields outside of psychology. Also, the test is used in legal cases, including criminal defense and custody disputes. It has also been used as a screening instrument for certain professions, especially high risk careers. As with all new areas of research, the MMPI-2 has fallen victim to much scrutiny. Limitations  Although the MMPI was revised in 1989, a large portion of the original MMPI is contained in the MMPI-2. The traditional validity scales (L, F, and K) and the 10 clinical scales are essentially the same as they were in the original instrument. These scales were kept intact in the MMPI-2 to ensure a connection between the two versions of the instrument for clinical and research purposes. Therefore, similar limitations still hinder the revised version. Individual differences still remain a crucial issue that to this day; remain unresolved (Ben-Porath, Butcher, &Graham, 1995). <br />
  42. 42. Foundations of Psychology<br /> Individuals from ethnic or racial groups that were not included in the development or norming of the original MMPI-2, therefore causing a concern that the test might be biased against such members. However, early studies suggested important MMPI-2 differences between ethnic and racial group participants and majority participants. Later research indicated that MMPI-2 differences between these groups were minimal when the groups were equated for socioeconomic status (Ben-Porath, Butcher, &Graham, 1995). In other words, equality is a concerning issues with administering this test. Conclusion Standardized tests similar to the MMPI have played a decisive role toward the development and growth of the psychology field. The MMPI and MMPI-2 have many contributions as well as limitations. Though the battle remains unsettled, each milestone is slowly perpetuating the research and science toward the right test that can be specialized for each person and their specific needs. The allowance and growth established from understanding such tests will help alleviate the aforementioned scrutiny while also providing us with a test that will more efficiently measure the numerous aspects of a personality.<br />
  43. 43. Foundations of Psychology<br /> ReferencesBen-Porath, Y. S., Butcher J., & Graham, J. R. (1995). Methodological Prolems and Issus in MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMMPI-A Rearch. Psychological Assessment, 7 (3), 320-329.Buchanan, R. D. (1994). The development of the minnesotamultiphasic personality inventory. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Science, 30 (148-161).Grab, H. N., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Wood, J. M. (2001). What’s wrong with this picture? www.Sciam.com, 81-87.Graham, J. R. (2000). MMPI-2: Assessing Personality and Psychopathology (3). NewYork: Oxford University PressKarp, C. L., & Karp, L. (2008). MMPI: Questions to ask. www.falseallegations.com.<br />
  44. 44. Applied Psychology<br />Is there a possible Association between One’s Astrological Birth-date and their Individual Personality traits that may Predispose them to certain Behaviors?Argosy University<br />
  45. 45. Applied Psychology<br />AbstractDomestic abuse is a critical and persistent problem in our society with no established solution. In noting such, there is a possible association between one’s astrological birth-date and their individual personality traits that may predispose them to specific behaviors (i.e. - domestic abuse). Five female undergraduate students at Argosy University volunteered to disclose their experiences with domestic abuse for an interview survey. The survey was brief, addressing general demographic information and five specific questions regarding domestic abuse. Results were limited based on the narrow selection of participants. The information obtained throughout the study was impossible to determine if the hypothesis was supported or rejected. Further research is needed in this area of interest. <br />
  46. 46. Applied Psychology<br /> Throughout the centuries domestic abuse has been a persistent problem that has yet to find an absolute solution. Numerous studies have been conducted to emphasize the damage domestic violence can have on a person as well as potential preventative techniques. Another integral area of research is the connection of domestic violence as a learned behavior from childhood as a victim or a witness to abuse. These findings are highly supported. A new potential area of interest is personality characteristics which may be evaluated with objective tests. However, several studies have been conducted to test a relationship between seasons of birth and personality aspects. One highly recognized measure is the possible influences of the zodiac on individual personality characteristics. There are those who assume that significant aspects of the personality can be predicted on the bias of the positions of the planets at the moment of birth (Hume, 1977). Astrology is not a modern invention; it only dates back a few centuries. The zodiac is the belt or band of constellations through which the Sun, Moon, and planets travel across the sky. Astrologers noted these constellations thus attaching a particular significance to them. Over time, they developed the system of twelve signs of the zodiac (Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces). These twelve constellations were considered influential on human nature. Popular recognition suggests that the perceived accuracy of astrological interpretations and descriptions of one&apos;s personality are becoming highly supported (Barnes, Clarke, and Gabriels, 1996).<br />
  47. 47. Applied Psychology<br /> Astrology does not limit individuals to being a certain way, and it does not predict everything about their personality. Astrology does help in explaining the energy in each individual’s life and the potential challenges and possibilities. Each Zodiac sign represents different profile characteristics (refer to Appendix A for description of each). All information is essentially derived based on the individual’s birth-date. In other words, a crucial aspect to learn about Astrology is can individuals make a choice between free will and destiny (predisposed personality traits). Domestic abuse is strongly associated as a learned behavior, however there are those who are exposed to these environments yet throughout their life never depict such behaviors. Astrology could help differentiate personality traits to explain why certain individuals do or do not. Although the negative attitude toward astrology is largely shared by the scientific community, the proposition is an empirically testable one (Hume, 1977). Taking these ideas into consideration, there is a possible association between one’s astrological birth-date and their individual personality traits that may predispose them to certain behaviors (i.e. - domestic abuse). <br />
  48. 48. Applied Psychology<br /> MethodParticipants Female undergraduate students at Argosy University (N = 5) with a disclosed history of domestic violence were asked to participate in this study. Participants’ ages ranged from 19 - 25 years, with a mean of 22.4 (SD = 2.3). The relationships were all heterogeneous (male/female). A majority of 60% of the individuals were Hispanic (2 Puerto Rican and 1 Columbian), whereas 40% were that of a mixed race (Caucasian and African American). One of the participants was still involved in their relationship going on four plus years. The mean (N = 4) relationship length was 2.5 years and none of the women were married or had any children. All of the participants disclosed various dynamics of physical and verbal/emotional abuse throughout their relationship. The participant’s birth-dates indicate there were two Gemini (May 22 - June 21) and three Libras (September 24 to October 23). Gemini is described as, the sign of the Twins; it is dual-natured and is described to have the grace and faults of the young. Libra’s, the scales is the only inanimate sign of the zodiac, all the others representing either humans or animals. The symbol associated with your sign, the scales, represent a continual seek of the balance between self and life (Beattie, 2005). Each participant knew of Astrology and believed the zodiac sign represented them well. All information was obtained by the survey interview.MaterialAll items for the questionnaire were written by the author. Each individual participated in a short survey (refer to Appendix B for more details). The survey was designed to collect general demographic information of the survivors and the abusers. Five questions specifically asked related information in regards to their intimate relationship and abuse. <br />
  49. 49. Applied Psychology<br />ProcedurePersonal comfort was of high-interest for each participant. Each participant chose the location in which the survey would be conducted to ensure such. Confidentiality was discussed prior to administering the survey and each survey was conducted in an intimate interview setting. The author was the interviewer for each participant. No prior training was set or believed necessary to obtain and administer these surveys. Each interview estimated 20-minutes in length and each question was cited verbatim during survey as it had been written. The participants’ responses were written as stated. For open-ended questions, paraphrasing was used to assure accuracy of disclosed information. Results The participant’s birth-dates were two Gemini and three Libra. In astrology these two sign have a similar characteristic of a positive, diurnal or masculine sign that refers to any of the six odd-numbered signs of the zodiac: Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius or Aquarius. The abuser’s birth-dates ranged between five of the twelve Zodiac signs: Virgo, Capricorn, Taurus, Cancer, and Scorpio. These five signs fall under a negative, receptive, nocturnal, passive or feminine sign refers to any of the six even-numbered signs of the zodiac: Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn or Pisces (Standen, 1975). The results were obvious that the participants had similar astrological birth-dates compared to the abusers; also an interesting fact was that Gemini and Libra are considered compatible to each other as are the abusers signs to one another. <br />
  50. 50. Applied Psychology<br /> The abuser ethnicities were the same of mixed race (Caucasian and African American). Each abuser had a history of child abuse in their upbringing stated by the participants. Capricorn, Taurus, Cancer, and Scorpio are represented by a type of animal except Virgo. Virgo is the only zodiacal sign represented by a female (Beattie, 2005). More information would be necessary to attest if their Zodiac sign represented them. The sample size was too small to support or reject the hypotheses of a potential connection between astrological birth-date and personality characteristics. The limitations of the results for this study are disappointing thus making it impossible to state any relationship. This is a pilot study because further research and a larger sample size are needed to evaluate and determine any influential details. Discussion Astrologers have argued that there are significant obstacles in carrying out scientific research into astrology today, including lack of funding, lack of background in science and statistics by astrologers, and insufficient expertise in astrology by research scientists and skeptics (Kelly, Mckerracher, and Saklofske 1982). This pilot study could encourage new research for domestic violence. Five participants were asked to participate in a survey about their history of domestic abuse. All individuals were willing to disclose all the necessary information to benefit the study. However, the sample size limited the results for this study. As stated earlier, the hypotheses cannot be supported or rejected based on the information obtained. Also, a larger sample size could increase the ability to generalize as such. <br />
  51. 51. Applied Psychology<br /> Many variables probably had a confounding effect on this study. The four participants whose relationship had ended with their abusers were a few years past thus had some hesitation in their answers of the birth-date for the abuser. The slight uncertainty can skew the results of the study if the date is incorrect in any way. Another variable that should be considered for this and future similar studies is whether or not the birth-dates were natural or induced. Astrological effect is a sparse area of research and is fairly dated for most studies. One study done by J, Barnes, D. Clarke, and T. Gabriels (1996) replicated a study to test astrological signs as determinants of extroversion and emotionality. The finding stated that the astrological theory is incorrect in claiming that astrological signs predispose individual traits. They closed their argument with an interesting perspective that stated, “evidence from twin and adoption studies suggest that it is more likely that there is some biological predisposition toward these traits that can be modified by environmental influences” (Barnes, Clark, and Gabriels, 1996, p. 139). This study will end in similar fashion because all five of the participant’s abusers either witnessed or was a victim of child abuse. This particular variable is a strong factor towards their personality and behavior. It obviously appears that astrology remains a theory with a set of hypotheses requiring rigorous and systematic investigation and comparison with alternative theories of human behavior. All areas should be evaluated in order to potentially obtain a solution. <br />
  52. 52. Applied Psychology<br /> References Beattie, A (2005). Birthday Dictionary. Singapore: Thunder Bay Press.Barnes J., Clarke D., & Gabriels T. (1996) Astrological signs as determinants of extroversion and emotionality: An empirical study. The Journal of Psychology, 130(2), 131-140. Hume, N. (1977). Is there an association between astrological data and personality? Journal of Clinical Psychology.Kelly, I. W., Mckerracher, D. W., & Saklofske, D. H., (1982). An empirical study of personality and astrological factors. The Journal of Psychology, 110, 275-280.Standen, A. (1975). Is there an astrological effect of personality? The journal of psychology, 89, 259-260. <br />
  53. 53. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:ENFPArgosy University <br />
  54. 54. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> ENFP  After taking the Myer-Briggs type indicator I discovered that my type was ENFP. I must say that they hit the nail on the head. This type accurately depicts who I am or how I prefer to be. I am proud to say I “represent approximately five percent of the American population.” (Tieger, 1986) E represents Extraversion. E individuals, like me, thrive off of the outside world that is around them. These are the individual who coin the phrase, “full of life”, “happy go lucky”, and many more along those lines. I have always been an enthusiastic child and had to be involved with the here and now. As an adult I realize how easily I get bored in still situation. I have worked in a restaurant and for the most part it is extremely busy filled with a wide range of people coming in and out. At times when it is slow I have a sense of lost and feel uncomfortable. I tend to get very antsy in hopes a customer will come and once this customer does my spirit is lifted and I feel clam. I look forward to talking and exchanging stories and experiences with these customers. In the first week I discovered how crucial social interaction was for me. I feed off social interaction and find comfort in numbers. It is oblivious that I am extraverted and this helps tie into N part of my personality.   N represents iNtuitive. N individuals see all different types of possibilities in situations and through out life. Everything is primarily based of their intuition. These two aspects of my personality tie together because my drive to experiences life inspires my ideas and desires. I have realized that when I feel good my creative juices are following. I like to express my emotions and creativity in different ways. All through my life I make moments to create poems, art and craft projects. A personal project I enjoy making is my scrapbooks of special moments. The scrapbooks depict and the different experiences in life that I have journey through. Each page is different, full of color and highly elaborate in design. My intuition has helped me see the beauty of life to be able to express it on paper. Through my gut I base all my emotions, thus I am extreme in touched with my feelings.<br />
  55. 55. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> F represents Feeling. Feeling individuals make judgments and all decisions on how they feel. I am happy because I feel good, I am sad because I feel misunderstood and etc. Their feelings are based on their surroundings involving people, situations, and life in general. How I feel determine everything from my mood, actions, and choices. I have always been highly sensitive towards others and even their emotions. I love to watch all types of movies humor, horror, mystery, and so on. I am one of those people that jump at all the expected moments during the movie. I become very in touched with the emotions of the characters. I relate to all happy and sad moment. It is always like the flood gates have open when my tears begin to fall. It is instinctive for me to believe and feel the emotions the characters in these movies are experiencing. I ache when they ache, I laugh when they laugh. I feel like a sponge at times how I embrace and feel all these emotions.  P represents Perceiving. P individuals are for the coined phrased. They embrace all the different possibilities of life, not wanting to miss a beat. They are spontaneous and find routine to be a bore. I tend to act before I can think. I perceive and look forward to what ever door or window may open. Each opportunity is filled with possibilities. I live a extremely active lifestyle. As I stated before I can get bored easily and like to have and be doing something, anything. Just recently my schedule was so hectic I look back and wonder how I kept up. I was a full time student taking 4 classes during the week. I was working three jobs. I was a waitress, worked in retail and a dealer for the casino. I also dance on an arena football team. I was required to practice twice a week on top of personal workout during the week. I had a loving and supportive boyfriend that required and needed my time. I would participate in regular volunteer work here in town. I never knew up from down; yet I manage to jump from one activity to the other with out losing my mind. Variety excites me thus how I perceive my journey through life.<br />
  56. 56. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> The strengths this type allows me to obtain are personable skills, a constant drive towards life, and creativity. ENFP preferred to interact and live life first handed. I feel comfortable in social settings. My personable skills have proved my interest in people. I have chosen and am pursuing a degree that requires a constant interaction to help others. I value and hope to use my skills to better the future and help grow tomorrow. I learn and witness at an early age the rewards being driven towards a goal. My drive has gained me much success in life. I want a full and happy life and I plan to settle for nothing less. Being an ENFP one is filled with ideas. The beauty of life is inspiring.   Three main weakness in part of being an ENFP is restless constantly, generosity, and my prioritization. ENFP’s tend to be highly active and I should know. When I become bored I tend to regress back to my childish ways. I become antsy and annoy. This is a weakness because not all moment are filled with excitement and I need to learn a proper level of expectation. Another fault of this type of personality is my generosity. I can never say no. For other I am kind, yet it can come at a cost to myself. I always want to help and tend to put myself last. This leads to my priorities. Either I am trying to do a little bit of everything and it can get overwhelming or I put everyone first and myself on the back burner. The beauty of weaknesses is once you accept having them; you can work to improve them.  Self awareness is a difficult task to obtain. In life it is important to understand ones strength and weakness. The Myers Briggs test allows me to have a visual of my preferred personality behaviors. With this knowledge gain a better understanding as well as know ENFP’s are five percent of the population. All of these quality will yield me towards obtain my future goals of higher education and life.  Reference: Tieger, P. (1986). Career/Life Profile: ENFP.<br />
  57. 57. My Future in Learning<br />The purpose of learning is growth, and our minds, unlike our bodies, can continue growing as we continue to live. ~Mortimer Adler<br />Life is dynamic, thus we must forever learn!<br />
  58. 58. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the email address below. <br />Elopez9@tam.stu.argosy.edu<br />

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