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After working on needs analysis, goals and
objectives, and tests, curriculum developers
need to work on materials development.
Materials is defined as any systematic
description of the techniques and exercises to
be used in classroom teaching.
The key : ensure that they are described and
organized well enough so that teachers can use
them with no confusion.
Framework for Materials Design
There must be some kind of theoritical motivation
underlying any curriculum development. (Anthony
1963; Richard & Rogers 1982; McKay 1978)
Such motivations is called approaches; ways of
defining what the students need to learn based on
assumptions and theoritical positions drawn from
e.g classical approach, grammar-translation
approach, direct approach, audiolingual approach,
Syllabuses are concerned with the choice
necessary to organize the language content of a
course or a program.
The information gathered from needs analysis
will help to determine the direction that a
particular syllabus will go.
e.g structural, situational, topical, functional,
notional, skills, task or activity based
Techniques are ways of presenting language
points to students.
Presentation typically includes various
combination of interaction between T&S, S&S,
Cassete player&S, etc.
e.g example video tape showing a native speaker
describing various commonly encountered
objects; analysis of models of good writing, etc.
Exercises are ways of having the students
practice the language points thay have been
Language can be practiced in many ways : L to
L, L to T, L to group, L to class, etc.
Types of Exercises
A set of guidelines for teachers.
Made by gathering teachers’s point of
view and information from the previous
stages (needs analysis, objectives setting,
and testing stages.
It can be used as a manual which describe
the program and it’s curriculum for teachers.
It contains definition of the program, clients
to be served, delivery, intensity, content,
outcome, and special considerations.
Materials Blueprint Checklist
Overall curriculum description
A description of a program’s needs
A decription of goals and objectives
Units of Analysis
Syllabus design theory has been an active area of
investigation within applied linguistics for many
The conceptions of the nature of a syllabus are related
to the approaches to language and language learning
processes to which the curriculum designers and
program participants subscribe.
Under the influence of prescriptive, grammar-based
approaches to language learning, syllabuses have
tended to be expressed in more communicative terms.
Scope and Sequence Charts
Closely related to syllabus design is the
question of deciding what kind of
organizational framework to adopt for
developing materials. The syllabus should be
thought out in terms of units of analysis and
then in terms of curriculum scope and
Some overall curriculum plan that specifies the
techniques that will be used should be developed.
A formalized lock-step
with lesson plan that
detail every minute of
This curriculum may be
viewed as stifling /
inflexible, because it is
difficult to revise and
A curriculum that a
teacher plans on the
spur of the moment.
Highly flexible and
easily respond to
needs for change.
One useful technique for representing
the different steps involved in large-
scale materials development and
implementation projects is the Gantt
A Gantt diagram is a two-axis figure
with time divisions labeled across the
horizontal axis and task division
down the vertical axis.
Shows all the tasks
involved and the
time frames in
which each task
must be begun and
Useful tool for
to outsiders, also
can help the insiders
WHERE DO MATERIALS COME FROM?
Working fromprogramgoals and objectives, the
teacher must address the essential questions of what
the content will be and how it will be sequenced.
must be list
must be set
up so they
Catalogs are usually free for the asking. It also produce
materials for other languages. Catalogs are very well organized
most of the time, and including lists of relevant publications
with brief descriptions and its price.
For this, hands-on examination is necessary. Most
publishers are happy to sendus desk copies, which are
textbooks, manuals, or workbooks, of their materials.
“BOOKS RECEIVED” SECTION
It is usually found in many of the well-known language
teaching journals. These are listednear the back of a
journal most of the time.
THE TEACHERS’ SHELVES
These shelves withinthe programmay be full of materials
that could prove interesting anduseful. Teachers are more
likely to have experience with materials they already own.
Occasions for use
Sample of language use
Exploration of structural relationships
Five perspectives for materials :
Fit to curriculum
Can be made only with the
materials physically in hand.
First, the degree of relationship
between a set of materials and a
particular program can best be
determined by considering the degree
to which the materials fit to the
Next, focus on the degree to which the
materials match the language needs of
the students in a general way.
Then, the specific language and
situation needs of the students should
After that, examine any materials that
are still in the running for adoption in
terms of their physical characteristics.
Editorial characteristics such as the
accuracy of the content, the degree to
which the materials edited in a manner
consistent with the program’s style, the
degree to which the directions are clear
and easy to follow, and the clarity or
clearness of the examples should be
Logistical characteristics such as the
price and number of auxiliary parts
that are required, the availability of the
materials, time that it will take to ship
them should be considered.
Last, the teachability of the materials
should also be appraised.
Teachers can keep notes on students reactions to the
materials as teachers use them.
This reviewmight take the formof a yearly straw
count of how many teachers want to continue using
the same texts, or more involved series of meetings.
ONGOING REVIEWOF MATERIALS
With the help of and ideas of a
number of people within a
program, especially the teachers,
materials can be developed that
will create the best possible match
between materials and the
• Find teachers who are willing to work on materials.
• Identify a pool of materials developers provided with
copies of all relevant documents.
• Divide the labor to pull all the materials developers weight
in the project.
• Use peer pressure that can be a wonderful curriculum tool.
• Use a modular system to enhanced the working
arrangement by developing the materials modules
separately by different groups.
•The original developers can be involved in the
field testing along with one teacher who was not
involved in the original development process.
•Revision should be made, with input from all
teachers who may ultimately use the materials.
•It might be worthwhile to consider
sending the materials to a publisher.
• Remember that materials are never
finished so provisions should be made
for ongoing materials development.
Four steps for finding and
evaluating materials plus several
Filling the gaps
FILL THE BLANKS REORGANIZING
Use any logical
classes of objectives
List places in
Leave blanks where
materials are needed
Complete the list
From other materials
From created materials
Teachers as resources
Matches to current
Mismatches to current
Percentage of objectives
Percent of existing
Decide which materials to