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MATERIALS
GROUP 9
ELOK ROFIQOHNUGRAHANI
MAYA MASYITAH
RIZKY TANTIA CESARIDHA
B-B1 ENGLISHCURRICULUM
Materials
After working on needs analysis, goals and
objectives, and tests, curriculum developers
need to work on material...
Framework for Materials Design
Approach
Syllabuses
Techniques
Exercises
There must be some kind of theoritical motivation
underlying any curriculum development. (Anthony
1963; Richard & Rogers 1...
Syllabuses are concerned with the choice
necessary to organize the language content of a
course or a program.
The informat...
Techniques are ways of presenting language
points to students.
Presentation typically includes various
combination of inte...
Exercises are ways of having the students
practice the language points thay have been
presented.
Language can be practiced...
Types of Exercises
Speaking
Dialogue
Teacher-Student
Interaction
Peer feedback
sessions
Pair work
Free conversation
Writin...
Materials Blueprint
A set of guidelines for teachers.
Made by gathering teachers’s point of
view and information from the ...
Materials Blueprint Checklist
Background information
Overall curriculum description
A description of a program’s needs
A d...
Units of Analysis
Syllabus design theory has been an active area of
investigation within applied linguistics for many
year...
Scope and Sequence Charts
Closely related to syllabus design is the
question of deciding what kind of
organizational frame...
Some overall curriculum plan that specifies the
techniques that will be used should be developed.
Detailed
Curriculum
A fo...
Gantt Diagrams
One useful technique for representing
the different steps involved in large-
scale materials development an...
Useful for
providing an
overview that
can be
understood at
a glance.
Shows all the tasks
involved and the
time frames in
w...
WHERE DO MATERIALS COME FROM?
ADOPTING
DEVELOPING
ADAPTING
MATERIALS
Working fromprogramgoals and objectives, the
teacher must address the essential questions of what
the content will be and ...
TEACHING
MATERIALS
NEEDSANALYSIS,
OBJECTIVES, AND
TESTSHOULD
PROVIDE
INFORMATIONWILL
SUFFICEFOR
ANSWERING.
ADOPTING,
DEVEL...
ADOPTING MATERIALS
It is
necessary
to decide
what
types of
materials
are
desirable.
All
available
materials of
these types...
TYPES OF MATERIALS
BOOKS
WORKBOOKS
JOURNALS
MAPS
REALIA
VIDEO TAPES
TEACHER BOOKS
MAGAZINES
PICTURES
CHARTS/GRAPHS
DIAGRAM...
LOCATING MATERIALS
Sources of
Information
Teachers’
Shelves
“Books
Received”
sections of
journal
Publishers
’ Catalogs
PUBLISHERS’ CATALOGS
Catalogs are usually free for the asking. It also produce
materials for other languages. Catalogs are...
PUBLISHERS’ CATALOGS
For this, hands-on examination is necessary. Most
publishers are happy to sendus desk copies, which a...
“BOOKS RECEIVED” SECTION
It is usually found in many of the well-known language
teaching journals. These are listednear th...
THE TEACHERS’ SHELVES
These shelves withinthe programmay be full of materials
that could prove interesting anduseful. Teac...
EVALUATING MATERIALS
STEVICK
(1971)
THREE
QUALITIES
THREE
DIMENSIONS
FOUR
COMPONENTS
THREE QUALITIES
Strength
Lightness
Transparency
THREE DIMENSIONS
Linguistic
Social
Topical
FOUR COMPONENTS
Occasions for use
Sample of language use
Lexical exploration
Exploration of structural relationships
Five perspectives for materials :
Background
Fit to curriculum
Physical Characteristics
Logistical Characteristics
Teachab...
STEPS
First, the degree of relationship
between a set of materials and a
particular program can best be
determined by cons...
STEPS
Then, the specific language and
situation needs of the students should
be considered.
After that, examine any materi...
STEPS
Editorial characteristics such as the
accuracy of the content, the degree to
which the materials edited in a manner
...
STEPS
Logistical characteristics such as the
price and number of auxiliary parts
that are required, the availability of th...
Teachers can keep notes on students reactions to the
materials as teachers use them.
This reviewmight take the formof a ye...
With the help of and ideas of a
number of people within a
program, especially the teachers,
materials can be developed tha...
CREATING PHASE
• Find teachers who are willing to work on materials.
• Identify a pool of materials developers provided wi...
TEACHING PHASE
•The original developers can be involved in the
field testing along with one teacher who was not
involved i...
EVALUATING PHASE
•It might be worthwhile to consider
sending the materials to a publisher.
• Remember that materials are n...
Four steps for finding and
evaluating materials plus several
distinctive features:
Analyzing
Classifying
Filling the gaps
...
ADAPTING MATERIALS
ANALYZING CLASSIFYING
FILL THE BLANKS REORGANIZING
Use any logical
classes of objectives
List places ...
THANK YOU
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This is a presentation of one of the step of english curriculum developing which is "material developing"

Curriculum Developing - Material

  1. 1. MATERIALS GROUP 9 ELOK ROFIQOHNUGRAHANI MAYA MASYITAH RIZKY TANTIA CESARIDHA B-B1 ENGLISHCURRICULUM
  2. 2. Materials After working on needs analysis, goals and objectives, and tests, curriculum developers need to work on materials development. Materials is defined as any systematic description of the techniques and exercises to be used in classroom teaching. The key : ensure that they are described and organized well enough so that teachers can use them with no confusion.
  3. 3. Framework for Materials Design Approach Syllabuses Techniques Exercises
  4. 4. There must be some kind of theoritical motivation underlying any curriculum development. (Anthony 1963; Richard & Rogers 1982; McKay 1978) Such motivations is called approaches; ways of defining what the students need to learn based on assumptions and theoritical positions drawn from disciplines. e.g classical approach, grammar-translation approach, direct approach, audiolingual approach, communicative approach. Approach
  5. 5. Syllabuses are concerned with the choice necessary to organize the language content of a course or a program. The information gathered from needs analysis will help to determine the direction that a particular syllabus will go. e.g structural, situational, topical, functional, notional, skills, task or activity based Syllabuses
  6. 6. Techniques are ways of presenting language points to students. Presentation typically includes various combination of interaction between T&S, S&S, Cassete player&S, etc. e.g example video tape showing a native speaker describing various commonly encountered objects; analysis of models of good writing, etc. Techniques
  7. 7. Exercises are ways of having the students practice the language points thay have been presented. Language can be practiced in many ways : L to L, L to T, L to group, L to class, etc. Exercises
  8. 8. Types of Exercises Speaking Dialogue Teacher-Student Interaction Peer feedback sessions Pair work Free conversation Writing Brainstorming Quick writing Group writing Free composition activities
  9. 9. Materials Blueprint A set of guidelines for teachers. Made by gathering teachers’s point of view and information from the previous stages (needs analysis, objectives setting, and testing stages. It can be used as a manual which describe the program and it’s curriculum for teachers. It contains definition of the program, clients to be served, delivery, intensity, content, outcome, and special considerations.
  10. 10. Materials Blueprint Checklist Background information Overall curriculum description A description of a program’s needs A decription of goals and objectives Tests description Materials description Teaching description Program evaluation
  11. 11. Units of Analysis Syllabus design theory has been an active area of investigation within applied linguistics for many years. The conceptions of the nature of a syllabus are related to the approaches to language and language learning processes to which the curriculum designers and program participants subscribe. Under the influence of prescriptive, grammar-based approaches to language learning, syllabuses have tended to be expressed in more communicative terms.
  12. 12. Scope and Sequence Charts Closely related to syllabus design is the question of deciding what kind of organizational framework to adopt for developing materials. The syllabus should be thought out in terms of units of analysis and then in terms of curriculum scope and sequence.
  13. 13. Some overall curriculum plan that specifies the techniques that will be used should be developed. Detailed Curriculum A formalized lock-step curriculum complete with lesson plan that detail every minute of classroom plan. This curriculum may be viewed as stifling / inflexible, because it is difficult to revise and change. Informal Curriculum A curriculum that a teacher plans on the spur of the moment. Highly flexible and easily respond to needs for change.
  14. 14. Gantt Diagrams One useful technique for representing the different steps involved in large- scale materials development and implementation projects is the Gantt diagram. A Gantt diagram is a two-axis figure with time divisions labeled across the horizontal axis and task division down the vertical axis.
  15. 15. Useful for providing an overview that can be understood at a glance. Shows all the tasks involved and the time frames in which each task must be begun and completed. Useful tool for explaining a curriculum development project to outsiders, also can help the insiders on schedule.
  16. 16. WHERE DO MATERIALS COME FROM? ADOPTING DEVELOPING ADAPTING MATERIALS
  17. 17. Working fromprogramgoals and objectives, the teacher must address the essential questions of what the content will be and how it will be sequenced. HOW?
  18. 18. TEACHING MATERIALS NEEDSANALYSIS, OBJECTIVES, AND TESTSHOULD PROVIDE INFORMATIONWILL SUFFICEFOR ANSWERING. ADOPTING, DEVELOPING, OR ADAPTING MATERIALSTHAT MATCHTHE CONTENTIS THE NEXTLOGICAL STEP. THE SEQUENCING OF THATCONTENT SHOULDALSOBE ADDRESSEDIN THE PROCESS. THE PROCESS
  19. 19. ADOPTING MATERIALS It is necessary to decide what types of materials are desirable. All available materials of these types should be located. Review or evaluation procedures must be list down to materials that should be seriously considered. Strategy for these adopted materials must be set up so they do not become irrelevant.
  20. 20. TYPES OF MATERIALS BOOKS WORKBOOKS JOURNALS MAPS REALIA VIDEO TAPES TEACHER BOOKS MAGAZINES PICTURES CHARTS/GRAPHS DIAGRAMS CASSETTE TAPES COMPUTER SOFTWARE VIDEODISC COMPUTER COMBINATIONS
  21. 21. LOCATING MATERIALS Sources of Information Teachers’ Shelves “Books Received” sections of journal Publishers ’ Catalogs
  22. 22. PUBLISHERS’ CATALOGS Catalogs are usually free for the asking. It also produce materials for other languages. Catalogs are very well organized most of the time, and including lists of relevant publications with brief descriptions and its price.
  23. 23. PUBLISHERS’ CATALOGS For this, hands-on examination is necessary. Most publishers are happy to sendus desk copies, which are textbooks, manuals, or workbooks, of their materials.
  24. 24. “BOOKS RECEIVED” SECTION It is usually found in many of the well-known language teaching journals. These are listednear the back of a journal most of the time.
  25. 25. THE TEACHERS’ SHELVES These shelves withinthe programmay be full of materials that could prove interesting anduseful. Teachers are more likely to have experience with materials they already own.
  26. 26. EVALUATING MATERIALS STEVICK (1971) THREE QUALITIES THREE DIMENSIONS FOUR COMPONENTS
  27. 27. THREE QUALITIES Strength Lightness Transparency
  28. 28. THREE DIMENSIONS Linguistic Social Topical
  29. 29. FOUR COMPONENTS Occasions for use Sample of language use Lexical exploration Exploration of structural relationships
  30. 30. Five perspectives for materials : Background Fit to curriculum Physical Characteristics Logistical Characteristics Teachability Can be made only with the materials physically in hand. EVALUATING MATERIALS
  31. 31. STEPS First, the degree of relationship between a set of materials and a particular program can best be determined by considering the degree to which the materials fit to the curriculum. Next, focus on the degree to which the materials match the language needs of the students in a general way. EVALUATING MATERIALS
  32. 32. STEPS Then, the specific language and situation needs of the students should be considered. After that, examine any materials that are still in the running for adoption in terms of their physical characteristics. EVALUATING MATERIALS
  33. 33. STEPS Editorial characteristics such as the accuracy of the content, the degree to which the materials edited in a manner consistent with the program’s style, the degree to which the directions are clear and easy to follow, and the clarity or clearness of the examples should be considered. EVALUATING MATERIALS
  34. 34. STEPS Logistical characteristics such as the price and number of auxiliary parts that are required, the availability of the materials, time that it will take to ship them should be considered. Last, the teachability of the materials should also be appraised. EVALUATING MATERIALS
  35. 35. Teachers can keep notes on students reactions to the materials as teachers use them. This reviewmight take the formof a yearly straw count of how many teachers want to continue using the same texts, or more involved series of meetings. ONGOING REVIEWOF MATERIALS
  36. 36. With the help of and ideas of a number of people within a program, especially the teachers, materials can be developed that will create the best possible match between materials and the curriculum. DEVELOPING MATERIALS
  37. 37. CREATING PHASE • Find teachers who are willing to work on materials. • Identify a pool of materials developers provided with copies of all relevant documents. • Divide the labor to pull all the materials developers weight in the project. • Use peer pressure that can be a wonderful curriculum tool. • Use a modular system to enhanced the working arrangement by developing the materials modules separately by different groups.
  38. 38. TEACHING PHASE •The original developers can be involved in the field testing along with one teacher who was not involved in the original development process. •Revision should be made, with input from all teachers who may ultimately use the materials.
  39. 39. EVALUATING PHASE •It might be worthwhile to consider sending the materials to a publisher. • Remember that materials are never finished so provisions should be made for ongoing materials development.
  40. 40. Four steps for finding and evaluating materials plus several distinctive features: Analyzing Classifying Filling the gaps Reorganizing ADAPTING MATERIALS
  41. 41. ADAPTING MATERIALS ANALYZING CLASSIFYING FILL THE BLANKS REORGANIZING Use any logical classes of objectives List places in materials Leave blanks where supplemental materials are needed Complete the list Reorganize  From other materials  From created materials  Teachers as resources  Resource file  Matches to current objectives  Mismatches to current objectives  Percentage of objectives  Percent of existing matches  Decide which materials to adapt
  42. 42. THANK YOU
  • FatimatusZahro7

    Jul. 1, 2021
  • LaurenAitken2

    Oct. 17, 2019
  • anthonyzottoli

    Nov. 3, 2016

This is a presentation of one of the step of english curriculum developing which is "material developing"

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